F,f

 








  F, f

  / ef; Zf/ n (pl F's, f's / efs; Zfs/) 1 the sixth letter of the English alphabet 英语字母表的第六个字母: `Fabric' starts with an `F'/F. fabric一字以f字母开始. 2 F (music 音) the fourth note in the scale of C major C大调音阶中的第四音或音符.

  F

  abbr 缩写 = 1 (degree or degrees) Fahrenheit: Water freezes at 32F. 水在32F时结冰. Cf 参看 C abbr 缩写 2. 2 (in academic degrees) Fellow of: FRCM, ie Fellow of the Royal College of Music 皇家音乐学院会员. Cf 参看 A abbr 缩写 3. 3 (of lead used in pencils) fine.

  f

  abbr 缩写 = 1 (also fem) (esp on forms) female (sex). 2 (also fem) (grammar) feminine (gender). 3 (music 音) loudly (Italian forte) 强, 大声(源自意大利文forte). Cf 参看 p 3.

  FA

  / 9ef 5eI; 9Zf `e/ abbr 缩写 = (Brit) Football Association (英国)足球协会: the FA Cup (英国)足总杯.

  fa (also fah)

  / fB:; fB/ n (music 音) the fourth note in the sol-fa scale 唱名法音阶的第四音.

  fab

  / fAb; fAb/ adj (dated Brit sl 旧, 俚) marvellous; fabulous(3) 极好的; 绝妙的.

  Fabian

  / 5feIbIEn; `febIEn/ n, adj 1 (person) patiently planning to defeat the enemy gradually 耐心策划逐步消灭敌人的(人): Fabian tactics 耐心策划逐步消灭敌人的策略. 2 (Brit) (person) aiming to build socialism by means of gradual reform 以逐渐改革的方式建设社会主义为目标的(人); 费边式的: the Fabian Society 费边社.

  fable

  / 5feIbl; `febl/ n 1 (a) [C] short story not based on fact, often with animals as characters, that conveys a moral 寓言: Aesop's fables 伊索寓言. (b) [U] such stories and legends considered as a group 寓言故事; 神话; 传说: a land famous in fable 以寓言故事闻名的国家. 2 [C, U] untrue statement(s) or account(s) 无稽之谈; 谎话; 胡扯: distinguish fact from fable 辨别虚实.

  fabled

  / 5feIbld; `febld/ adj famous in fables; legendary 寓言中有名的; 传说的.

  fabric

  / 5fAbrIk; `fAbrIk/ n 1 [C, U] type of cloth, esp one that is woven 织物: woollen, silk, cotton, etc fabrics 毛、 丝、 棉等的织物. 2 [sing] the ~ (of sth) (a) walls, floors and roof (of a building, etc) (建筑物等的)墙、 地板和屋顶: The entire fabric of the church needs renovation. 这座教堂的全部结构需要维修翻新. (b) (fig 比喻) structure (of sth) (某事物的)结构: the fabric of society 社会的结构.

  fabricate

  / 5fAbrIkeIt; `fAbrI9ket/ v [Tn] 1 invent (a false story) 编造(虚假的事); 虚构: fabricate an excuse, an accusation, etc 编造藉口、 捏造罪名 * The reason he gave for his absence was obviously fabricated. 他提出的缺席理由显然是瞎编的. 2 forge (a document) 伪造(文件): a fabricated voting paper 伪造的选票.

  fabrication

  / 9fAbrI5keIFn; 9fAbrI`keFEn/ n 1 [U] action or result of fabricating 编造、 虚构、 捏造、 伪造的行为或结果: That's pure fabrication! 那纯粹是捏造的! 2 [C] thing that has been fabricated, eg a forged document or a false account of events 编造、 虚构、 捏造、 伪造的事物(如伪造的文件或虚构的事情): Her story was nothing but a series of fabrications. 她说的完全都是编造的.

  fabulous

  / 5fAbjUlEs; `fAbjElEs/ adj 1 incredibly great 极为巨大的: fabulous wealth 巨大的财富. 2 (infml 口) wonderful; marvellous 极好的; 绝妙的: a fabulous performance 精采的表演. 3 [attrib 作定语] (fml 文) appearing in fables; legendary 寓言中的; 传说的; 神话的: fabulous heroes, monsters, etc 传奇式的英雄、 妖怪等.

  fabulously

  adv incredibly 难以置信地: fabulously rich 难以置信地富有.

  facade

  / fE5sB:d; fE`sBd/ n 1 (fml 文) front (of a building) (建筑物的)正面. 2 (fig 比喻) outward appearance, esp a deceptive one 外表(尤指虚伪的): a facade of indifference 假装冷漠 * Squalor and poverty lay behind the city's glittering facade. 这城市表面繁华, 背後却肮脏和贫困.

  face

  / feIs; fes/ n 1 front part of the head from the forehead to the chin 脸; 面孔: a pretty, handsome, etc face 漂亮的、 英俊的...面孔 * Go and wash your face. 去把脸洗一洗. * He was so ashamed that he hid his face in his hands. 他羞愧得用手把脸蒙住. * I saw many familiar/strange faces, ie people whom I recognized/did not recognize. 我看见很多熟悉的[陌生的]面孔. 2 expression shown on a face 面部表情; 脸色: a sad face 悲伤的面容 * smiling faces 笑脸 * She had a face like thunder, ie She looked very angry. 她满面怒气. * You are a good judge of faces, ie You can judge a person's character by (the expression on) his face. 你很会根据人的相貌(表情)来判断人的性格. 3 (a) surface or side (of sth) (某事物的)表面, 面: A cut diamond has many faces. 经切割的钻石有很多晶面. * They disappeared from/off the face of the earth, ie totally disappeared. 他们从地面上消失了(全部消失了). * The team climbed the north face of the mountain. 那小队攀登山的北坡. (b) front or main side (of sth) (某事物的)正面, 主要的一面: the face of a clock 钟的面 * He put the cards face down on the table. 他把纸牌面向下放在桌上. (c) = coal-face (coal). (d) surface that is used for hitting, working, etc esp the striking-surface of a bat or the working-surface of a tool 用以打击、 工作等的面(尤指球拍或工具的面). 4 = typeface (type2). 5 (idm 习语) be staring sb in the face => stare. cut off one's nose to spite one's face => nose1. one's face falls one's expression shows disappointment, dismay, etc 脸沉下来(表示失望、 沮丧等): Her face fell when she heard the news. 她听到这个消息脸都沉下来了. face to face (with sb/sth) close to and looking at (sb/sth) 面对面地看(某人[某事物]): His ambition was to meet his favourite pop star face to face. 他心向往之的是要面对面地见见他心目中的流行曲歌星. * The burglar turned the corner and found himself face to face with a policeman. 盗贼一拐弯面对面地碰上个警察. * The two rival politicians came/were brought face to face in a TV interview. 那两个对立的政客面对面地一起接受电视访问. fall flat on one's face => flat3. fly in the face of sth => fly2. grind the faces of the poor => grind. have, etc egg on/all over one's face => egg1. have the face (to do sth) (infml 口) be bold or impudent enough 竟然有脸或胆敢(做某事): How can you have the face to ask for more money when you do so little work? 你干这麽少工作还有脸多要钱? have one's face lifted have a face-lift(1) (做面部除皱纹)整容; 做面部拉皮手术. in the face of sth (a) in spite of sth 不顾某事物: succeed in the face of danger 不惧危险地完成 * continue in the face of criticism 不顾批评而继续干. (b) confronted by sth 面对某事物: We are powerless in the face of such forces. 面对这样强大的力量, 我们无能为力. keep a straight face => straight1. laugh in sb's face => laugh. laugh on the other side of one's face => laugh. a long face => long1. look sb in the eye/face => eye1. lose face => lose. make/pull `faces/a `face (at sb) grimace (at sb); pull the face into amusing, rude, disgusted, etc expressions (对某人)做鬼脸, 扮怪相: The schoolboy made a face at his teacher's back. 那个男生对著教师的背後做个鬼脸. * The clowns pulled funny faces. 小丑扮出了可笑的鬼脸. not just a pretty face => pretty. on the `face of it (infml 口) judging by appearances 就表面判断: On the face of it, he seems to be telling the truth though I suspect he's hiding something. 表面上看, 他似乎说的是实话, 可我怀疑他有隐情. plain as the nose on one's face => plain1. put a bold, brave, good, etc `face on sth accept (bad news, etc) courageously, pretending that it is not as bad as it is 装出满不在乎的样子面对(坏消息等): Her exam results were disappointing but she tried to put a brave face on it. 她的考试成绩令人失望, 但却装出若无其事的样子. put one's `face on (infml joc 口, 谑) apply make-up to one's face 往脸上涂化妆品. save face => save1. set one's face against sb/sth be determined to oppose sb/sth 坚决反对某人[某事物]: You shouldn't set your face against all forms of progress. 你不应该硬是反对各种进步形式. show one's face => show2. shut/slam the door in sb's face => door. shut one's mouth/face => shut. a slap in the face => slap n. till one is blue in the face => blue1. to sb's `face openly and directly so that sb can hear 当著某人的面: I am so angry that I'll tell him to his face what I think of him. 我气得要当面把我对他的想法告诉他. * They called their teacher `Fatty' but never to his face. 他们把自己的老师叫作`胖子', 但却从未当面叫过. Cf 参看 behind sb's back (back1). wipe sth off the face of the earth => wipe.

  faceless

  adj not known by name; with no clear character or identity 不知名的; 特性或身分不清楚的: faceless civil servants 不知名的公务员.

  face-card

  n = court-card (court).

  face-cloth (Brit also face-flannel, flannel; US also wash-cloth)

  n small square of towelling material used for washing the face, hands, etc (洗脸、 洗手等的)毛巾, 面巾, 手巾.

  face-cream

  n [U] cosmetic cream for the skin of the face 面霜; 面膏; 雪花膏.

  face-lift

  n 1 (also face-lifting) operation in which the skin is tightened to smooth out wrinkles and make the face look younger (将面部皮肤拉紧以消除皱纹的)整容手术, 面部拉皮手术. 2 (fig 比喻) improvement in the appearance of sth; renovation (of a building, etc) 改善某事物的外观; (建筑物等的)翻新; 更新: The town centre certainly needs a face-lift. 市中心可真该装修一下了.

  face-pack

  n cream or paste applied to clean or refresh the skin on the face 面部洁霜; 洁肤膏.

  face-saver

  n thing that prevents sb from being embarrassed or losing dignity 保全某人面子的事物. `face-saving adj [usu attrib 通常作定语] acting as a face-saver 保全面子的: a face-saving action, excuse, gesture 保全面子的行动、 藉口、 举动.

  face value

  1 value printed or stamped on money or postage stamps 钱币或邮票的面值; 票面价值; 票面额. 2 (idm 习语) take sth/sb at (its, his, etc) face value assume that sth/sb is genuinely what it, he, etc appears to be 假定或认为某事物[某人]真如其显示的那样: She seems friendly enough but I shouldn't take her at (her) face value. 她好像够亲切的, 可是我不应该信以为真.

  face

  / feIs; fes/ v 1 [Tn] have or turn the face towards (sb/sth); be opposite to 面对或面向(某人[某事物]); 正对; 朝: Turn round and face me. 转过身来面对著我. * Who's the man facing me? 面向著我的那个男人是谁? * The window faces the street. 那窗户面临著街道. * The picture faces page 10. 该图在第10页的对面. * `Which way does your house face?' `It faces south.' `你的房子朝著那个方向?'`朝南.' 2 [Tn] meet (sb/sth) confidently or defiantly without trying to avoid sb/sth 毅然相对(某人[某事物]); 对付、 应付某人[某事物]: He turned to face his attackers. 他转过身来对付那些攻击者. * (fig 比喻) face dangers 应付危险的事物 * face one's responsibilities 正视自己的责任 * face facts, ie accept the situation that exists 面对事实(承认现状). 3 [Tn] require the attention of (sb/sth); confront 要求(某人[某事物])的注意; 面临: the problems that face the Government 政府面临的难题. 4 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (with sth) cover sth with a layer of different material 在某物上覆盖一层另一种材料: face a wall (with plaster) (用灰泥)涂墙壁. 5 (idm 习语) about/left/right face (US) = about/ left/ right turn (turn1) . face a charge (of sth)/face `charges be forced to appear in court accused of sth 被控某事物须出庭受审: face serious charges, a charge of shoplifting 被控严重罪名、 入店行窃之罪. face the `music (infml 口) accept the criticisms, unpleasant consequences, etc that follow a decision or action of one's own 由於自己的决定或行动而接受批评、 承担後果等: You've been caught cheating now you must face the music. 你的骗局已经戳穿--这下子你得自食其果了. let's `face it (infml 口) we must acknowledge that... 我们得承认...: Let's face it, we won't win whatever we do. 我们得承认, 怎麽做都不行. 6 (phr v) face up to sth accept and deal with sth unpleasant or demanding honestly and bravely 诚实而勇敢地承认和处理令人不快的或困难的事物: He must face up to the fact that he is no longer young. 他应该勇於正视自己不再年轻这一事实. * She's finding it difficult to face up to the possibility of an early death. 她面临可能早逝而手足无措.

  -faced

  (forming compound adjs 用以构成复合形容词) with the specified type of face 有某种类型的面孔的: red-faced * baby-faced.

  facet

  / 5fAsIt; `fAsIt/ n 1 any of the many sides of a cut stone or jewel 宝石或首饰的小平面; 刻面. 2 aspect of a situation or problem 情况或问题的方面: There are many facets to this question. 这个问题有很多方面.

  -faceted

  (forming compound adjs 用以构成复合形容词) with the specified number of sides or aspects 有若干面或方面的: many-faceted/ multi-faceted.

  facetious

  / fE5si:FEs; fE`siFEs/ adj (usu derog 通常作贬义) intended to be amusing, often inappropriately (常为不当地)引人发笑的, 诙谐的: a facetious young man 耍贫嘴的小伙子 * She kept interrupting our discussion with facetious remarks. 她不断用开玩笑的话干扰我们的讨论.

  facetiously

  adv.

  facetiousness

  n [U].

  facia (also fascia)

  / 5feIFE; `feFE/ n 1 = dashboard (dash1). 2 board, etc with a name on it, put above the front entrance of a shop 商店入口处的店主名牌; 店号; 招牌.

  facial

  / 5feIFl; `feFEl/ adj of or for the face 面孔的; 面部用的: a facial expression 面部表情 * a facial massage 面部按摩.

  facial

  n beauty treatment for the face 美容: I've made an appointment for a facial next week. 我已经预约了下星期去美容.

  facially

  / 5feIFElI; `feFElI/ adv as far as the face is concerned 在面孔方面: She may resemble her father facially, but in other respects she's not at all like him. 她尽管脸像父亲, 但其他方面却一点也不像.

  prima facie

  / 9praImE5feIFi:; 9praImE`feFI/ adj [attrib 作定语], adv (esp law 尤用於法律) based on what seems to be so without further or deeper investigation 似乎如此(的); 未作进一步或深入调查(的): prima facie evidence, ie sufficient to establish sth legally (unless it is disproved later) 初步证据 * Prima facie he would appear to be guilty. 初步证据表明他有罪.

  facile

  / 5fsaIl; ?@ 5fAsl; `fAsl/ adj 1 (usu derog 通常作贬义) (a) [attrib 作定语] easily obtained or achieved (and so not highly valued) 容易得到的, 容易达到的(因而不受重视的): a facile success, victory, etc 轻易获得的成功、 胜利等. (b) (of speech or writing) easily produced but superficial or of poor quality (指演说或写作)轻易完成但肤浅或质量差的: a facile remark 信口开河的话. 2 [attrib 作定语] (of a person) saying or doing things easily; fluent (指人)麻利的, 利落的: a facile speaker 能说会道的人.

  facilitate

  / fE5sIlIteIt; fE`sIlE9tet/ v [Tn] (fml 文) (of an object, a process, etc but not of a person) make (sth) easy or less difficult (指物体、 过程等, 但不用於指人)使(某事物)容易或减少困难: It would facilitate matters if you were more co-operative. 要是你再合作些就省事了.

  facilitation

  / fE9sIlI5teIFn; fE9sIlE`teFEn/ n [U].

  facility

  / fE5sIlEtI; fE`sIlEtI/ n 1 [U, sing] ability to learn or do things easily 容易学好或做好事物的能力: have (a) great facility for (learning) languages 有(学习)语言的天才 * He plays the piano with surprising facility. 他弹奏钢琴神乎其技. 2 facilities [pl] circumstances, equipment, etc that make it possible, or easier, to do sth; aids 能够或易於做某事的环境、 设备等; 辅助物: `sports facilities, eg running tracks, swimming pools 运动设施(如跑道、 游泳池) * `washing, `postal, `shopping, `banking, etc facilities 洗涤、 邮政、 购物、 银行等设施 * facilities for study, eg libraries 有助学习的设施(如图书馆).

  facing

  / 5feIsIN; `fesIN/ n 1 outer layer covering a surface (eg of a wall) 覆盖(如墙壁的)表面的覆饰; 饰面. 2 layer of material covering part of a garment either to decorate it in a different colour or to strengthen it 衣服上不同颜色的外层饰料或使之耐穿的补片: a blue jacket with black facings 有黑色饰料的蓝甲克.

  facsimile

  / fAk5sImElI; fAk`sImElI/ n [U, C] exact copy or reproduction of writing, printing, a picture, etc (文字、 印刷品、 图画等的)精确的复制品, 模本, 传真: reproduced in facsimile, ie exactly 精确复制的 * [attrib 作定语] a facsimile edition 模真版.

  fact

  / fAkt; fAkt/ n 1 [C] thing that is known to have happened or to be true or to exist 事实; 真相: No one can deny the fact that fire burns. 无人能否认火能燃烧的事实. * Poverty and crime are facts. 贫穷和犯罪是事实. * He's resigned: I know it for a fact, ie I know that it is really true. 他已经辞职了, 我知道这是真事. * (infml 口) He came here yesterday, and that's a fact! 他昨天来过, 是真的! Cf 参看 fiction. 2 [C] thing that is believed or claimed to be true 认为或称为真实的事物: I disagree with the facts on which your argument is based. 我不同意你的论点所基於的论据. 3 [U] what is true; reality 真实的事物; 现实: The story is founded on fact. 这故事有真事作根据. * It's important to distinguish fact from fiction. 把现实与虚构区分开来是很重要的. 4 (idm 习语) accessory before/after the fact => accessory. an accomplished fact => accomplish. blink the fact => blink. as a matter of fact => matter 1. a ,fact of `life thing that cannot be ignored, however unpleasant 生活的现实(尽管使人不快, 却不容忽视的事物): We must all die some time: that's just a fact of life. 我们终有一死, 这就是生活的现实. the fact (of the matter) is (that)...; the fact remains (that)... despite what has been said, the truth is... 虽然话是这麽说, 但事实是...: A holiday would be wonderful but the fact of the matter is (that) we can't afford one. 有个假日好是真好, 可事实是我们花费不起. * I agree that he tried hard but the fact remains that he has not finished the job in time. 我承认他已尽力而为了, 但事实是他并未按时做完. ,facts and `figures (infml口) precise information 精确的资料; 准确的情报: Before we make detailed plans, we need some more facts and figures. 我们还需要更多的精确资料才能制定出详细计画. the ,facts of `life (euph 婉) details of human sexuality, esp as told to children 性知识(尤指给儿童讲的). the facts speak for themselves the facts noted about a situation or an occurrence show what conclusions can be reached, without further interpretation or explanation 事实本身自明. hard facts => hard1. in `fact in truth; really 事实上; 实际上; 其实: For eight years she was in fact spying for the enemy. 八年来她实际上一直为敌人做间谍工作. in point of fact => point1.

  fact-finding

  n [U] discovering the truth about sth 揭示某事物的真相; 实情调查: [attrib 作定语] a fact-finding mission, expedition, etc 调查团、 队等.

  faction

  / 5fAkFn; `fAkFEn/ n [C] (usu derog 通常作贬义) small united group within a larger one, esp in politics 大组织中的小派别, 派系(尤指政治上的): rival factions within the party 党内的对立派别.

  factious

  / 5fAkFEs; `fAkFEs/ adj 1 of or causedby faction 派系的; 由派性产生的. 2 fond of faction; quarrelsome 喜好派性的; 爱争吵的: a factious individual派性强的人.

  factitious

  / fAk5tIFEs; fAk`tIFEs/ adj (fml 文) deliberately created or developed; unnatural; artificial 故意创造或发展的; 不自然的; 人为的: factitious enthusiasm 虚假的热情 * a factitious demand for goods, ie one created artificially by widespread advertising, etc 对货物需求的假相(由广泛宣传等人为造成的).

  de facto

  / 9deI 5fAktEU; de`fAkto/ (Latin 拉) existing in actual fact, whether rightly or not 实际上存在的(不论合法与否): a de facto ruler, government, right 实际上存在的统治者、 政府、 权利 * Though his kingship was challenged, he continued to rule de facto. 虽然他做国王的身分为人诟病, 但他仍大权在握. Cf 参看 de jure.

  ipso facto

  / 9IpsEU 5fktEU; `Ipso`fAkto/ (Latin 拉) (fml 文) by that very fact 就该事实而论: He was an outstanding pupil and, ipso facto, disliked by the rest of the class. 他是优秀的学生, 正因为这个缘故, 全班都不喜欢他.

  factor

  / 5fAktE(r); `fAktL/ n 1 fact, circumstance, etc that helps to produce a result 因素: environmental factors 环境因素 * the factors that influenced my decision 影响我做出决定的因素 * an unknown factor, ie sth unknown that is likely to influence a result 未知的因素(可能对结果造成影响的未知事物). 2 (mathematics 数) number, except 1, by which a larger number can be divided exactly 因数; 因子: 2, 3, 4 and 6 are factors of 12. 2、 3、 4、 6都是12的因数. 3 person or organization acting as a business agent (企业的)代理人, 代理商. 4 (Scot 苏格兰) land-agent; steward 地产经管人; 管家.

  factorize, factorise

  / 5fAktEraIz; `fAktE9raIz/ v [Tn] (mathematics 数) find the factors of (a number) 分解(某数的)因数.

  factorization, factorisation

  / 9fAktEraI5zeIFn;?@ -rI5z-; 9fAktErE`zeFEn/ n [U].

  factorial

  / fAk5tR:rIEl; fAk`tRrIEl/ adj, n (mathematics 数) (of the) product of a whole number and all those whole numbers below it 阶乘; 阶乘的; 因数的: factorial 5 (represented as 5!), ie the product of 5 4 3 2 15的阶乘(记作5!, 为54321的乘积).

  factory

  / 5fAktErI; `fAktErI/ n building(s) in which goods are manufactured 工厂; 制造厂: [attrib 作定语] `factory workers 工厂工人.

  factory farm

  farm in which animals are kept and reared in a way designed to produce the maximum yield (of meat, young, milk, eggs, etc) 工厂化农场(为高产食用肉、 奶、 蛋等而饲养和繁殖牲畜和家禽的农场). `factory farming.

  factory ship

  ship to which ships in a fishing fleet bring their catch for processing, and often quick-freezing, while still at sea 捕捞加工船(在海上将捕获物急冻加工的渔船).

  factory

  NOTE ON USAGE 用法: Factory, mill, plant and works all refer to industrial buildings or places but they indicate different products or processes. *factory、 mill、 plant、 works均指工业的建筑物或场所, 但其产品或加工程序则不尽相同. Factory is the most common word for the buildings where products are manufactured or assembled *factory一词最为普通, 指产品生产或装配的工厂: a car, shoe, bottle, etc factory 汽车制造、 制鞋、 制瓶等工厂 * factory workers 工厂工人. Works suggests a larger group of buildings and machinery, generally not producing finished goods *works意为较大的建筑物群及其机器设备, 一般并不生产成品: a gasworks, ironworks 煤气厂、 钢铁厂. Plant is more common in US English and relates especially to industrial processes *plant多用於美式英语, 尤为工业加工者: a power, chemical plant 发电厂、 化工厂. Mill has the most limited meaning, relating to the processing of certain raw materials *mill的意思最为狭窄, 限用於某些原材料的加工: a paper/cotton/woollen/steel mill 造纸[棉纺/毛纺/钢]厂.

  factotum

  / fAk5tEUtEm; fAk`totEm/ n (fml or joc 文或谑) person employed to do all kinds of work 杂工; 打杂的: a general factotum 总勤杂工.

  factual

  / 5fAktFUEl; `fAktFJEl/ adj based on or containing facts 根据事实的; 事实的; 真实的: a factual account 据实的报道.

  factually

  / -tFUElI; -tFJElI/ adv: factually correct 事实方面正确无误的.

  faculty

  / 5fAkltI; `fAkltI/ n 1 [C] any of the powers of the body or mind 官能; 才能; 能力: the faculty of sight 视力 * the mental faculties, ie the power of reason 智力 * be in possession of all one's faculties, ie be able to see, hear, speak, understand, etc 具有各种官能(有视、 听、 说、 理解等能力). 2 [sing] ~ of/for doing sth particular ability for doing sth 做某事物的特殊才能: have a great faculty for learning languages 有学习语言的才能. 3 (a) [C] department or group of related departments in a university, etc (大学的)系, 科, 院: the Faculty of Law, Science, etc 法律学院、 理学院. (b) [CGp] all the lecturers, etc in one of these (大学的某系、 科、 院的)全体教员: [attrib 作定语] a faculty meeting (大学的某系、 科、 院的)全体教员会议. (c) [CGp] (US) the whole teaching staff of a university, etc 大学等的全体教员.

  fad

  / fAd; fAd/ n fashion, interest, preference, enthusiasm, etc that is not likely to last 流行的时尚、 爱好、 狂热等: Will Tom continue to collect stamps or is it only a passing fad? 汤姆还在集邮呢, 还是热劲已过?

  faddish

  adj (derog 贬) having peculiar likes and dislikes 有乖僻好恶的.

  faddy

  adj (infml derog 口, 贬) faddish, esp about food (尤指对於食物)有乖僻好恶的.

  faddiness

  n [U].

  fade

  / feId; fed/ v 1 [I, Tn] (cause sth to) lose colour, freshness or vigour (使某事物)褪色, 凋落, 衰弱: the fading light of evening 傍晚渐暗的光 * Will (the colour in) this material fade? 这块料子(的颜色)褪色吗? * Flowers soon fade when cut. 花折下不久就会凋谢. * She is fading fast, ie rapidly losing strength. 她身体很快就衰弱了. * The strong sunlight had faded the curtains. 强烈 的阳光把窗帘晒得褪了色. * faded denims, ie ones that have lost their original colour 褪了色的牛仔裤. 2 [I, Ipr, Ip] ~ (away) disappear gradually (from sight, hearing, memory, etc); become indistinct (从视野中、 听力范围中、 记忆中等)逐渐消失, 变得模糊不清: As evening came, the coastline faded into darkness. 夜晚降临时, 海岸线在黑暗中逐渐消失了. * The sound of the cheering faded (away) in the distance. 欢呼声在远处逐渐消失了. * All memory of her childhood had faded from her mind. 她对童年的一切记忆逐渐从脑海中消逝了. * His hopes faded. 他的希望渐渐破灭了. 3 (phr v) fade away (of people) disperse; die (指人)散开, 死亡: The crowd just faded away. 人群刚刚散去. * She's fading away, ie dying. 她已奄奄一息. fade (sth) in/out (cinema or broadcasting 电影或广播) (cause a picture to) increase/decrease gradually in sharpness; (cause the volume of sound to) become gradually audible/inaudible (使画面)清晰度逐渐增强[减弱]; (使音量)逐渐增大[减小]: As the programme ended, their conversation was faded out. 节目结束时, 他们的谈话声也逐渐消失了.

  fade-in

  n (cinema or broadcasting 电影或广播) gradual strengthening (of sounds, pictures, etc) (声音、 画面等)逐渐清晰, 渐现, 渐显, 淡入.

  fade-out

  n (cinema or broadcasting 电影或广播) gradual weakening (of sounds, pictures, etc) (声音、 画面等)逐渐模糊不清, 渐隐, 渐淡, 淡出.

  faeces (US feces)

  / 5fi:si:z; `fisiz/ n [pl] (fml 文) waste matter passed from the bowels 粪便.

  faecal (US fecal)

  / 5fi:kl; `fikl/ adj [usu attrib 通常作定语] (fml 文) of faeces 粪便的.

  fag

  / fAg; fA^/ n 1 [sing, U] (infml 口) tedious and tiring job 沉闷而又吃力的工作: I've got to tidy my room. What a fag! 我得整理自己的房间. 真是累人的事. * It's too much (of a) fag. 这工作真叫人吃不消. 2 [C] (Brit infml 口) cigarette 香烟. 3 [C] (Brit) (formerly) junior boy at a public school performing certain duties for a senior boy (旧时)公学中为高年级男生服务的低年级男生. 4 [C] (esp US) = faggot 3.

  fag

  / fAg; fA^/ v (-gg-) 1 [I, Ipr, Ip] ~ (away) (at sth/at doing sth) (infml 口) do very tiring work 做非常累的工作: fagging (away) in the office, at her work 在办公室辛勤工作、 辛苦地做她的工作. 2 [I, Ipr] ~ (for sb) act as a fag(3) (for sb) 为(某高年级生)服务. 3 (phr v) fag sb/sth out (infml 口) make (a person or an animal) very tired 使(某人或某动物)极度疲劳: Running soon fags me out. 我很快就跑累了. * He was completely fagged out, ie exhausted. 他完全筋疲力尽了.

  fag-end

  n (Brit infml 口) 1 end of a cigarette after it has been smoked 香烟头; 烟蒂. 2 (fig 比喻) inferior or useless remnant; worthless part of anything 低劣或无用的剩余物; 无价值的部分: He only heard the fag-end of their conversation. 他只听到他们交谈中无足轻重的部分.

  faggot (US fagot)

  / 5fAgEt; `fA^Et/ n 1 bundle of sticks or twigs tied together for burning 枝条捆; 柴捆. 2 ball of chopped seasoned meat, etc cooked by baking or frying 烤的或煎的肉丸. 3 (also esp US fag) (infml derog 口, 贬) male homosexual 男同性恋者.

  fah

  = fa.

  Fahrenheit

  / 5fArEnhaIt; `fArEn9haIt/ adj of a temperature scale with the freezing-point of water at 32 and the boiling-point at 212 华氏温度计的, 华氏的(冰点为32度, 沸点为212度): The temperature today is seventy degrees Fahrenheit. 今天气温是华氏七十度. =>App 4, 5 见附录4、 5. Cf 参看 centigrade.

  faience

  / 9faI5B:ns; faI`Bns/ n [U] decorated and glazed earthenware or porcelain 彩陶; 彩色瓷器.

  fail

  / feIl; fel/ v 1 (a) [I, Ipr, Tn, Tt] ~ (in sth) be unsuccessful in (sth) 在(某事物)中失败: If you don't work hard, you may fail. 不努力就可能失败. * I passed in maths but failed in French. 我数学及格, 但法语不及格. * He failed his driving-test. 他驾驶测验不合格. * She failed to reach the semi-finals. 她未能进入半决赛. (b) [Tn] decide that (a candidate) is unsuccessful 评定(应考者)不及格: The examiners failed half the candidates. 主考者评定半数应试者不及格. Cf 参看 succeed 1. 2 [It] forget, neglect or be unable (to do sth) 忘记、 忽视或未能(做某事): He never fails to write (ie always writes) to his mother every week. 他每周都给母亲写信. * She did not fail to keep (ie She did keep) her word. 她没有食言. * Your promises have failed to (ie did not) materialize. 你没有信守诺言. 3 [I, Tn] not be enough for (sb); end or be lacking while still needed or expected by (sb) 不足; 短少; 缺乏: The crops failed because of drought. 由於乾旱, 农作物歉收. * Our water supply has failed (us). 我们的水供应不足. * Words fail me, ie I cannot find words (to describe my feelings, etc). 我无法用言语来表达(自己的感情等). 4 [I] (a) (of health, eyesight, etc) become weak (指健康状况、 视力等)衰退: His eyesight is failing. 他的视力渐渐衰退了. * He has suffered from failing health/has been failing in health for the last two years. 近两年来, 他的健康状况每况愈下. (b) stop working properly 失灵; 失去作用: The brakes failed. 煞车失灵了. 5 [I] become bankrupt 破产; 倒闭: Several banks failed during the depression. 有几家银行在不景气时期倒闭了.

  fail

  n 1 failure in an examination 考试不及格: I had three passes and one fail. 我考试三门及格一门不及格. 2 (idm 习语) without `fail certainly, even though there may be difficulties; whatever happens; definitely 肯定; 一定; 必定: I'll be there at two o'clock without fail. 我两点钟一定到那里.

  fail-safe

  adj [attrib 作定语] (of equipment, machinery, etc) designed to compensate automatically for a breakdown or failure (指设备、 机器等)设有自动保险装置的: the fail-safe mechanism 自动保险机械装置.

  failing

  / 5feIlIN; `felIN/ n weakness or fault (of character); shortcoming (性格中的)弱点, 缺陷, 短处: We all have our little failings. 我们都有小的缺点.

  failing

  / 5feIlIN; `felIN/ prep 1 if (sth) does not happen; without (sth) 如果(某事)不发生; 如果没有(某事物): failing this, ie if this does not happen 倘若此事不发生 * failing an answer, ie if no answer is received 若无答覆. 2 if (sb) is not available 如果(某人)不在; 如果没有(某人): Failing Smith, try Jones. 要是史密斯不在, 就找琼斯.

  failure

  / 5feIljE(r); `feljL/ n 1 (a) [U] lack of success 失败; 不成功: Failure in one examination should not stop you trying again. 一次考试不及格不应妨碍你再试一次. * The enterprise was doomed to failure. 该企业注定要失败. * All my efforts ended in failure, ie were unsuccessful. 我所有的努力都失败了. (b) [C] instance of this 失败: Success came after many failures. 经多次失败後, 终於获得成功. (c) [C] person, attempt or thing that fails 失败的人、 尝试或事物: He was a failure as a teacher. 他当过教师, 却不称职. * Our new radio is an utter failure. 我们的新收音机完全是个废物. 2 (a) [U] state of being inadequate; not functioning as is expected or required 不足; 缺乏; 失灵; 故障: a case of heart failure 心力衰竭的患者 * Failure of crops often results in famine. 歉收常引起饥荒. (b) [C] instance of this 不足; 缺乏; 失灵; 故障: `engine failures 发动机故障 * another crop failure 农作物又一次歉收. 3 (a) [U] ~ to do sth neglecting or forgetting to do sth 忽略或忘记做某事: failure to comply with the regulations 未遵守规则. (b) [C] ~ to do sth instance of this 忽略; 忘记: repeated failures to appear in court 多次未出庭.

  faint

  / feInt; fent/ adj (-er, -est) 1 that cannot be clearly perceived by the senses; indistinct; not intense in colour or sound or smell 微弱的; 模糊的; 暗淡的; 隐约的: The sounds of music grew fainter in the distance. 音乐的声音在远处逐渐模糊了. * Only faint traces of the tiger's tracks could be seen. 老虎的踪迹仅依稀可见. 2 (of ideas, etc) weak; vague (指想法等)模糊的, 不明确的: There is a faint hope that she may be cured. 她获治愈的希望渺茫. 3 (a) (of physical abilities) lacking strength (指体力)无力的, 虚弱的: in a faint voice 以有气无力的声音 * His breathing became faint. 他的呼吸变得微弱了. (b) [pred 作表语] (of people) likely to lose consciousness; giddy (指人)易失去知觉; 昏眩: She looks/feels faint. 她看来[感到]快要晕倒了. (c) [pred 作表语] (of people) weak; exhausted (指人)无力, 精疲力竭: The explorers were faint from hunger and cold. 探险者们因饥寒交迫而委顿不堪. 4 (of actions, etc) weak; unlikely to have much effect (指动作等)无力的, 似无甚效果的: a faint show of resistance 软弱无力装装样子 的抵抗 * make a faint attempt to do sth 未尽全力尝试做某事. 5 (idm 习语) damn sb/sth with faint praise => damn1. not have the `faintest/`foggiest (idea) (infml 口) not know at all 根本不知道: `Do you know where she is?' `Sorry, I haven't the faintest.' `你知道她在哪里吗?'`对不起, 我一点也不知道.'

  faintly

  adv.

  faintness

  n [U].

  faint-hearted

  adj timid; not brave 怯懦的; 不勇敢的.

  faint-heartedly

  adv.

  faint-heartedness

  n [U].

  faint

  / feInt; fent/ v [I, Ipr] lose consciousness (because of heat, shock, loss of blood, etc) (因受热、 受惊、 失血等)失去知觉; 昏倒: He fainted (from hunger). 他(饿得)昏倒了.

  faint

  n 1 [sing] act or state of fainting 昏厥; 不省人事. 2 (idm 习语) in a (dead) faint (completely) unconscious (完全)失去知觉: She fell to the ground in a dead faint. 她昏倒在地, 全然不省人事.

  fair

  / feE(r); fZr/ adj 1 (a) ~ (to/on sb) treating each person, side, etc equally and according to the law, rules, etc; impartial (按照法律、 规则等)公平地对待每个人、 各方等; 公正的: Our teacher isn't fair: he always gives the highest marks to his favourites. 我们老师不公正, 总是给他喜欢的学生高分数. * She deserves a fair trial. 她应该得到公正的审判. * The punishment was quite fair. 这一惩罚十分公正. * The ruling was not fair to everyone. 这项裁决并非对每人都公正. (b) in accordance with what is deserved or expected or with existing rules 应得的; 合理的; 公道的: a fair share, wage, price 应得的一份、 合理的工资、 公道的价钱 * It was a fair fight, ie The rules of boxing were observed. 那是一场公正的拳击比赛(遵守拳击规则). * It's not fair to give him the prize/not fair that he should be given the prize. 让他获奖是不公正的. 2 (a) average; moderately good 中等的; 尚可的; 不错的: There's a fair chance that we might win this time. 这次我们颇有机会能赢. * His knowledge of French is fair, but ought to be better. 他法语还不错, 但应该再好些. (b) [attrib 作定语] (infml 口) quite large, long, etc 相当大的、 相当长的等: A fair number of people came along. 来了不少人. 3 (a) (of the weather) good; dry and fine (指天气)好的; 晴朗的: hoping for fair weather 希望有好天气. (b) (of winds) favourable (指风)顺风的: They set sail with the first fair wind. 他们一有顺风就扬帆起航. 4 (of the skin or the hair) pale; light in colour (指皮肤或毛发)白皙的, 浅色的: a fair complexion 白皙的肤色 * fair hair 浅色的毛发. 5 (arch 古) beautiful 美丽的: a fair maiden 美丽的姑娘. =>Usage at beautiful 用法见beautiful. 6 (idm 习语) by ,fair means or `foul somehow or other, whether by good or evil methods 千方百计; 不择手段: She's determined to win, by fair means or foul. ?W她决心要赢, 那怕是不择手段. by one's ,own fair `hand (joc 谑) by oneself 亲手; 亲自: I hope you'll appreciate this: it's all done by my/mine own fair hand. 希望你喜欢这件东西, 这是我亲手做的. a fair `cop (sl 俚) legitimate arrest (usu made while the crime is being committed) 依法逮捕(通常为作案时). a fair crack of the `whip (infml 口) reasonable chance to share in sth, to be successful, etc 分享某物、 获得成功等的合理机会: give him a fair crack of the whip 给他一次应有的机会. a fair/square deal => deal4. fair `do/`dos/`do's (Brit infml 口) (used esp as an interj 尤用作感叹语) fair treatment; fair shares 公平对待; 公平的份额: Come on, fair dos you've had a long go on the computer and now it's my turn. 行了, 机会均等--你用计算机已经很长时间了, 现在该轮到我了. fair `game person or thing that it is considered reasonable to chase, ridicule, etc 认为可追逐、 嘲弄等的人或物: The younger teachers were fair game for playing tricks on. 那些年轻教师常是受作弄的对象. (give sb/get) a fair `hearing opportunity of being listened to impartially, usu in a lawcourt 公平的申辩机会(通常指於法庭中). fair `play equal treatment of both or all sides because of respect for the rules 尊重规则公平对待双方或各方: determined to see fair play, ie to see that no injustice is done 决心要让事情得到公正处理. a fair `question question that is reasonable to ask (but often difficult to answer) 合理的问题(但常难以回答): `If the proposals are obviously sensible, why do you oppose them?' `That's a fair question.' `这些建议若显然合理, 你为什麽反对呢?'`这个问题倒是言之成理.' fair's `fair (infml 口) (used as a protest or a reminder that) sb should be dealt with fairly (用以表示不满或提示)某人应受到公平对待: `Come on, Sarah. Give me a bit more fair's fair!' `好了, 萨拉. 再给我一点--应当公平才是!' a fair `shake (US infml 口) just or reasonable arrangement; fair chance 公正、 合理的安排; 均等的机会. have, etc (more than) one's fair share of sth have, etc (more than) a usual or an expected amount of sth 得到(超过)通常得到的或期望得到的数量: We got more than our fair share of rain on holiday. 我们这次假期里遇到的雨天太多了. in a fair way to do sth likely to do sth 可能做某事物: in a fair way to succeed 可能成功. in a fair way of `business having quite a large, successful, etc business 有相当大的、 成功的...生意. set `fair (of the weather) fine and with no sign of change (指天气)晴朗而无变化迹象. > fairness n [U].

  fair copy

  neat copy of a corrected document (修改後的)誊清本, 清稿: Please make a fair copy of this letter. 请把这封信誊写清楚.

  fair-haired

  adj with light-coloured or blond hair 浅色毛发的; 金色毛发的.

  fair-minded

  adj fair in judgement; not prejudiced 公正的; 不偏不倚的.

  the fair sex

  (dated or joc 旧或谑) women 妇女.

  fair-to-middling

  (infml 口) adj slightly better than average 比一般稍好的.

  fair-weather friend

  person who stops being a friend when one is in trouble 顺境中的朋友(不能共患难者).

  fair

  / feE(r); fZr/ adv 1 in a fair1(1) manner 公平地; 公正地; 正直地. 2 (idm 习语) fair and `square (a) exactly on target 正中目标. (b) with no uncertainty or possibility of error, misunderstanding, etc 毋庸置疑;无差错或误解等: The blame rests fair and square onmy shoulders. 这一罪过著实地落在我的头上. fair e`nough (used esp as an interj 尤用作感叹语) (infml 口) (sometimes showing unwilling agreement) all right; I accept (有时用以表示勉强的同意)行, 好吧, 我接受. play `fair play or act fairly, following rules or accepted standards (遵循规则或公认的标准)公平地比赛或行事: Come on, you're not playing fair. 得了吧, 你这样做不公平.

  fair

  / feE(r); fZr/ n 1 market (esp for farm animals and farm products) held regularly in a particular place, often with entertainments 集市(尤指买卖牲口、 农产品者, 在一固定地点定期举行, 常伴有娱乐表演). 2 large-scale exhibition of commercial and industrial goods (商品及工业产品的)大型展览会; 博览会: a world fair 世界博览会 * a trade fair 交易会. =>Usage at demonstration 用法见demonstration.

  fairground

  n outdoor area where fun-fairs are held 露天游乐场.

  fairly

  / feElI; `fZrlI/ adv 1 in a fair manner; honestly 公平地; 公正地; 诚实地: You're not treating us fairly. 你对我们不公正. 2 (before adjs and advs 用於形容词和副词之前) to a certain extent; moderately 相当地; 适度地: This is a fairly easy book. 这是相当浅易的书. * We must leave fairly soon, ie before very long. 我们得快些离开. 3 completely; actually 完全地; 简直: Her suggestion fairly took me by surprise. 她的建议真叫我大吃一惊. * I fairly jumped for joy. 我简直高兴得跳了起来. * The time fairly raced by. 时间过得真快. 4 (idm 习语) fairly and squarely = fair and square (fair2).

  fairly

  NOTE ON USAGE 用法: The adverbs fairly, quite, rather and pretty can all mean `moderately', `to some extent' or `not very' and are used to alter the strength of adjectives and adverbs. *fairly、 quite、 rather、 pretty这几个副词均可表示`适度地'、 `在某种程度上'或`不很'的意思, 常用以改变所修饰的形容词或副词的分量. Fairly is the weakest and pretty the strongest and most informal, but their effect is very much influenced by intonation. *fairly词义最弱而pretty词义最强, 也最通俗, 但词义的强弱受语调的影响很大. Generally, the more any of these adverbs is stressed, the more negative the sentence sounds. 一般说来, 这类副词读得越重, 句子听起来否定含义就越强. 1 When rather or pretty is used with a positive quality, it can sound enthusiastic *rather或pretty与褒义词连用时, 听起来心情愉快: a rather/pretty good play 一出相 当好的戏. With a negative or variable quality they express disapproval 这两个词与贬义词或可褒可贬的词连用时, 表示不赞成或不满意: rather/pretty poor work 相当差的工作 * I'm rather/pretty warm. 我很热. * It's rather/pretty small/big. 这可太小[大]了. 2 Fairly is mostly used with positive qualities *fairly多与褒义词连用: fairly tidy, spacious, friendly, etc 挺整洁、 宽敞、热情等 (compare 试比较: rather untidy, cramped, unfriendly, etc 很零乱、 狭窄、 冷淡等). 3 Only rather can be used with comparative expressions and too 只有rather可与比较级的词语和too连用: The house is rather bigger than we thought. 这所房子比我们想的大得多. * These shoes are rather too small. 这双鞋未免太小了. 4 Rather and quite can precede the indefinite article when followed by an adjective + noun *rather和quite与`不定冠词+形容词+名词'连用时, 可置於不定冠词之前: rather/quite a nice day 十分晴朗的一天 * a rather/quite/fairly/pretty nice day 十分晴朗的一天. See also note on usage at quite 另见所附用法.

  fairway

  / 5feEweI; `fZr9we/ n 1 part of a golf-course between the tee and the green, kept free of rough grass (高尔夫球场上的)平坦球道(球座和草坪间剪平的草地). =>illus at golf 见 golf 插图. Cf 参看 rough3 1. 2 channel that ships can sail through easily 航道; 水路.

  fairy

  / 5feErI; `fZrI/ n 1 small imaginary being with magical powers 小仙子; 小精灵: [attrib 作定语] fairy voices, footsteps 娇美的声音、 轻巧的脚步. 2 (sl derog 俚, 贬) male homosexual 男同性恋者.

  fairy godmother

  person who provides unexpected help 提供意外帮助的恩人.

  fairyland

  / -lnd; -9lAnd/ n 1 home of fairies 仙界; 仙国. 2 (fig 比喻) beautiful or enchanted place 仙境; 奇境: The toy-shop is a fairyland for young children. 玩具店就是幼儿的乐园.

  fairy lights

  small coloured electric lights used as decoration (作装饰用的)彩色小灯.

  fairy story, fairy-tale

  1 story about fairies, magic, etc, usu for children 神话故事; 童话: [attrib 作定语] Her marriage to the prince seemed like a fairy-tale romance. 她与王子结婚, 这事像是神话中的爱情故事. 2 untrue or incredible story; falsehood 不真实的或不可信的事; 谎言: `Now tell me the truth: I don't want any more of your fairy stories.' `把真相告诉我, 我不想再听你胡诌了.'

  au fait

  / 9EU 5feI; o`fe/ adj [pred 作表语] (French 法) ~ (with sth) fully acquainted (with sth) (对某事物)熟悉; 通晓: It's my first week here so I'm not yet au fait with the system. 我刚来不到一个星期, 对这里的制度还不太熟悉.

  fait accompli

  / 9feIt E5kCmpli:; ?@ EkCm5pli:; `fetEkBm`pli/ (pl faits accomplis) (French 法) thing already done, that cannot be undone and is therefore not worth arguing about 既成事实: She married the man her parents disapproved of and presented them with a fait accompli. 她所嫁的人她父母并不满意, 但这已是既成事实.

  faith

  / feIW; feW/ n 1 [U] ~ (in sb/sth) trust; strong belief; unquestioning confidence 信任; 信仰; 信心: put one's faith in God 信仰上帝 * Have you any faith in what he says? 你相信他的话吗? * I haven't much faith in this medicine. 我对这种药没有多大信心. * I've lost faith in that fellow, ie I can no longer trust him. 我再也不相信那个家伙了. 2 [U, sing] strong belief, without proof, in God or in an established religion 宗教信仰: a strong faith 坚定的宗教信仰 * lose one's faith 失去对上帝的信仰 * Faith is stronger than reason. 宗教信仰比推理劝说更具威力. 3 [C] religion 宗教: the Christian, Jewish and Muslim faiths 基督教、 犹太教和伊斯兰教. 4 (idm 习语) break/keep faith with sb break/keep one's promise to sb; be disloyal/loyal to sb 对某人不守信用[守信用]; 对某人不忠诚[忠诚]. in good `faith with honest intentions 真诚地; 诚意地: She signed the letter in good faith, not realizing its implications. 她真心实意地在信上签了字, 没意识到其中另有含义. * He bought the painting in good faith, eg not realizing that it had been stolen. 他买这幅画时不虞内有跷蹊(如未想到是贼赃).

  faith-cure

  n [C], faith-healing n [U] cure, etc that depends on faith rather than on medicines or other treatment 信仰疗法.

  faith-healer

  n.

  faithful

  / 5feIWfl; `feWfEl/ adj 1 ~ (to sb/sth) loyal (to sb/sth) (对某人[某事])忠实的: a faithful friend 忠实的朋友 * faithful to his beliefs 忠实於他的信仰 * She was always faithful to her husband, ie never had a sexual relationship with anyone else. 她对丈夫一直很忠诚. 2 [attrib 作定语] able to be trusted; conscientious 可信赖的; 认真的: a faithful worker 忠诚可靠的工作者 * a faithful correspondent, ie one who writes regularly 经常通信的人. 3 true to the facts; accurate 真实的; 正确的: a faithful copy, description, account, etc 精确的副本、 描写、 报道等.

  the faithful

  n [pl v] true believers (in a religion) (某宗教的)忠实信徒.

  faithfully

  / -fElI; -fElI/ adv 1 in a faithful manner 忠实地: The old nurse had served the family faithfully for thirty years. 老保姆为这个家庭忠实地服务了三十年. * He followed the instructions faithfully. 他严格遵守指令. 2 (idm 习语) yours faithfully => yours (your). =>Usage at your 用法见your.

  faithfulness

  n [U].

  faithless

  / 5feIWlIs; `feWlIs/ adj not trustworthy; not loyal 不可靠的; 不忠实的: a faithless friend, wife, ally, etc 不忠实的朋友、 妻子、 盟邦等.

  faithlessly

  adv.

  faithlessness

  n [U].

  fake

  / feIk; fek/ n (a) object (eg a work of art) that seems genuine but is not 膺品(如伪造的艺术品): That's not a real diamond necklace, it's just a fake! 那不是真钻石项链, 是假的! Cf 参看 counterfeit, forgery (forge2). (b) person who tries to deceive by pretending to be what he is not 骗子; 冒充者: He looked like a postman but he was really a fake. 他看上去像个邮递员, 但实际上是假冒的.

  fake

  adj not genuine 假的; 伪造的: fake furs, jewellery, etc 假的毛皮、 珠宝等 * a fake policeman 假冒的警察.

  fake

  v [Tn] 1 make (sth false) so that it seems genuine 伪造(某物): He faked his father's signature. 他伪造父亲的签字. * Her whole story had been faked, ie was completely untrue. 她的话全都是编造的. 2 pretend (sth); feign 假装(某事物); 佯装: fake surprise, grief, illness 装出吃惊、 悲伤、 患病的样子.

  faker

  n.

  fakir

  / 5feIkIE(r); ?@ fE5k-; fE`kIr/ n 1 Hindu religious beggar regarded as a holy man (印度教中视为圣者的)托钵僧, 行者. 2 member of a Muslim holy sect who lives by begging (伊斯兰教的)托钵僧.

  falcon

  / 5fR:lkEn; ?@ 5fAlkEn; `fAlkEn/ n small bird of prey 猎鹰.

  falconer

  n (a) person who trains falcons to hunt and kill other birds or animals for sport 训练猎鹰者. (b) person who keeps trained falcons 养猎鹰者.

  falconry

  / -rI; -rI/ n [U] (a) sport of hunting with falcons 放鹰捕猎; 鹰猎. (b) art of breeding and training falcons 猎鹰饲养术; 猎鹰训练术.

  fall

  / fR:l; fRl/ v (pt fell / fel; fZl/, pp fallen / 5fR:lEn; `fRlEn/) 1 [I, Ipr, Ip] come or go down from force of weight, loss of balance, etc; descend or drop 落下; 跌落; 降落; 掉下: The rain was falling steadily. 雨不停地下著. * The leaves fall in autumn. 秋天树叶凋落. * He slipped and fell ten feet. 他失足自十英尺高处跌了下来. * That parcel contains glass don't let it fall. 那包裹里有玻璃制品--别掉在地上. * The book fell off the table onto the floor. 那本书从桌上掉到地上. * He fell into the river. 他掉进河里了. * I need a new bicycle lamp my old one fell off and broke. 我需要一个新的自行车车灯--旧的摔破了. 2 [I, Ipr] ~ (on/upon sb/sth) come as if by dropping suddenly; descend 突然降临; 来临: A sudden silence fell. 突然静了下来. * Darkness falls quickly in the tropics. 热带地区天黑得很快. * Fear fell upon them. 他们突然感到很害怕. 3 [I, Ipr, Ip] ~ (down/over) stop standing, esp suddenly; collapse 倒下(尤指突然间); 倒塌: Many trees fell in the storm. 在那场暴风雨中有许多树都倒了. * He fell on his knees (ie knelt down) and begged for mercy. 他跪下求饶. * The toddler tried to walk but kept falling down. 那小孩学著走路但老是跌跤. * She fell over and broke her leg. 她跌倒後摔折了腿. * (fig 比喻) Six wickets fell (ie Six batsmen in cricket were dismissed) before lunch. 午饭前有六个板球击球员被杀出局. 4 [Ipr] hang down 垂下; 低垂: Her hair fell over her shoulders in a mass of curls. 她的鬈发披在肩上. * His beard fell to his chest. 他的胡须垂到胸前. 5 [I] decrease in amount, number or intensity (数量、 数目)下降; (强度)变弱: Prices fell on the stock market. 股市行情下跌. * Her spirits fell (ie She became sad) at the bad news. 她听到这坏消息後情绪很低落. * Her voice fell as they entered the room. 他们走进房间时她的声音低了下来. * The temperature fell sharply in the night. 夜间温度急剧下降. 6 [I, Ip] ~ (away/off) slope downwards 向下倾斜: Beyond the hill, the land falls (away) sharply towards the river. 山那边地面呈陡坡向河边倾斜. 7 [I] (a) lose one's position, office or power; be defeated 失去地位、 职位或权力; 垮台: The government fell after the revolution. 政府在那场革命之後垮台了. (b) die in battle; be shot 阵亡; 被击毙: Half the regiment fell before the enemy onslaught. 在敌军猛攻下, 这个团有一半人阵亡了. * Six tigers fell to his rifle. 他用步枪射倒了六只老虎. (c) (of a fortress, city, etc) be captured (指要塞、 城市等)沦陷, 失守: Troy finally fell (to the Greeks). 特洛伊最终被(希腊人)攻陷. 8 [I] (dated 旧) sin; do wrong 犯罪; 堕落: Eve tempted Adam and he fell. 夏娃诱惑亚当, 结果他犯了罪. 9 [Ipr] ~ on/over sth take the direction or position specified 朝某方向; 占据某位置: Which syllable does the stress of this word fall on? 这个字的重音是在哪个音节上? * My eye fell on (ie I suddenly saw) a curious object. 我突然看见一个奇怪的东西. * A shadow fell over the room. 有个影子映入室内. 10 [La, Ln, Ipr] ~ (into sth) pass into a specified state; become 进入某种状态; 变成: fall asleep 入睡 * The horse fell lame. 那马瘸了. * He fell silent. 他静了下来. * Has she fallen ill again? 她又病了吗? * When does the rent fall due? ie When must it be paid? 租金何时到期? * She fell an easy prey to his charm. 她一下子被他迷住了. * He fell into a doze, ie began to doze. 他打起瞌睡来了. * The house fell into decay. 那房子腐朽了. 11 [I, Ipr] happen or occur; have as a date 发生; 适逢(一日期): Easter falls early this year. 今年的复活节来得早. * Christmas Day falls on a Monday. 今年的圣诞节是星期一. 12 [I, Ipr] be spoken 被说出: I guessed what was happening from a few words she let fall, ie from what she said. 我从她说的几句话中猜出发生什麽事了. * Not a word fell from his lips. 他什麽话也没说. 13 (For idioms containing fall, see entries for ns, adjs, etc 与fall搭配的其他习语见有关名词、 形容词等的词条, 如 fall in love (with sb) => love1; fall flat => flat3.) 14 (phr v) fall about (infml 口) laugh uncontrollably 无法控制地大笑: We all fell about (laughing/with laughter) when he did his imitation of the tea-lady. 看到他模仿女勤杂工的样子, 我们全笑得前仰後合, 无法自制.

  fall apart

  break; fall to pieces; disintegrate 破裂; 破碎; 散开: My car is falling apart. 我的汽车要散架了. * Their marriage finally fell apart. 他们的婚姻终於破裂了.

  fall away

  (a) desert; leave 遗弃; 离开: His supporters fell away as his popularity declined. 在他声望下降时许多支持他的人都疏远了他. (b) disappear; vanish 消失: In a crisis, old prejudices fall away and everyone works together. 在危急关头, 大家就能捐弃前嫌, 同心协力.

  fall back

  move or turn back; retreat 後退; 撤退; 退却: The enemy fell back as our troops advanced. 我军前进, 敌军後退. fall back on sb/sth (be able to) go to sb for support or use sth when in difficulty 有困难时(能)求助於某人, 依靠某事物: At least we can fall back on candles if the electricity fails. 停电时我们至少可以使用蜡烛. * She's completely homeless at least I have my parents to fall back on. 她是真正无家可归--我至少有父母可依靠.

  fall behind (sb/sth)

  be overtaken (by sb/sth); fail to keep level (with sb/sth) 落後於(某人[某事物]): The major world powers are afraid of falling behind in the arms race. 世界各大强国均惟恐在军备竞赛中落後. * France has fallen behind (Germany) in coal production. 法国在产煤方面落後(於德国)了. fall behind with sth fail to pay for sth or to do sth for a period of time 逾期不为某事物付款或不做某事: Don't fall behind with the rent, or you'll be evicted. 不要逾期不缴房租, 否则会被逐出. * I've fallen behind with my correspondence. 我积压了许多信没回.

  fall down

  be shown to be false or inadequate; collapse 显示不实或不足; 崩溃; 失败: The plan fell down because it proved to be too expensive. 这项计划因费用过高而告吹. fall down on sth (infml 口) fail to do sth properly or successfully 没有把某事做好: fall down on one's promises 未履行自己的诺言 * He fell down on the job. 他未能把这件工作做好.

  fall for sb

  (infml 口) be attracted to sb; fall in love with sb 被某人所吸引; 爱上某人; 迷恋: They met, fell for each other and got married six weeks later. 他们俩一见倾心, 六个星期後就结了婚. fall for sth (infml 口) allow oneself to be persuaded by sth, esp unwisely 相信某事(尤指不智): The salesman said the car was in good condition, and I was foolish enough to fall for it. 推销员说这辆汽车状况良好, 而我那麽傻竟然信以为真.

  fall in

  collapse 塌陷; 倒塌: The roof of the tunnel fell in. 隧道顶部塌了下来. fall (sb) in (cause sb to) form a military formation; (cause sb to) go on parade (使某人)排成军事队形; (使某人)集合: The sergeant ordered his men to fall in 中士命令士兵集合. fall in with sb/sth (a) meet sb by chance; join sb; become involved with sb/sth 偶遇某人; 与某人在一起; 与某人[某事物]牵涉在一起: He fell in with bad company. 他交上了损友. (b) agree to or show support for sb/sth 同意或支持(某人[某事物]): She fell in with my idea at once. 她立即同意了我的意见.

  fall into sth

  (a) be able to be divided into sth 可分为: The lecture series falls naturally into three parts. 该系列讲座可自然分作三部分. (b) develop or acquire sth 养成; 染上: fall into bad habits 养成坏习惯. (c) be trapped by sth 落入圈套: We played a trick on them and they fell right into it. 我们设了个圈套, 他们就正好中计.

  fall off

  decrease in quantity or quality 数量或质量下降: Attendance at my lectures has fallen off considerably. 听我讲课的人已大大减少了. * It used to be my favourite restaurant but the standard of cooking has fallen off recently. 那是我以前最喜欢的饭馆, 但近来烹饪水平已大不如前了.

  fall on/upon sb/sth

  (a) attack sb/sth fiercely 猛烈攻击某人[某事物]: Bandits fell on the village and robbed many inhabitants. 土匪袭击了那座村庄, 抢劫了许多村民的财物. * (fig 比喻) The children fell on the food and ate it greedily. 孩子们争先恐後地抢到食物, 狼吞虎咽地吃起来. (b) be borne or incurred by sb 由某人承担或负担: The full cost of the wedding fell on me. 婚礼的全部费用都由我负担.

  fall out

  happen; occur 发生: We were pleased with the way things fell out. 我们对事情的进展感到高兴. fall (sb) out (cause to) leave military formation; go or send (sb) off parade (使某人)离开军事队形, 解散: The men fell out quickly after their march. 士兵在列队行进之後, 很快便解散了. fall out (with sb) quarrel (with sb) (与某人)争吵: They fell out with each other just before their marriage. 他们就在举行婚礼之前吵了起来.

  fall over sb/sth

  stumble or trip after hitting sb/sth with one's feet when walking, etc 在行走...时脚碰到某人[某物]而打趔趄或跌倒. fall over oneself be very clumsy 动作笨拙: He was an awkward child, always falling over himself and breaking things. 他是个笨拙的孩子, 经常笨手笨脚地把东西摔破. fall over oneself to do sth (infml 口) be specially eager to do or achieve sth 想方设法做某事或获取某事物: People were falling over themselves to be introduced to the visiting film star. 人们千方百计地想把自己介绍给到访的影星.

  fall through

  fail to be completed; come to nothing 落空; 成为泡影: Our holiday plans fell through because of transport strikes. 我们的假期计画因运输业工人罢工而成泡影.

  fall to (doing sth)

  begin (to do sth) 开始(做某事): They fell to (eating) with great gusto. 他们开始津津有味地大吃起来. * She fell to brooding about what had happened to her. 她开始沉思默想自己的遭遇. fall to sb (to do sth) become the duty or responsibility of sb 成为某人的义务或责任: It fell to me to inform her of her son's death. 要把她儿子死亡的消息告诉她, 这责任落在了我的肩上.

  fall under sth

  be classified among sth 列入某项下: What heading do these items fall under? 这几项应列在哪个标题下面?

  the fallen

  n [pl v] (dated or fml 旧或文) those killed in war 阵亡者.

  fall-out

  n [U] radioactive waste carried in the air after a nuclear explosion (核爆炸後大气中的)放射尘.

  falling star

  = shooting star (shoot1).

  fall

  / fR:l; fRl/ n 1 [C] act or instance of falling 落下; 跌落; 降落; 掉下: I had a fall (from a horse) and broke my arm. 我(从马上)跌下来把胳膊摔断了. * That was a nasty fall. 这一跤摔得不轻. 2 ~ (of sth) (a) [C] amount of sth that falls or has fallen 某物降落的数量: a heavy fall of snow/rain 一场大雪[大雨] * a fall of rock(s) 落下的岩石. (b) [C esp sing 尤作单数] distance through which sb/sth falls or descends 降落的距离; 落差: a fall of twenty feet 下落二十英尺 * a twenty-foot fall 二十英尺的落差. 3 [C] decrease in value, quantity, intensity, etc 价值、 数量、 强度等的降低: a steep fall in prices 价格的暴跌 * a fall in the numbers attending 出席人数的减少. 4 [sing] ~ (of sth) (esp political) defeat; collapse (尤指政治方面的)失败; 垮台: the fall of the Roman Empire 罗马帝国的灭亡 * The fall of the Government resulted in civil war. 政府倒台导致内战爆发. 5 [C] (US) = autumn: in the fall of 1970 在1970年的秋季 * several falls ago 几年之前 * [attrib 作定语] fall fashions 秋季式样. 6 (a) [C] ~ (from sth) loss of innocence or a state of goodness 堕落; 变坏: a fall from grace 失宠. (b) the Fall [sing] (Bible 圣经) loss of mankind's innocence following the disobedience of Adam and Eve (亚当和夏娃偷食禁果後)人类的堕落. 7 [C] (usu pl, esp in geographical names 通常作复数, 尤用於地名中) large amount of water falling down from a height; waterfall 瀑布: The falls upstream are full of salmon. 该瀑布上流有许多大麻哈鱼. * Niagara Falls 尼亚加拉瀑布. 8 (idm 习语) pride comes/goes before a fall => pride. ride for a fall => ride2.

  fall guy

  / 5fR:l gaI; `fRl 9^aI/ (esp US) (a) = scapegoat. (b) person who is easily tricked or fooled 易上当的人; 易受愚弄的人.

  fallacy

  / 5fAlEsI; `fAlEsI/ n 1 [C] false or mistaken belief 错误的见解; 谬见: It's a fallacy to suppose that wealth brings happiness. 认为财富能带来幸福, 这是一种错误的见解. 2 [U] false reasoning or argument 错误的推论; 谬论: a statement based on fallacy 基於错误推理的说法.

  fallacious

  / fE5leIFEs; fE`leFEs/ adj misleading; based on error 令人误解的; 谬误的: fallacious reasoning 错误的推理.

  fallaciously

  adv.

  fallen

  pp of fall1.

  fallible

  / 5fAlEbl; `fAlEbl/ adj liable to make mistakes 易犯错误的: We are fallible beings. 我们都难免犯错误.

  fallibility

  / 9fAlE5bIlEtI; 9fAlE`bIlEtI/ n [U].

  Fallopian tube

  / fE9lEUpIEn 5tju:b; ?@ 5tu:b; fE`lopIEn`tub/ (anatomy 解) either of the two tubes along which egg-cells move from the ovaries to the womb 输卵管. =>illus at female 见female插图.

  fallow

  / 5fAlEU; `fAlo/ adj (of land) ploughed but left unplanted to restore its fertility (指耕地)犁过而未耕种的, 休闲的: allow land to lie fallow 让耕地休闲.

  fallow

  n [U] fallow land 休闲地; 休耕地.

  fallow deer

  / 5fAlEU dIE(r); `fAlo dIr/ (pl unchanged 复数不变) small Eurasian deer with a brownish-yellow coat that has white spots in summer 黄占鹿(欧亚地区产的一种小鹿, 毛皮呈棕黄色, 夏季有白斑).

  false

  / fR:ls; fRls/ adj 1 wrong; incorrect 错误的; 不正确的: sing a false note 唱错音符 * `A whale is a fish. True or false?' `鲸鱼是一种鱼. 对还是错?' 2 (a) not genuine; artificial 假的; 人造的: false hair, teeth, etc 假发、 假牙. (b) sham; pretended 冒充的; 假装的: false modesty 假谦虚 * false tears 虚伪的眼泪. (c) [usu attrib 通常作定语] misleading; not what it appears 引起误会的; 与外观不符的: a false sense of security, ie feeling safe when one is really in danger 虚假的安全感 * false economy 不合算的节约 * give a false impression of great wealth 给人造成很富有的假像 * hounds following a false scent 沿著误入歧途的臭迹追踪的猎狗. (d) deliberately made incorrect in order to deceive 弄虚作假的; 伪造的: false weights, scales, dice, etc 假的砝码、 天平、 色子等 * a false passport 假护照 * a false bottom, ie the disguisedbottom of a suitcase, etc concealing a secret compartment(手提箱等秘密藏物用的)假底. 3 deliberately meant to deceive; lying 有意欺骗的; 不诚实的; 虚妄的: false evidence 伪证 * present false claims to an insurance company 向保险公司提出伪造的索赔要求. 4 ~ (to sb) unfaithful; disloyal 不忠实的; 无信义的: a false friend/lover 不忠实的朋友[情人]. 5 [attrib 作定语] inaccurately named 命名不准确的: the false acacia, ie not really an acacia tree, despite its name 刺槐(非真正的金合欢树). 6 (idm 习语) a false a`larm warning or panic about sth which does not happen 虚假的警报; 虚惊: The rumours of a petrol shortage turned out to be a false alarm. 汽油短缺的谣传原来是一场虚惊. (make) a false `move unwise or forbidden action that may have unpleasant consequences (可能带来不良後果的)不明智的或不允许的行为: `One false move and you're a dead man,' snarled the robber. 那强盗厉声叫道: `不许动, 不然就打死你.' (make) a false `start (a) (in athletics) start made before the signal (eg for a race) has been given (运动中)抢在信号令前行动(如赛跑中的抢跑). (b) unsuccessful beginning 不顺利的开端: After several false starts, she became a successful journalist. 她开始时遇到几次挫折, 後来才成为能干的记者. (take) a false `step (make) a wrong move or action 失足; 失策: A false step could have cost the climbers their lives. 爬山者一失足就会丧命. in a false po`sition in circumstances which result in sb being misunderstood or acting against his principles 处於被人误解的地位; 处於违背自己的原则的境地. on/under false pre`tences pretending to be sb else or to have certain qualifications, etc in order to deceive 冒充某人或冒充有某资格以行骗: obtaining money on false pretences 以诈骗手段骗钱. strike/sound a false `note say or do the wrong thing 说错话[做错事]: He struck a false note when he arrived for the wedding in old clothes. 他做错了一件事, 不该穿旧衣服去参加婚礼. (sail) under false `colours (a) (of a ship) displaying a flag which it has no right to use (指船)挂著伪旗(航行). (b) pretending or appearing to be different from what one really is 冒充的; 披著伪装骗人的.

  false

  adv (idm 习语) play sb `false deceive or cheat sb 欺骗某人.

  falsely

  adv.

  falseness

  n [U].

  falsehood

  / 5fR:lshUd; `fRlshJd/ n (fml 文) 1 [C] untrue statement; lie 不实之辞; 谎言: How can you utter such falsehoods? 你怎能说出这种假话? 2 [U] telling lies; lying 说假话; 撒谎: guilty of falsehood 犯了说谎的错误.

  falsies

  / 5fR:lsIz; `fRlsIz/ n [pl] (infml 口) pads or material to make the breasts seem larger 假乳房(用以使乳房显得丰满的衬垫).

  falsity

  / 5fR:lsEtI; `fRlsEtI/ n (a) [U] falsehood; error 谬误; 错误. (b) [C] instance of this 谬误; 错误.

  falter

  / 5fR:ltE(r); `fRltL/ v [I] 1 move, walk or act hesitantly, usu because of weakness, fear or indecision 摇晃, 蹒跚, 迟疑(通常因衰弱、 恐惧或犹豫): Jane walked boldly up to the platform without faltering. 简沉著大胆地走上讲台. 2 (a) (of the voice) waver (指嗓音)颤抖: His voice faltered as he tried to speak. 他张口说话时, 声音发颤了. (b) speak hesitantly 结巴地说; 支吾地说: The lecturer faltered after dropping his notes.那讲师讲稿掉了以後言语就结巴了.

  falteringly

  / 5fR:ltErINlI; `fRltErINlI/ adv.

  fame

  / feIm; fem/ n [U] (condition of) being known or talked about by many people 名声; 名气; 声誉: achieve fame and fortune 获取名利 * The young musician rose quickly to fame. 那个年轻的音乐家很快就出了名.

  famed

  adj [pred 作表语] ~ (for sth): famed for their courage 以他们的勇敢著称.

  familiar

  / fE5mIlIE(r); fE`mIljL/ adj 1 [pred 作表语] ~ with sth having a good knowledge of sth 对某事物熟悉; 通晓: facts with which every schoolboy is familiar 小 学生都熟悉的事实 * I am not very familiar with botanical names. 我不太熟悉植物学方面的名称. 2 ~ (to sb) well known (to sb); often seen or heard 为(某人)所熟知的; 经常见到或听到的: facts that are familiar to every schoolboy 小学生都熟悉的事实 * the familiar scenes of one's childhood 儿时常见的情景 * the familiar voices of one's friends 朋友的熟悉的声音. 3 ~ (with sb) friendly and informal 友好的; 不拘礼节的: She greeted them by their first names in a familiar way. 她和他们打招呼时亲切地直呼其名. * I'm on familiar terms with my bank manager. 我与银行经理交情很好. 4 ~ (with sb) too informal; more friendly and informal than is acceptable 过分亲密的; 冒失的: The children are too familiar with their teacher. 这帮小学生对老师过於随便.

  familiar

  n close friend or spirit 密友; 挚友; (供女巫等差遣)的精灵: a witch's familiar 供女巫差遣的精灵.

  familiarly

  adv in a familiar manner; informally 亲密地; 不拘礼节地: William, familiarly known as Billy 威廉, 昵称比利.

  familiarize, familiarise

  / fE5mIlIEraIz; fE`mIljE9raIz/ v [Tn.pr] ~ sb/oneself with sth give sb/acquire a thorough knowledge of sth 使某人[自己]熟悉某事物: familiarizing oneself with a foreign language, the use of a new tool, the rules of a game 熟悉一门外语、 新工具的用法、 比赛的规则.

  familiarization, familiarisation

  / fE9mIlIEraI5zeIFn; US -rI5z-; fE9mIljErE`zeFEn/ n [U].

  familiarity

  / fE9mIlI5ArEtI; fE9mIlI`ArEtI/ n 1 [U] ~ with sth good knowledge of sth (对某事物的)熟悉, 通晓: His familiarity with the local languages surprised me. 他对当地各种语言如此精通令我吃惊. 2 (a) [U] ~ (to/towards sb) (esp excessively) friendly informality (尤指过分地)亲密而不拘礼仪: You should not address your teacher with such familiarity. 你不应该这样冒失地称呼老师. (b) [C usu pl 通常作复数] instance of this; act that lacks formality 冒失; 不拘礼节的行为: Try to discourage such familiarities from your subordinates. 不要让下属对你这样不拘礼节. 3 (idm 习语) familiarity breeds con`tempt (saying 谚) knowing sb/sth very well may lead to a loss of respect, fear, etc 亲昵生狎侮(过分亲密易生侮慢之心).

  en famille

  / 9Cn fA5mi:; 9BnfA`mi/ (French 法) at home; among one's family 在家; 与家人一起: I always enjoy winter evenings spent en famille. 我一向喜欢与家人共度冬宵.

  family

  / 5fAmElI; `fAmElI/ n 1 (a) [CGp] group consisting of parents and their children 家; 家庭: Almost every family in the village owns a television. 村上几乎每家都有电视机. * All my family enjoy skiing. 我全家都喜欢滑雪. * He's a friend of the family, ie is known and liked by the parents and their children. 他是那家的朋友. (b) [CGp] group consisting of parents, their children and close relatives 家庭成员及关系密切的亲戚: the Royal Family, ie the children and close relatives of the Sovereign 王室 * All our family came to our grandfather's eightieth birthday party. 我们全家和所有的亲戚都来参加祖父的八十岁寿宴. (c) [attrib 作定语] suitable for all members of this group to enjoy together, regardless of age 适合全家大小一起欣赏的: a family film 适合全家大小一起看的电影 * family entertainment 适合全家大小一起参加的娱乐. 2 [CGp, U] person's children 子女: Give my regards to Mr and Mrs Jones and family. 代我向琼斯夫妇及其子女问好. * Do they have any family? 他们有儿女吗? * They have a large family. 他们子女很多. 3 (a) [CGp] all the people descended from a common ancestor 家族: Some families have farmed in this area for hundreds of years. 有些家族在该地区务农已达数百年. * She comes from a famous family. 她出生於名门望族. * [attrib 作定语] the family estate 家族的地产 * the family jewels 家传的珠宝. (b) [U] ancestry 家世; 世系: a man of good family 家世很好的人. 4 [C] (a) group of related genera of animals or plants (动植物的)科: Lions belong to the cat family. 狮子属於猫科动物. Cf 参看 phylum, class 7, order1 9, genus 1, species 1. (b) group of things (eg languages) with common features and a common source 具有相同特徵和同一来源的一组事物(如语言): the Indo-European family of languages 印欧语系. 5 (idm 习语) (put sb/be) in the family way (infml 口) (make sb/be) pregnant (使某人)怀孕的. run in the `family be a feature that keeps coming back in different generations of a family 为某家族中各代人呈现出的共有特徵; 世代相传: Red hair runs in his family. 他家族的人头发都是红色的. start a family => start2.

  family circle

  friendly group of close relatives 家庭圈子(关系密切的亲戚).

  family doctor

  general practitioner normally consulted by a family 家庭医生.

  family likeness

  physical resemblance between members of a family 家庭成员间外貌的相像: This must be your brother: I can see a family likeness. 这位一定是你哥哥, 我看你们长得很像.

  family man

  man who has a wife and children, and enjoys home life 有妻室儿女并喜欢家庭生活的男子.

  family name

  surname 姓. =>Usage at name1 用法见name1.

  family planning

  planning the number of children, intervals between births, etc in a family by using birth-control 计划生育.

  family tree

  diagram that shows the relationship between different members of a family 家谱; 家谱图. =>App 8 见附录8.

  famine

  / 5fAmIn; `fAmIn/ n [C, U] (instance of) extreme scarcity of food in a region 饥荒: a famine in Ethiopia 埃塞俄比亚的饥荒 * The long drought was followed by months of famine. 久旱之後出现长达数月的饥荒.

  famished

  / 5fAmIFt; `fAmIFt/ adj [usu pred 通常作表语] (infml 口) very hungry 非常饿: When's lunch? I'm famished! 什麽时候吃午饭? 我都快饿死了!

  famous

  / 5feImEs; `femEs/ adj 1 ~ (for sth) known to very many people; celebrated 出名的; 著名的: Paris is a famous city. 巴黎是著名的城市. * New York is famous for its skyscrapers. 纽约以其摩天大楼驰名. * She is famous as a writer. 她是著名的作家. 2 (dated infml 旧, 口) excellent 极好的: We've won a famous victory. 我们赢得了辉煌的胜利. 3 (idm 习语) famous last words (joc catchphrase 谑, 警语) (said when sb has made an important, optimistic, etc statement which may turn out to be untrue and which he may regret saying 有人说出重要的、 胸有成竹之类的话, 但却可能不确而使说话的人自觉悔不该言, 此时用此词组).

  famously

  adv (infml 口) extremely well 极好: The two children got on famously. 两个孩子相处得极好.

  fan

  / fAn; fAn/ n =>illus 见插图. 1 (a) object, often shaped like a semicircle, held in the hand and waved to create a current of cool air 扇子. (b) thing spread or shaped like a fan, eg the tail of a peacock 扇状物(如孔雀开屏状). 2 device with rotating blades, operated mechanically to create a current of cool air 电扇: It's so hot please turn the fan on. 这麽热--请把电扇打开.

  fan belt

  belt driving the fan that cools the radiator of a car, etc 风扇皮带(带动汽车等散热器风扇的皮带). =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page xii.

  fan heater

  device that blows hot air into a room 风扇式空气加热器.

  fan

  / fAn; fAn/ v (-nn-) 1 [Tn] make a current of air blow onto (sb/sth) with or as if with a fan  (某人[某物]): cool one's face by fanning it with a newspaper 用报纸 风使脸凉快 * fan a fire, ie to make it burn more strongly  火. 2 [Tn] blow gently on (sb/sth) 徐徐吹在(某人[某物])上: The breeze fanned our faces. 微风轻轻吹在我们的脸上. 3 [Tn, Tn.p] ~ sth (out) spread (esp playing-cards) in the form of a fan 展成扇形(尤指纸牌): He fanned (out) the cards in his hand before playing. 他出牌前先把纸牌在手里展成扇形. 4 (idm 习语) fan the flames (of sth) make (emotions, etc) stronger or (activity) more intense 煽动(情绪等); 使(行动)更为激烈: Her wild behaviour merely fanned the flames of his jealousy. 她那放肆的举动把他的妒火完全煽起. 5 (phr v) fan out (esp of soldiers) spread out from a central point (尤指士兵)作扇形散开: The troops fanned out as they advanced. 部队向前推进时呈扇形散开.

  fan

  / fAn; fAn/ n enthusiastic admirer or supporter of sth/sb 迷(某人[某事物]的热情崇拜者或拥护者): football, jazz, cinema fans 足球迷、 爵士乐迷、 影迷.

  fan club

  organized group of a person's admirers 崇拜者俱乐部(由某人的崇拜者所组成的组织).

  fan mail

  letters from fans to the person they admire 崇拜者寄给心中偶像的信.

  fanatic

  / fE5nAtIk; fE`nAtIk/ n person who is too enthusiastic about sth, esp religion or politics 狂热者(尤指在宗教或政治方面): a religious, political fanatic 宗教狂、 政治狂 * model train fanatics 对模型火车入迷的人.

  fanatic (also fanatical / -kl; -kl/)

  adj ~ (about sth) obsessively enthusiastic 狂热的: a fanatic jogger 极喜欢慢跑的人 * She's fanatical about keeping fit. 她如醉如痴地注重健美.

  fanatically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  fanaticism

  / -tIsIzEm; -tE9sIzEm/ n [U, C] great or obsessive enthusiasm 狂热; 入迷.

  fancier

  / 5fAnsIE(r); `fAnsIL/ n (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) person with a special interest in and love for sth 对某事物有特殊兴趣和爱好的人: a `dog-fancier 玩赏狗的人 * a `pigeon-fancier 喜爱养鸽子的人.

  fanciful

  / 5fAnsIfl; `fAnsIfEl/ adj 1 (of people) using the imagination rather than reason (指人)富於幻想的: Children are very fanciful. 儿童都很富於幻想. 2 (of things) designed or decorated in an odd but creative manner (指物)设计或装饰新颖奇特的.

  fancifully

  / -fElI; -fElI/ adv.

  fancy

  / 5fAnsI; `fAnsI/ n 1 [U] power of the mind to imagine (esp unreal things) 想像力(尤指对非现实的事物): the novelist's fancy 小说家的想像力. 2 [C] thing imagined 想像之物: Did I really hear someone come in, or was it only a fancy? 我是真听到有人进来还是仅仅是幻觉而已? * I have a fancy (ie a vague idea) that he will be late. 我感觉他要迟到. 3 [sing] ~ (for sth) desire; liking 渴望; 喜爱: I have a fancy for some wine tonight. 我今晚想喝点酒. 4 [C usu pl 通常作复数] small decorated cake 带装饰的小蛋糕: fancies served with coffee 佐咖啡的漂亮小蛋糕. 5 (idm 习语) catch/take sb's fancy please or attract sb 合某人的心意; 吸引某人: She saw a dress in the shop window and it caught her fancy immediately. 她看见商店橱窗里的一件连衣裙, 立刻觉得很合心意. a flight of fancy => flight1. take a fancy to sb/sth become fond of sb/sth, often without an obvious reason 喜欢上、 爱上某人[某物](常无明显原因): I've suddenly taken a fancy to detective stories. 我突然喜欢上了侦探小说.

  fancy-free

  adj [usu pred 通常作表语] 1 not in love; not committed to anything 未在恋爱中; 不受束缚. 2 (idm 习语) footloose and fancy-free => footloose (foot1).

  fancy

  / 5fAnsI; `fAnsI/ adj 1 [attrib 作定语] (esp of small things) brightly coloured; made to please the eye or taste (尤指小东西)色彩鲜艳的, 悦目的, 可口的: fancy cakes/goods 精美的蛋糕[物品]. 2 not plain or ordinary; unusual 有装饰的; 不寻常的; 精致的: That's a very fancy pair of shoes! 那是一双非常别致的鞋! 3 extravagant or exaggerated 过度的; 过分的: fancy ideas, prices 过分的想法、 高昂的价格. 4 (esp US) (of food, etc) above average quality (指食物等)精选的, 精美的: fancy vegetables 精选的蔬菜. 5 [attrib 作定语] bred for particular points of beauty 因珍奇而特别培育的: fancy dogs, pigeons, etc 品种珍奇的狗、 鸽子等.

  fancy dress

  unusual costume, often historical or fantastic, worn at parties 聚会时所穿的奇装异服(常为有历史特色或别具一格的): [attrib 作定语] a fancy dress ball 化装舞会.

  fancy man, fancy woman

  (derog or joc infml 贬或谑, 口) person's lover 情夫; 情妇; 情人.

  fancy

  / 5fAnsI; `fAnsI/ v (pt, pp fancied) 1 [Tf] think or believe (sth); imagine 想; 以为; 想像: I fancy (that) it's going to rain today. 我看今天要下雨. * He fancies she likes him. 他以为她喜欢他. * He fancied he heard footsteps behind him. 他好像听到身後有脚步声. 2 [Tn] (infml 口) have a desire or wish for (sth); want 渴望或希望得到(某事物); 想要: I fancy a cup of tea. 我想来杯茶. * What do you fancy for supper? 你晚饭喜欢吃甚麽? 3 [Tn] (Brit infml 口) find (sb) attractive 喜爱(某人): He rather fancies her. 他很喜欢她. 4 [I, Tn, Tg, Tsg] (usu imperative, expressing surprise, disbelief, shock, etc 通常用於祈使句, 表示惊奇、 不相信、 震惊等): Fancy that! 多奇怪呀! * Just fancy! 真想不到! * Fancy her being so rude! 她竟如此放肆! * Fancy never having seen the sea! 竟然从未见过大海! 5 (idm 习语) fancy oneself (as sth) (infml 口) have a very high opinion of oneself; be conceited 自命不凡; 自负: She rather fancies herself as a singer. 她自以为是了不起的歌手.

  fandango

  / fAn5dANgEU; fAn`dAN^o/ n (pl ~es) 1 (music for a) lively Spanish or S American dance 方丹戈舞(西班牙或南美的轻快舞蹈); 方丹戈舞曲. 2 nonsense 愚蠢的举动; 胡闹: Politics before an election can be quite a fandango. 选举前的政治活动简直可以说是胡闹一通.

  fanfare

  / 5fAnfeE(r); `fAn9fZr/ n short ceremonial piece of music, usu played on trumpets 仪式上用的短曲(通常用小号吹奏): A fanfare was played as the queen entered. 女王驾到时, 小号奏起欢迎乐曲.

  fang

  / fAN; fAN/ n 1 long sharp tooth, esp of dogs and wolves 长而尖的牙(尤指狗和狼的): The dog growled and showed its fangs. 那狗狺狺狂吠, 露出了尖牙. 2 snake's tooth with which it injects poison (蛇的)毒牙. 3 (idm 习语) draw sb's/sth's teeth/fangs => draw2.

  fanlight

  / 5fAnlaIt; `fAn9laIt/ n small window above a door or another window 气窗(门或窗户上方的小窗).

  fanny

  / 5fAnI; `fAnI/ n 1 (Brit <!> sl 讳, 俚) female sex organs 女性生殖器. 2 (sl 俚 esp US) buttocks 屁股.

  fantasia

  / fAn5teIzIE; ?@ -5teIVE; fAn`teVE/ n (also fantasy) imaginative musical or other composition with no fixed form 幻想曲.

  fantasize, fantasise

  / 5fAntEsaIz; `fAntE9saIz/ v [I, Ipr, Tf] ~ (about sth) imagine or create a fantasy; daydream 想像; 幻想; 做白日梦: He liked to fantasize that he had won a gold medal. 他好想入非非, 觉得自己赢了一块金牌.

  fantastic

  / fAn5tAstIk; fAn`tAstIk/ adj 1 (a) wild and strange 荒诞的; 奇异的: fantastic dreams, stories 荒诞的梦、 故事. (b) impossible to carry out; not practical 无法实现的; 不实际的: fantastic schemes, proposals, etc 不实际的计画、 建议等. 2 (infml 口) marvellous; excellent 了不起的; 极好的: She's a fantastic swimmer. 她游泳游得非常好. * You passed your test? Fantastic! 你测验及格了? 太棒了! 3 (infml 口) very large; extraordinary 巨大的; 异乎寻常的: Their wedding cost a fantastic amount ofmoney. 他们的婚礼花费了很大一笔钱.

  fantastically

  /-klI; -klI/ adv: You did fantastically well in the exam. 你考得非常好.

  fantasy (also phantasy)

  / 5fAntEsI; `fAntEsI/ n 1 [U] imagination or fancy1(2), esp when completely unrelated to reality 想像, 幻想(尤指完全脱离实际的): [attrib 作定语] live in a fantasy world 生活在幻想世界中. 2 [C] product of the imagination; wild or unrealistic notion 幻想出来的东西; 荒诞的或不现实的念头: sexual fantasies 性幻想 * Stop looking for the perfect job it's just a fantasy. 别想找十全十美的工作了--那简直是幻想. 3 [C] = fantasia.

  FAO

  / 9ef eI 5EU; `Zf e `o/ abbr 缩写 = Food and Agriculture Organization (of the United Nations) (联合国)粮食及农业组织.

  far

  / fB:(r); fBr/ adj (farther / 5fB:TE(r); `fBrTL/ or further / 5f\:TE(r); `f[TL/, farthest / 5fB:TIst; `fBrTIst/ or furthest / 5f\:TIst; `f[TIst/) [attrib 作定语] 1 (dated or fml 旧或文) distant 远的; 远方的: a far country 远方的国家 * to journey into far regions 到远方去旅行. 2 more remote 较远的: at the far end of the street 在街的那一头 * on the far bank of the river 在河的彼岸 * She's on the far right, ie holds extreme right-wing views. 她持极右观点. 3 (idm 习语) a far cry from sth/doing sth (infml 口) a very different experience from sth/doing sth 与某事物[做某事物]大不相同: Life on a farm is a far cry from what I've been used to. 农场生活与我已过惯的日子迥然不同.

  the Far East

  China, Japan and other countries of E and SE Asia 远东(中国、 日本及东亚与东南亚其他国家).

  the Far West

  (US) the part of the USA near the Pacific coast 美国西部太平洋沿岸地区.

  far

  / fB:(r); fBr/ adv (farther/ 5fB:TE(r); `fBrTL/ or further/ 5f\:TE(r); `f[TL/, farthest/ 5fB:TIst; `fBrTIst/ or furthest/ 5f\:TIst; `f[TIst/) 1 (usu in questions and negative sentences 通常用於疑问句和否定句) (of space) at or to a great distance (指空间)远: How far is it to London from here? 从这里到伦敦有多远? (Cf 参看 London's a long way from here. 伦敦离这里很远.) * How far have we walked? 我们走了多远了? (Cf 参看 We've walked only a short way. 我们只走了一小段路程.) * We didn't go far. 我们没有走远. 2 (preceding particles and preps 用於小品词和介词前) (a) (of space) by a great distance (指空间)远: far above the clouds 远在云层之上 * not far from here 离这里不远 * far beyond the bridge 远在桥那边 * Call me if you need me; I won't be far away/off. 需要我时叫我一声, 我不到远处去. (b) (of time) a long way (指时间)久, 远: far back in history 在历史上久远的 * as far back as 1902 远在1902年 * events that will happen far in the future 很久以後将发生的事 * We danced far into the night. 我们跳舞跳到深夜. (c) (used within idioms 用於成语中) to a great extent 在很大程度上; 远远: to live far beyond one's means 过著远远入不敷出的生活 * He's fallen far behind in his work. 他的工作远远没有做完. 3 (preceding comparative adjs and advs 用於形容词或副词的比较级前) considerably; very much 很; 非常: a far better solution 好得多的解决办法 * He runs far faster than his brother. 他远比哥哥跑得快. 4 (idm 习语) as far as to the place mentioned, but no further 直至所提到之处为止: I've read as far as the third chapter. 我已读到第三章了. * I'll walk with you as far as the post office. 我陪你走到邮局. * We'll go by train as far as London, and then take a coach. 我们乘火车到伦敦, 然後换长途汽车. as/so far as (a) the same distance as 与...的距离相等: We didn't go so far as the others. 我们走得不如其他人远. (b) to the extent that; as much as 达到...的程度; 尽...; 就...: So far as I know/As far as I can see, that is highly unlikely. 就我所知[依我看]那是极不可能的. * His parents supported him as far as they could. 他父母竭尽全力抚养他. (c) (of progress) up to a specified point but not beyond (指进展)达到某一点为止: We've got as far as collecting our data but we haven't analysed it yet. 我们已收集了资料, 但尚未分析. as/so far as in me `lies (fml 文) to the best of my ability; as much as I can 尽我所能; 尽我的力量. as/so far as it, etc `goes to a limited extent, usu less than desirable 达到一定程度(通常并未如愿): Your plan is a good one as far as it goes, but there are several points you've forgotten to consider. 你的计画目前看来还算不错, 但有几点你忘了考虑进去. as/so far as sb/sth is concerned in the way, or to the extent, that sb/sth is involved or affected 就某人[某事物]而言: The rise in interest rates will be disastrous as far as small firms are concerned. 利率增加对小公司来说是大祸临头. * The car is fine as far as the engine is concerned but the bodywork needs a lot of attention. 这辆汽车发动机还不错, 但车身需要大修. * As far as I'm concerned you can do what you like. 对我个人来说, 你怎麽做都可以. as far as the eye can `see to the horizon 就视力所能及: The prairies stretch on all sides as far as the eye can see. 草原向四周伸展, 一望无际. by `far (following comparative or superlative adjs or advs, preceding or following comparative or superlative expressions with the or a 与形容词或副词的比较级或最高级连用时, 置於这类词之後; 若这类词带有冠词the或a时, 则置於这类之前或之後均可) by a great amount ...得多; 显然: It is quicker by far to go by train. 乘火车要快得多. * She is the best by far/She is by far the best. 她显然是最好的. carry/take sth too, etc `far continue (doing) sth beyond reasonable limits 做得过分: Don't be such a prude you can carry modesty too far! 别那麽拘谨--你谦虚得太过分了! * It's time to be serious; you've carried this joke far enough. 该严肃些了, 这个玩笑你开得差不多了. far/farther/further afield => afield. far and a`way (preceding comparative or superlative adjs 用於形容词的比较级或最高级之前) by a very great amount; very much 极; 非常: She's far and away the best actress I've seen. 她是我所见到的最好的演员. far and `near/`wide everywhere; from or to a large area 到处; 四面八方: They searched far and wide for the missing child. 他们到处寻找失踪的小孩. * People came from far and near to hear the famous violinist. 人们从四面八方赶来听这位著名小提琴家的演奏. far be it from me to do sth (but...) (infml 口) I certainly don't want you to think I would do sth (but...) 我毫无做某事物的意思(但...): Far be it from me to interfere in your affairs but I would like to give you just one piece of advice. 我决无意干涉你的事, 但我只想给你提个建议. far from doing sth instead of doing sth (不但)不做某事物(反而...): Far from enjoying dancing, he loathes it. 他岂止不喜欢, 简直讨厌跳舞. far from sth/from doing sth not at all sth; almost the opposite of sth 毫不; 一点也不; 远非; 几乎与之相反: The problem is far from easy, ie is in fact very difficult. 这问题绝非易事. * Your account is far from (being) true/is far from the truth. 你所说远非事实. far `from it (infml 口) certainly not; almost the opposite 当然不; 一点也不; 几乎相反: `Are you happy here?' `No, far from it; I've never been so miserable in my life.' `你在这里愉快吗?'`一点也不愉快, 我从来没像现在这样难受过.' few and far between => few. go as/so far as to do sth/as that, etc be willing to go to extreme limits in dealing with sth 处理某事物时愿走极端; 甚至做到某地步: I won't go so far as to say that he is dishonest, ie I won't actually accuse him of dishonesty, even though I might suspect him of it. 我还不想说他不诚实(纵然我有所怀疑, 也不愿意这样指责他). go `far (a) (of money) buy many goods, etc (指钱)可买许多东西: A pound doesn't go very far (ie You can't buy very much for a pound) nowadays. 现今一英镑已买不了多少东西了. (b) (of food, supplies, etc) be enough for what is needed; last (指食物、 供应等)够用, 充足: Four bottles of wine won't go far among twenty people. 四瓶葡萄酒不够二十人喝. go `far/a long `way (of people) be very successful (指人)非常成功: Someone as intelligent as you should go far. 像你这样聪明的人一定很有作为. go far/a long way towards sth/doing sth help greatly in (achieving) sth 在(促成)某事物方面大有帮助: Their promises don't go very far towards solving our present problems. 他们的承诺对解决我们当前的问题没多大帮助. go too `far behave in a way that is beyond reasonable limits 做得过分: He's always been rather rude but this time he's gone too far. 他总是很粗鲁, 但这次未免太过分了. in so far as to the extent that 到...的程度; 在...范围内: This is the truth in so far as I know it. 就我所知, 这是真实情况. not far `off/`out/`wrong (infml 口) correct or almost correct 正确的; 几乎正确的: Your guess wasn't far out. 你猜得八九不离十了. `so far until now; up to this/that point, time, etc 迄今为止; 到这[那]点、 时等为止: So far the work has been easy but things may change. 到目前为止, 这工作很容易, 但情况可能有变化. ,so `far (infml 口) only to a limited extent 仅到一定程度; 仅在有限的范围内: I trust you only so far (and no further). 我对你的信任只到这一程度. ,so far, so `good (saying 谚) up to now everything has been successful 到目前为止, 一切都很顺利.

  far-away

  adj [attrib 作定语] 1 distant; remote 远的; 遥远的: far-away places 遥远的地方. 2 dreamy, as if thinking of sth else 蒙胧的; 恍惚的; 出神的: You have a far-away look in your eyes. 你眼中流露出恍惚的神情.

  far-fetched

  adj (usu derog 通常作贬义) 1 (of a comparison) strained; unnatural (指比拟)牵强的, 不自然的. 2 (infml 口) (of a story, an account, etc) exaggerated; incredible (指故事、 叙述等)夸张的, 不可信的: It's an interesting book but rather far-fetched. 这本书很有趣, 只是太离奇了点.

  far-flung

  adj [usu attrib 通常作定语] 1 spread over a wide area; distributed widely 广泛的; 分布广的: a far-flung network of contacts 广泛的关系网. 2 distant 远的: Her fame has reached the most far-flung corners of the globe. 她已名扬四海.

  far gone

  (infml 口) 1 very ill 病重: The injured man was fairly far gone by the time the ambulance arrived. 救护车到时那伤者已生命垂危. 2 very drunk 大醉: You mustn't drive, you're too far gone! 你喝得烂醉如泥, 不能开车!

  far-off

  adj [attrib 作定语] remote 遥远的: a far-off country 遥远的国家.

  far-reaching

  adj likely to have a wide influence or many results 影响广泛的; 意义深远的: far-reaching proposals 意义深远的建议.

  far-seeing

  adj (approv 褒) seeing future problems and possibilities clearly and planning for them 目光远大的; 深谋远虑的; 远见卓识的.

  far-sighted

  adj 1 (approv 褒) (a) = far-seeing. (b) (of ideas, etc) showing an awareness of future needs (指思想等)有远见的, 有先见之明的: far-sighted changes in the organization 这个组织中颇具远见的变革. 2 (esp US) = long-sighted (long1).

  farce

  / fB:s; fBrs/ n 1 (a) [C] funny play for the theatre based on unlikely situations and events 笑剧; 闹剧; 滑稽戏. (b) [U] plays of this type 笑剧、 闹剧一类的剧目: I prefer farce to tragedy. 我喜欢笑剧而不喜欢悲剧. 2 [C] absurd and pointless proceedings 荒唐而无意义的行动: The prisoner's trial was a farce. 对那个囚犯的审讯简直是胡闹.

  farcical

  / 5fB:sIkl; `fBrsIkl/ adj absurd; ridiculous 荒谬的; 可笑的.

  farcically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  fare

  / feE(r); fZr/ n 1 money charged for a journey by bus, ship, taxi, etc (公共汽车、 轮船、 计程车等的)票价: What is the bus fare to London? 到伦敦的公共汽车费是多少? * travel at half/full/reduced fare 半价[全价/减价]票旅行 * economy fares 经济舱票价. 2 passenger who pays a fare, esp in a taxi (付费的)乘客; (尤指)计程车的乘客.

  fare-stage

  n part of a bus route regarded as a unit in calculating the fare (公共汽车路线中的作为计算票价单位的)一段路程.

  fare

  / feE(r); fZr/ n [U] food, esp when offered at a meal (used esp with the adjs shown) 食物; (尤指)饭菜(尤与下列形容词连用): fine, simple, wholesome fare 很好的、 简单的、 有益健康的食物.

  fare

  / feE(r); fZr/ v [I] (fml 文) progress; get on 进展; 过日子: How did you fare (ie What were your experiences) while you were abroad? 你在国外时好吗(感受如何)?

  farewell

  / 9feE5wel; `fZr`wZl/ interj (arch or fml 古或文) 1 goodbye 再会; 再见: Farewell until we meet again! 下次再见! 2 (idm 习语) (bid/say) farewell to sb/sth (have) no more of sb/sth 不再(有某人[某事物]): You can say farewell to seaside holidays as we once knew them. 我们熟悉的海滨假日已可谓一去不复返了.

  farewell

  n saying goodbye 辞行; 告别: make one's last farewells 作最後告别 * [attrib 作定语] a farewell party, gift, speech 送别宴会、 辞行赠礼、 告别演讲.

  farinaceous

  / 9fArI5neIFEs; 9fArE`neFEs/ adj starchy or floury (含)淀粉的; (似)面粉的: farinaceous foods, eg bread, potatoes 含淀粉的食物(如面包、 马铃薯).

  farm

  / fB:m; fBrm/ n 1 area of land, and the buildings on it, used for growing crops or raising animals 农田; 农场; 饲养场: We've lived on this farm for twenty years. 我们已在这农场住了二十年. * [attrib 作定语] farm produce 农产品 * farm machinery 农业机械. 2 farmhouse and the buildings near it 农舍及附近的建筑物: get some eggs at the farm 从农场弄些蛋. 3 place where certain fish or animals are raised (某些鱼或其他动物的)养殖场: a trout-/ mink-/ pig-farm 鳟鱼饲养场[貂饲养场/养猪场].

  farm-hand

  n person who works as a labourer on a farm 农场工人.

  farmhouse

  n farmer's house 农舍.

  farmstead

  / 5fB:msted; `fBrm9stZd/ n farmhouse and the buildings near it 农舍及附近的建筑物.

  farmyard

  n space enclosed by or next to farm buildings 农家的庭院.

  farm

  / fB:m; fBrm/ v 1 (a) [I] grow crops or rear animals 种田; 务农; 饲养动物: He is farming in Africa. 他在非洲务农. (b) [Tn] use (land) for this 耕种(土地): She farms 200 acres. 她耕种200英亩土地. (c) [Tn] breed (animals) on a farm 在农场饲养(动物): farm beef cattle 饲养肉牛. 2 (phr v) farm sb out (to sb) arrange for sb to be cared for by others 托别人照看(某人): The children were farmed out to nannies at an early age. 孩子们小时候由奶妈照看. farm sth out (to sb) send out or delegate (work) to be done by others 招人承包(工作): We're so busy we have to farm out a lot of work. 我们太忙, 许多工作得招人承包.

  farmer

  n person who owns or manages a farm 农场主人; 农人.

  farming

  n [U] profession of working on or managing a farm 务农; 经营农场: take up farming 开始务农 * pig farming 养猪 * [attrib 作定语] farming subsidies, equipment 农业津贴、 设备.

  farrago

  / fE5rB:gEU; fE`rB^o/ n (pl ~s; US ~es) confused collection; mixture 杂烩; 混合物: a farrago of useless bits of knowledge 杂七杂八无用的知识.

  farrier

  / 5fArIE(r); `fArIL/ n blacksmith who makes and fits horseshoes 蹄铁匠.

  farrow

  / 5fArEU; `fAro/ v [I] give birth to young pigs 产小猪: When will the sow farrow? 这头母猪何时产小猪?

  farrow

  n 1 number of young pigs born at the same time to one mother 一窝小猪. 2 giving birth to young pigs 产小猪: Our sow had 15 at one farrow. 我们的母猪一胎下了15个小猪.

  fart

  / fB:t; fBrt/ v (<!> 讳) 1 [I] send air from the bowels out through the anus 放屁. 2 (phr v) fart about/around (sl 俚) be silly; play the fool 愚蠢; 干蠢事: Stop farting around and behave yourself! 别胡来, 放规矩点!

  fart

  n (<!> 讳) 1 releasing of air through the anus 放屁. 2 (sl derog 俚, 贬) person who is disliked or despised 讨厌的家伙; 卑鄙的人.

  farther

  / 5fB:TE(r); `fBrTL/ adj (comparative of far1 far1的比较级) more distant in space, direction or time (在空间、 方向或时间上)更远的: on the farther bank of the river 在河的彼岸 * The cinema was farther down the road than I thought. 电影院在路的另一端, 比我原来想的还远. * Rome is farther from London than Paris is. 罗马比巴黎离伦敦更远.

  farther

  adv (comparative of far2 far2的比较级) 1 at or to a greater distance in space or time; more remote (在空间或时间上)更远: We can't go any farther without resting. 我们要是不休息就再也走不动了. * Looking farther forward to the end of the century... 再向前展望到本世纪末.... 2 (idm 习语) far/farther/further afield => afield.

  farther

  NOTE ON USAGE 用法: Further is now more common than farther in British English. 在英式英语中, 现在further比farther用得更普遍. They can both be used in relation to distance 这两个词均可用以表示距离: I can throw much further/farther than you. 我扔得比你远得多. * Bristol is further/farther than Oxford. 布里斯托尔比牛津远. In US English farther is usually used in relation to distance. 在美式英语中farther通常用以表示距离. In British and US English only further can be used to indicate addition 在英式英语和美式英语中, 只有further可用以表示`更加'或`进一步'的意思: Are there any further questions? 还有问题吗? * a College of Further Education 进修学院.

  farthest

  / 5fB:TIst; `fBrTIst/ adj (superlative of far1 far1的最高级) 1 most distant in space, direction or time (在空间、 方向或时间上)最远的, 最久的: Go to the farthest house in the village and I'll meet you there. 到村上最远的那座房子那儿去, 我在那里与你会面. 2 longest; most extended in space (在空间上)最长的, 伸展最远的: The farthest distance I've run is ten miles. 我跑过的最长的距离是十英里.

  farthest

  adv (superlative of far2 far2的最高级) 1 at or to the greatest distance in space or time; most remote (在空间或时间上)最远, 最久: Who ran (the) farthest? 谁跑得最远? * It's ten miles away, at the farthest. 最远不超过十英里. 2 to the highest degree or extent; most 达到最大程度或限度; 最: She is the farthest advanced of all my students. 她是我所有学生中学习最好的.

  farthing

  / 5fB:TIN; `fBrTIN/ n 1 former British coin worth one quarter of an old penny 英国旧时面值为四分之一便士的硬币. 2 (idm 习语) not care/give a farthing not care at all 毫不在乎.

  fascia

  = facia.

  fascinate

  / 5fAsIneIt; `fAsn9et/ v [Tn] 1 attract or interest (sb) greatly 使(某人)著迷、 神魂颠倒或极感兴趣: The children were fascinated by the toys in the shop window. 孩子们让商店橱窗里的玩具给吸引住了. 2 take away power of movement from (eg an animal) by a strong light, etc 用强光照射等使(如动物)不能动弹: The rabbit sat without moving, fascinated by the glare of our headlights. 我们的车的前灯把兔子照得蹲在那里一动也不动.

  fascinating

  adj having great attraction or charm 吸引人的; 迷人的; 使人神魂颠倒的: a fascinating voice,story, glimpse 迷人的嗓音、 故事、 一瞥.

  fascinatingly

  adv.

  fascination

  / 9fAsI5neIFn; 9fAsn`eFEn/ n 1 [U, C] fascinating quality; process of fascinating 魅力; 魔力; 入迷: Stamp collecting holds a certain fascination for me. 我特别喜爱集邮. * The fascinations of the circus are endless. 马戏表演非常吸引人. 2 [U, sing] state of being fascinated 著迷; 入迷: a fascination for Chinese pottery 对中国陶瓷的强烈爱好.

  fascism (also Fascism)

  / 5fAFIzEm; `fAF9IzEm/ n [U] extreme right-wing dictatorial political system or views, esp (Fascism) as originally seen in Italy between 1922 and 1943 法西斯主义.

  fascist (also Fascist)

  / 5fAFIst; `fAFIst/ n (usu derog 通常作贬义) person who supports fascism 法西斯主义者. adj (usu derog 通常作贬义) extremely right-wing; reactionary 法西斯的; 极右的; 反动的: a fascist state 法西斯国家 * fascist opinions 极右的言论.

  fashion

  / 5fAFn; `fAFEn/ n 1 [sing] manner or way of doing sth 样子; 方式: He walks in a peculiar fashion. 他走路的样子很怪. 2 [C, U] popular style (of clothes, behaviour, etc) at a given time or place 流行的式样; 时尚; 风尚; 风气: dressed in the latest fashion 穿著入时的 * Fashions in art and literature are changing constantly. 文艺的潮流总是日新月异. * [attrib 作定语] a fashion show 时装表演 * fashion magazines 时装杂志. 3 (idm 习语) after a `fashion to a certain extent, but not satisfactorily 达到一定程度(但尚未令人满意): I can play the piano after a fashion. 我多少会弹点钢琴. after/in the fashion of sb (fml 文) like sb; imitating the style of sb 像某人一样; 模仿某人的风格: She paints in the fashion of Picasso. 她模仿毕加索的绘画风格. (be) all the `fashion/`rage (be) the latest style or trend 流行(起来); (成为)时尚: Suddenly, collecting antiques is all the fashion. 收集古董突然盛行起来. come into/be in `fashion become/be popular 流行; 入时: Long skirts have come into fashion again. Faded jeans are still in fashion too. 长裙子又流行起来. 漂浅的牛仔裤也还很时髦. go/be out of fashion become/be unpopular as a style 不再流行; 过时.

  fashion

  v [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ A from B/B into A give form or shape to sth; design or make sth 将某物做成某形状; 设计或制造某物: fashion a doll (from a piece of wood) (用木块)做成玩具娃娃 * fashion a lump of clay into a bowl 把黏土制成碗.

  fashionable

  / 5fAFnEbl; `fAFEnEbl/ adj 1 following a style that is currently popular 时兴的; 时髦的; 流行的: fashionable clothes, furniture, ideas, ladies 时髦的服装、 家具、 思想、 女士 * It is fashionable to have short hair nowadays. 现在流行短发. 2 used or visited by people following a current fashion 时髦人物使用的或光顾的: a fashionable hotel, resort, etc 时髦人物常去的旅馆、 胜地等.

  fashionably

  / -EblI; -EblI/ adv in a fashionable manner 时髦地; 流行地: fashionably dressed 穿得很时髦.

  fast

  / fB:st; ?@ fAst; fAst/ adj (-er, -est) 1 (a) moving or done quickly; rapid 快的; 迅速的; 敏捷的: a fast car, horse, runner, ie one that can move at high speed 跑得很快的汽车、 马、 人. (b) happening quickly 迅速发生的; 短暂的: a fast journey, trip, etc 匆匆之行、 一趟. 2 (of a surface) producing or allowing quick movement (指物体表面)可供快速运动的: a fast road, pitch 快速车道、 平滑的球场. 3 (of a watch or clock) showing a time later than the true time (指钟表)走得过快的: I'm early my watch must be fast. 我来早了--准是我的表快了. * That clock's ten minutes fast. 那钟快了十分钟. 4 (of photographic film) very sensitive to light, allowing a short exposure (指胶卷)感光快的, 曝光时间短的. 5 (dated 旧) (of a person) spending too much time and energy on pleasure and excitement; reckless (指人)耽於享乐的, 放荡的: lead a fast life 过放荡的生活.6 (idm 习语) fast and `furious (of games, parties, shows, etc) lively and energetic (指游戏、 聚会、 表演等)生动活泼的. pull a fast one => pull2.

  fast

  adv 1 quickly 快地; 迅速地: Can't you run any faster than that? 你不能跑得再快点吗? * Night was fast approaching. 黑夜转瞬而至. 2 (idm 习语) run, etc as fast as one's legs can carry one as fast as one is able 尽快地(跑等).

  fast food

  food such as hamburgers, chips, etc that can be cooked easily, and is sold by restaurants to be eaten quickly or taken away 快餐食品: [attrib 作定语] a ,fast food `counter, `restaurant 快餐柜台、 快餐店.

  fast time

  (US infml 口) = summer time (summer).

  fast

  / fB:st; ?@ fAst; fAst/ adj 1 (a) [pred 作表语] firmly fixed or attached; secure 牢固; 坚固; 稳固的: The post is fast in the ground. 那柱子牢牢地埋在地里. * make a boat fast, ie moor it securely 把船系牢. (b) [attrib 作定语] (dated 旧) loyal; close 忠实的; 亲密的: a fast friend/friendship 忠实的朋友[牢不可破的友谊]. 2 (of colours) not likely to fade or run (指颜色)不褪色的. 3 (idm 习语) hard and fast => hard1.

  fast

  adv 1 firmly; securely; tightly 牢固地; 稳固地; 紧紧地: be fast asleep, ie sleeping deeply 酣睡 * The boat was stuck fast in the mud. 那船深深地陷在泥里. 2 (idm 习语) hold fast to sth continue to believe in (an idea, a principle, etc) resolutely or stubbornly 坚持(某种思想、 原则等). play fast and `loose (with sb/sth) change one's attitude towards sb/sth repeatedly in an irresponsible way; trifle with sb/sth 对某人[某事物]反覆无常; 玩弄: Stop playing fast and loose with that girl's feelings can't you see you're upsetting her? 别玩弄那姑娘的感情--难道没看到你已经把她弄得心烦意乱了吗? stand `fast/`firm not retreat, change one's views, etc 不後退; 不让步; 坚定不移. thick and fast => thick.

  fast

  / fB:st; ?@ fAst; fAst/ v [I] go without (certain kinds of) food, esp for religious reasons 禁食(某种食物); (尤指)斋戒: Muslims fast during Ramadan. 穆斯林在赖买丹月斋戒.

  fast

  n (period of) going without food 禁食(期); 斋戒(期): a fast of three days 禁食三日 * break one's fast 开斋 * [attrib 作定语] fast days 禁食的日子.

  fasten

  / 5fB:sn; ?@ 5fAsn; `fAsn/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.p] (a) ~ sth (down) secure or fix sth firmly 使某物牢固; 固定某物: fasten (down) the lid of a box 盖紧箱盖 * Please fasten your seat-belts. 请系好安全带. * Have you fastened all the doors and windows? 你把所有的门窗都关严了吗? (b) ~ sth (up) close or join sth 系住某物; 使某物联结在一起: Fasten (up) your coat. 把你的大衣系好. * The tent flaps should be tightly fastened. 帐篷的帘布应紧紧系住. (c) [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] ~ sth (on/to sth); ~ A and B (together) firmly attach sth to sth or two things together 将某物固定在另一物上; 将两物牢牢联结在一起: fasten a lock on/to the door 把门用锁锁好 * fasten a brooch on a blouse 把饰针别在衬衫上 * fasten two sheets of paper (together) with a pin 用大头针把两张纸别在一起 * (fig 比喻) He fastened his eyes on me. 他紧盯著我. * They're trying to fasten the blame on others. 他们想嫁祸於人. 2 [I, Ip] become closed or attached 关住; 闩住; 系牢; 扎牢: The door fastens with a latch. 这门是用撞锁锁住的. * This dress fastens (up) (ie has buttons, a zip, etc) at the back. 这件连衣裙是在背後系扣的. 3 (phr v) fasten on sb/sth take and use sb/sth for a particular purpose; seize on sb/sth 为某目的抓住并利用某人[某事物]; 抓牢某人[某事物]: fasten on an idea 坚持某种想法 * He was looking for someone to blame and fastened on me. 他正在找人派不是, 於是便推到我的身上.

  fastener

  / 5fB:snE(r); ?@ 5fs-; `fAsEnL/, fastening / 5fB:snIN; US 5fs-; `fAsEnIN/ ns device that fastens sth 将某物固著的装置: a zip fastener 拉链.

  fastidious

  / fE5stIdIEs, fA-; fAs`tIdIEs/ adj 1 selecting carefully; choosing only what is good 仔细挑选的; 只选好的. 2 (sometimes derog 有时作贬义) hard to please; easily disgusted 难以取悦的; 爱挑剔的; 吹毛求疵的: She is so fastidious about her food that I never invite her for dinner. 她对食物过於挑剔, 因此我从不请她吃饭.

  fastidiously

  adv.

  fastidiousness

  n [U].

  fastness

  / 5fB:stnIs; ?@ 5fAs-; `fAstnIs/ n [U] quality of being fast2(2) 不褪色: We guarantee the fastness of these dyes. 我们担保这些染料不褪色.

  fastness

  / 5fB:stnIs; ?@ 5fAs-; `fAstnIs/ n fortified place that is easily defended; stronghold 堡垒; 要塞: a mountain fastness 山寨.

  fat

  / fAt; fAt/ adj (-tter, -ttest) 1 covered with or having a lot of fat 肥的: fat meat 肥肉. 2 (of the body) large in size; containing too much fat (指身体)肥胖的: If you eat too much chocolate you'll get fat. 吃巧克力太多会发胖. =>Usage 见所附用法. Cf 参看 thin 2. 3 large; round 大的; 圆的: a big fat apple 又大又圆的苹果. 4 thick; well filled 厚的; 装满的: a fat wallet, ie one stuffed with banknotes 装满钞票的钱包. 5 rich; fertile 富饶的; 肥沃的: fat lands 肥沃的土地. 6 (infml 口) large in quantity 大量的: a fat price, sum, profit, income, etc 高价、 巨额、 暴利、 优厚的收入 * He gave me a nice fat cheque, ie one for a lot of money. 他给了我一张数额很大的支票. 7 (idm 习语) a fat lot (of good, etc) (infml ironic 口, 反语) very little 很少: A fat lot you care, ie You don't care at all. 你根本就不在乎. * A fat lot of good that did me, ie It didn't help me at all. 对我一点帮助也没有.

  fatness

  n [U].

  fatted

  / 5fAtId; `fAtId/ adj (idm 习语) kill the fatted calf => kill.

  fattish

  adj rather fat 稍肥的; 略胖的.

  fat cat

  (infml 口 esp US) person who is rich and powerful 有财有势的人; 大亨.

  fat-head

  n (infml 口) stupid person 笨蛋; 傻瓜.

  fatstock

  n [U] animals that are reared and fattened to be killed for food 肉畜(用作肉食的牲畜).

  fat

  NOTE ON USAGE 用法: Fat is the most usual and direct adjective to describe people with excess flesh, but it is not polite *fat是用以指人肥胖的最常用、 最直接的形容词, 但含贬义: That suit's too tight -- it makes you look really fat. 那套衣服太瘦--显得你很胖. More insulting are flabby, which suggests loose flesh, and podgy, used especially of fingers and hands. 贬义更强的词是flabby(指肌肉松弛)和podgy(尤指手指和手). To be polite we can use plump, suggesting slight or attractive fatness, or stout, indicating overall heaviness of the body. 较礼貌些可用plump(指稍胖或丰满)或stout(指身体胖得匀称). Tubby is often used in a friendly way of people who are also short, and chubby indicates pleasant roundness in babies and cheeks. *tubby常用以指矮胖的人, 含亲切感, 而chubby则用於婴儿和脸颊, 意为圆胖而可爱. The most neutral term is overweight, while doctors use obese to describe people who are so overweight that they are unhealthy. 最无褒贬含义的词是overweight, 医生则用obese指胖得呈病态的人.

  fat

  / fAt; fAt/ n 1 [U] (a) white or yellow greasy substance found in animal bodies under the skin 脂肪; 肥肉: This ham has too much fat on it. 这火腿肥肉太多. (b) oily substance found in certain seeds 某些种子的油. 2 [C, U] fat from animals, plants or seeds, purified and used for cooking (食用的)动植物的油: Vegetable fats are healthier than animal fats. 植物油比动物油更有益於健康. * Fried potatoes are cooked in deep fat. 炸的马铃薯是用很多油炸的. 3 (idm 习语) chew the fat/rag => chew. the fat is in the `fire (infml 口) there will be a lot of trouble now 现在要出麻烦了. live off/on the fat of the land => live2. run to `fat (of persons) tend to gain weight; become fat (指人)发胖, 变胖.

  fatal

  / 5feItl; `fetl/ adj ~ (to sb/sth) 1 causing or ending in death 致命的: a fatal accident 致命的事故 * fatal injuries 致命伤. 2 causing disaster 灾难性的: His illness was fatal to our plans, ie caused them to fail. 他生病後我们的计画就落空了. * a fatal mistake 造成严重後果的错误. 3 (fml 文) fateful; decisive 命中注定的; 决定性的: the fatal day/hour 决定性的一日[时刻].

  fatally

  adv in a fatal manner 致命地; 灾难性地; 注定地: Many people were fatally wounded during the bomb attacks. 在轰炸期间许多人受了重伤.

  femme fatale

  / 9fm fE5tB:l; 9fAm fE`tBl/ (pl femmes fatales / 9fm fE5tB:l; 9fAm fE`tBl/) (French 法) woman to whom a man feels irresistibly attracted, with dangerous or unhappy results 妖媚迷人的女子(为男子的祸患): She was his femme fatale. 她是他的红颜祸水.

  fatalism

  / 5feItElIzEm; `fetl9IzEm/ n [U] belief that events are decided by fate(1); acceptance of all that happens as inevitable 宿命论; 听天由命.

  fatalist

  / 5feItElIst; `fetlIst/ n person who believes in fate(1) or accepts everything as inevitable 宿命论者; 听天由命者.

  fatalistic

  / 9feItE5lIstIk; 9fetl`IstIk/ adj showing a belief in fate 宿命论的; 听天由命的: a fatalistic person, attitude, outlook 听天由命的人、 态度、 观点.

  fatality

  / fE5tAlEtI; fe`tAlEtI/ n 1 [C] death caused by accident or in war, etc (事故或战争等造成的)死亡: There have been ten swimming fatalities (ie Ten people have lost their lives while swimming) this summer. 今年夏季已有十人游泳遇溺. 2 [U] sense of being controlled by fate(1) 天数; 命中注定: There was a strange fatality about their both losing their jobs on the same day. 他们两人同一天失去工作, 真是天意叵测. 3 [U] fatal influence; deadliness 致死的作用; 致命性: the fatality of certain diseases 某些疾病之致命性.

  fate

  / feIt; fet/ n 1 [U] power believed to control all events in a way that cannot be resisted; destiny 命运; 天数; 定数: I wanted to go to India in June, but fate decided otherwise. 我本想六月去印度, 但天意难遂我愿. 2 [C] (a) person's destiny or future (人的)命运或未来: The court met to decide our fate(s). 法院开庭以决定我们的命运. * I am resigned to my fate. 我听天由命. (b) death or destruction 死亡; 毁灭: He met his fate (ie died) bravely. 他死得很英勇. 3 (idm 习语) a ,fate worse than `death (joc 谑) very unpleasant experience 极不愉快的经历; 活受罪: Having to watch their home movies all evening was a fate worse than death! 整个晚上无可奈何地看他们的家庭电影真受罪! tempt fate/providence => tempt.

  fate

  v [only passive 只用於被动语态: Tf, Cn.t] destine 命中注定; 命该: It was fated (ie Fate decided) that we would fail. 我们注定要失败. * He was fated to die in poverty. 他注定在贫困中死去.

  fateful

  / 5feItfl; `fetfEl/ adj [usu attrib 通常作定语] 1 important and decisive 重要的; 决定性的: fateful events, moments 决定性的事件、 时刻 * a fateful decision 重大的决定. 2 causing or leading to great and usu unpleasant events 造成或导致重大的(通常指坏的)事情的: His heart sank as he listened to the judge uttering the fateful words. 他听到法官字字千钧的话, 顿时垂头丧气.

  fatefully

  / -fElI; -fElI/ adv.

  father

  / 5fB:TE(r); `fBTL/ n 1 male parent 父亲; 爸爸: That baby looks just like her father! 那婴儿真像她父亲. * You've been (like) a father to me. 您对我一直像父亲一样. =>App 8 见附录8. 2 (usu pl 通常作复数) ancestor 祖先: the land of our fathers 我们祖先的土地. 3 founder or first leader 创始人; 先驱; 鼻祖: city fathers 城市中德高望重的元老 * the Pilgrim Fathers, ie English Puritans among the first European settlers in the USA 美国的开国先驱(最早自欧洲移居美洲的英国清教徒) * the Father of English poetry, ie Chaucer 英国诗歌之父(乔叟). 4 Father God 上帝; 圣父: Our (Heavenly) Father 我们的天父 * God the Father 上帝. 5 title of certain priests, esp those belonging to religious orders 神父. 6 (idm 习语) be gathered to one's fathers => gather. the child is father of the man => child. from ,father to `son from one generation of a family to the next 家族中从一代人至另一代人: The farm has been handed down from father to son since 1800. 该农场自1800年起一直代代相传. like ,father, like `son (saying 谚) a son's character, actions, etc resemble, or can be expected to resemble, his father's 有其父必有其子. old enough to be sb's mother/father => old. the wish is father to the thought => wish n.

  fatherhood

  n [U] state of being a father 作为父亲的身分: The responsibilites of fatherhood are many. 身为人父责任很重.

  fatherly

  adj like or typical of a father 父亲般的; 似父亲的: fatherly advice 慈父般的忠告.

  Father Christmas

  old man with a red robe and a long white beard who symbolizes Christmas festivities 圣诞老人.

  father-figure

  n older man who is respected because he guides and protects others (因指导、 保护他人)受尊敬的男性长者.

  father-in-law

  n / 5fB:TEr In lR:; `fBTErIn9lR/ (pl fathers-in-law) father of one's husband or wife 岳父; 公公. =>App 8 见附录8.

  fatherland

  n / -lnd; -9lAnd/ country where one was born (used esp of Germany) 祖国(尤用以指德国).

  Father Time

  old man, carrying a scythe and an hourglass, who symbolizes time 时间老人(手持大镰刀和沙漏象徵时间的老人).

  father

  / 5fB:TE(r); `fBTL/ v [Tn] 1 be the male parent of (sb); beget 做(某人的)父亲; (作为父亲)生育(子女): father a child (作为父亲)生个孩子. 2 (fig 比喻) create (sth); originate 发明(某物); 创始: father a plan, an idea, a project, etc 最先提出一项计画、 一种思想、 一项设计等. 3 (phr v) father sb/sth on sb say that sb is the father or originator of sb/sth 将某人说成是某人之父或某事物之创始人: It's not my scheme; try fathering it on somebody else. 这不是我的计策, 你去问问别人看是谁出的主意吧.

  fathom

  / 5fATEm; `fATEm/ n measure (6 feet or 1.8 metres) of the depth of water 英寻(水深量度单位, 合6英尺或1.8米): The harbour is four fathoms deep. 港深四英寻. * The ship sank in twenty fathoms. 该船下沉二十英寻. =>App 5 见附录5.

  fathom

  v [Tn] 1 measure the depth of (water) 测量(水的)深度. 2 understand or comprehend (sb/sth) fully 充分理解(某人[某事物]); 领悟: I cannot fathom his remarks. 我不能完全理解他的话. 3 (phr v) fathom sth out find a reason or explanation for sth 找出某事物的原因或理由: Can you fathom it out? 你能想出是怎麽回事吗?

  fathomless

  adj (rhet 修辞) too deep to measure 深不可测的: the fathomless ocean 深不可测的海洋.

  fatigue

  / fE5ti:g; fE`ti^/ n 1 [U] great tiredness, usu resulting from hard work or exercise 疲乏; 疲劳; 疲倦: We were all suffering from fatigue at the end of our journey. 我们到旅程终点时全都累垮了. 2 [U] weakness in metals, etc caused by repeated stress (金属材料的)疲劳: The aeroplane wing showed signs of metal fatigue. 机翼显出有金属疲劳的现象. 3 [C] non-military duty of soldiers, such as cooking, cleaning, etc 士兵所承担的非军事性工作(如烹饪、 清扫等): Instead of training the men were put on fatigues/fatigue duty. 那些士兵没有接受训练, 而是派去做杂务. 4 fatigues [pl] (US) uniform worn for fatigue duty or when in battle (做杂务或打仗时穿的)制服.

  fatigue

  v [Tn] make (sb) very tired 使(某人)非常疲劳: feeling fatigued 感到疲劳 * fatiguing work 累人的工作.

  fatted

  => fat1.

  fatten

  / 5fAtn; `fAtn/ v (a) [Tn, Tn.p] ~ sb/sth (up) make sb/sth fat or fatter 使某人[某物]变胖或变肥: fatten cattle for (the) market 把牛养肥供应市场. (b) [I, Ip] ~ (up) become fat or fatter 变得肥胖: They're fattening up nicely. 这些动物长膘情况良好.

  fatty

  / 5fAtI; `fAtI/ adj (-ier, -iest) (a) like fat 似脂肪般的. (b) containing a lot of fat 含脂肪多的; 肥的; 胖的: fatty bacon 很肥的腌猪肉.

  fatty

  / 5fAtI; `fAtI/ n (infml derog 口, 贬) fat person 胖子.

  fatuous

  / 5fAtFUEs; `fAtFJEs/ adj stupid and silly; foolish 蠢的; 傻的; 笨的: a fatuous person, smile, remark 笨人、 傻笑、 蠢话.

  fatuity

  / fE5tju:EtI; ?@ -5tu:EtI; fE`tuEtI/ n 1 [U] state of being fatuous 愚昧. 2 [C] fatuous remark, act, etc 愚昧的言语、 行动等.

  fatuously

  adv.

  fatuousness

  n [U].

  faucet

  / 5fR:sIt; `fRsIt/ n 1 tap for a barrel, etc (大桶等上的)龙头, 旋塞. 2 (esp US) any kind of tap (任何)龙头, 旋塞.

  fault

  / fR:lt; fRlt/ n 1 [C] imperfection or flaw 缺点; 缺陷; 毛病; 瑕疵; 故障: I like him despite his faults. 虽然他有种种缺点, 但我仍然喜欢他. * There is a fault in the electrical system. 电路系统出了故障. =>Usage at mistake1 用法见mistake1. 2 [U] (responsibility for a) mistake or offence 过错; 过失: `Whose fault is this?' `Mine, I'm afraid.' `这是谁的过错?'`很抱歉, 是我的错.' 3 [C] incorrect serve in tennis, etc (网球等)发球失误. 4 [C] (place where there is a) break in the continuity of layers of rock, caused by movement of the earth's crust (地壳运动造成的)断层(处). 5 (idm 习语) at fault responsible for a mistake; in the wrong 有责任; 有错: My memory was at fault. 我记错了. find fault => find1. to a `fault excessively 过分地; 过度地: She is generous to a fault. 她过分慷慨.

  fault

  v [Tn] discover a fault in (sb/sth) 发现(某人[某事物])有错、 有缺陷等: No one could fault his performance. 他的演出无懈可击.

  faultless

  adj.

  faultlessly

  adv.

  faulty

  adj (-ier, -iest) having a fault or faults; imperfect 有缺点的; 有过失的; 不完善的: a faulty switch 有毛病的开关 * a faulty argument 有错误的论据.

  faultily

  adv in a faulty manner 有缺点地; 有过失地; 有错误地.

  faultfinding

  n [U] (usu derog 通常作贬义) looking for faults in other people's work or behaviour 吹毛求疵; 挑剔.

  faun

  / fR:n; fRn/ n (in Roman myths) god of the fields and woods, with goat's horns and legs but a human torso (罗马神话的)农牧神(躯干呈人形, 角、 腿呈山羊形).

  fauna

  / 5fR:nE; `fRnE/ n [U, C] (pl ~s) all the animals of an area or a period of time (某地区或某时期的)所有动物: the fauna of East Africa 东非的动物. Cf 参看 flora.

  faux pas

  / 9fEU 5pB:; `fo`pB/ (pl faux pas / 9fEUpB:z;`fo `pBz/) (French 法) embarrassing mistake; indiscreet remark, etc 失态; 失言; 失礼.

  favour (US favor)

  / 5feIvE(r); `fevL/ n 1 [U] liking; goodwill; approval (used esp with the vs shown) 喜爱; 宠爱; 好感; 欢心; 赞同(尤与下列动词连用): win sb's favour 获得某人的好感 * look on a plan with favour, ie approve of it 赞成一项计画. 2 [U] treating one person or group more generously or leniently than others; partiality 偏爱; 偏袒: He obtained his position more by favour than by merit or ability. 他因得宠而获此地位, 并非有何特长或本事. 3 [C] act of kindness beyond what is due or usual (used esp with the vs shown) 善行, 恩惠(尤与下列动词连用): May I ask a favour of you (ie ask you to do sth for me)? 请您帮个忙行吗? * Do me a favour and turn the radio down while I'm on the phone, will you? 劳驾, 我在打电话, 把收音机的声音调小点好吗? 4 [C] small token or badge worn to show that one supports sb/sth (供佩带的)标志或徽章(以示支持某人[某事物]): Everyone at the rally wore red ribbons as favours. 参加集会的人都系著红丝带作为支持大会的标记. 5 favours [pl] (used of a woman offering herself freely to a man 用以指女子将自己献给某男子) pleasure through sexual intercourse 性交的快感: bestow one's favours on sb (指女子)使某人有性交的欢愉 * be (too) free with one's favours (指女子)(过分)随意性交. 6 (idm 习语) be/stand high in sb's favour => high3. be in/out of `favour (with sb); be in/out of sb's `favour have/not have sb's regard, approval, etc 得到[失去]某人的尊重、 赞同等. curry favour => curry2. find, lose, etc favour with sb/in sb`s eyes win/lose sb's approval 得[失]宠於某人; 获得[失去]某人的好感. in favour of sb/sth (a) in sympathy with sb/sth; in support of sb/sth 赞成某人[某事物]; 支持某人[某事物]: Was he in favour of the death penalty? 他赞成死刑吗? (b) (of cheques) payable to (the account of) sb/sth (指支票)以某人[?i某部门]为受款人: Cheques should be written in favour of Oxfam. 支票上请写明以牛津饥荒救济委员会为受款人. in sb's favour to the advantage of sb 对某人有利: The exchange rate is in our favour today, ie will benefit us when we change money. 今天的兑换率对我们有利. * The court decided in his favour. 法庭的判决对他有利. * The decision went in his favour. 这一判决对他有利. without fear or favour => fear1.

  favour (US favor)

  / 5feIvE(r); `fevL/ v [Tn] 1 support (sb/sth); prefer 支持(某人[某事物]); 喜爱: Of the two possible plans I favour the first. 在这两种可行方案中我赞成前者. 2 show a preference for (sb); treat (sb) with partiality 偏爱; 偏袒: She always favours her youngest child (more than the others). 她总是偏爱她最小的孩子. 3 (of events or circumstances) make (sth) possible or easy (指事情或情况)便於(某事物), 使(某事物)顺利: The wind favoured their sailing at dawn. 这风便於他们在黎明时航行. 4 (dated 旧) look like (sb); resemble (sb) in features 长得像(某人); 容貌像(某人): You can see that she favours her father. 她长得像她父亲. 5 (phr v) favour sb with sth (dated or fml 旧或文) do sth for sb; oblige(2) sb with sth 为某人做某事; 应某人要求做某事: I should be grateful if you would favour me with an early reply. 若蒙早日赐覆则不胜感谢.

  favourable (US favorable)

  / 5feIvErEbl; `fevErEbl/ adj 1 (a) giving or showing approval 赞成的; 同意的; 嘉许的: It's encouraging to receive a favourable report on one's work. 工作得到好评是令人鼓舞的. (b) ~ (to/toward sb/sth) tending to support sb/sth 倾向於支持某人[某事物]的: Is he favourable to the proposal? 他支持这项建议吗? (c) pleasing; positive 令人高兴的; 肯定的: You made a favourable impression on the examiners. 你给主考留下了很好的印象. * We formed a very favourable impression of her. 我们对她印象极好. 2 ~ (for sth) helpful; suitable 有帮助的; 合适的: favourable winds 顺风 * conditions favourable for skiing 适合滑雪的条件.

  favourably (US favorably)

  / -EblI; -EblI/ adv in a favourable manner 赞成地; 同意地; 嘉许地: speak favourably of a plan 赞成一项计画 * look favourably on sb 赞许地看著某人.

  favourite (US favorite)

  / 5feIvErIt; `fevErIt/ n ~ (of sb) 1 person or thing liked more than others 特别受喜爱的人或物: These books are great favourites of mine. 这些是我最喜爱的书. * He is a favourite with his uncle/a favourite of his uncle's/his uncle's favourite. 他伯伯特别喜爱他. 2 the favourite (in racing) the horse, competitor, etc expected to win (竞赛中)认为会获胜的马、 竞争者等: The favourite came in third. 那个最有希望获胜的却跑了个第三名.

  favourite (US favorite)

  adj [attrib 作定语] bestliked 最喜欢的: my favourite occupation, hobby, restaurant, aunt 我最喜欢的消遣、 嗜好、 餐馆、 姑母 * Who is your favourite writer? 你最喜欢哪位作家?

  favouritism (US favoritism)

  / -IzEm; -9IzEm/ n [U] (derog 贬) practice of giving unfair advantages to the people that one likes best 偏爱; 偏袒; 偏心: Our teacher is guilty of blatant favouritism. 我们老师有明显的偏心错误.

  fawn

  / fR:n; fRn/ n 1 [C] deer less than one year old (未满周岁的)幼鹿. Cf 参看 doe, stag 1. 2 [U] light yellowish brown 浅黄褐色: a raincoat in fawn 浅黄褐色的雨衣.

  fawn

  adj fawn-coloured 浅黄褐色的: a fawn raincoat 浅黄褐色的雨衣.

  fawn

  / fR:n; fRn/ v [I, Ipr] ~ (on sb) 1 (of dogs) show affection by wagging the tail, pawing or licking sb, etc (指狗)(摇尾、 用爪子抓或用舌舔等)表示亲热. 2 (derog 贬) try to win sb's approval by flattery or by obsequious behaviour 献媚; 奉承; 巴结: fawning behaviour, looks 献媚的举动、 表情....

  fax

  /fAks; fAks/v [Tn, Dn.n, Dn.pr] ~ sth (to sb) send the copy of (a document, an illustration, etc) by an electronic system using telephone lines 用传真机(使用电话线路通过电子控制系统)传送(文件、 图表等): Please fax me the layout for the new catalogue. 请用传真机把新目录的版面编排图样传送给我. The plans were faxed to us by our New York office. 这些设计图是我们的纽约办事处用传真机给我们传送来的.

  fax

  n (a) [U] system for sending such a copy 传真系统: sent by fax 由传真系统发送的 [attrib 作定语] a fax machine 传真机. (b) [C] copy sent in this way 传真件.

  faze

  / feIz; fez/ v [Tn] (infml 口 esp US) fluster (sb) 使(某人)紧张或慌张: She's so calm; nothing seems to faze her. 她很镇静, 遇事不慌.

  FBI

  / 9ef bi: 5aI; 9Zf bi `aI/ abbr 缩写 = (US) Federal Bureau of Investigation 联邦调查局: head of the FBI 联邦调查局的负责人 * an FBI agent 联邦调查局的调查员. Cf 参看 CIA.

  FC

  abbr 缩写 = (Brit) Football Club 足球俱乐部: Leeds United FC 利兹联合足球俱乐部.

  FCO

  / 9ef si: 5EU; 9Zf si `o/ abbr 缩写 = (Brit) Foreign and Commonwealth Office (combined in 1968) 外交和联邦事务部(1968年合并): an official from the FCO 外交和联邦事务部的官员. Cf 参看 FO.

  FD

  / 9ef 5di:; 9Zf `di/ (also Fid Def) abbr 缩写 = (on British coins) Defender of the Faith (Latin Fidei Defensor) (英国硬币上的)保教者(源自拉丁文Fidei Defensor).

  fealty

  / 5fi:EltI; `fiEltI/ n [C, U] (arch 古) (oath of) loyalty owed by a feudal tenant, etc to his lord (封建时代臣仆对主人的)效忠(的誓言): take an oath of fealty 宣誓(对封建领主的)效忠.

  fear

  / fIE(r); fIr/ n 1 (a) [U] emotion caused by the nearness or possibility of danger, pain, evil, etc 恐惧; 惧怕: unable to speak from fear 吓得说不出话来 * overcome by fear 被吓坏 * feel, show no fear 毫不畏惧、 毫无惧色. (b) [C] this emotion caused by sth specific (因某事物产生的)畏惧: a fear of heights 对高处的恐惧 * The doctor's report confirmed our worst fears. 医生的报告证实了我们最为担心的事. * overcome/dispel/allay sb's fears 克服[消除/减轻]某人的恐惧心理. 2 (idm 习语) for fear of sth/of doing sth; for fear (that/lest)... in case; to avoid the danger of sth happening 惟恐; 以免(发生危险): We spoke in whispers for fear of waking the baby/for fear (that) we might wake the baby. 我们轻声谈话, 以免吵醒婴儿. hold no fears/terrors for sb not frighten sb 不能使某人感到害怕: Hang-gliding holds no fears for her. 她一点也不害怕悬挂式滑翔. in fear and trembling in a frightened or cowed manner 恐惧地; 胆怯地: They went to the teacher in fear and trembling to tell her that they'd broken a window. 他们战战兢兢地去告诉老师, 他们打破了一扇窗户. in fear of sb/sth in a state of fear about sb/sth 处於害怕某人[某事物]的状态: The thief went in constant fear of discovery. 那贼时刻都在担心被人发现. in ,fear of one's `life anxious for one's own safety 为自己的安全担忧. ,no `fear (infml 口) (used when answering a suggestion) certainly not (用以回应别人的提议)当然不...: `Are you coming climbing?' `No fear!' `你来爬山吗?'`我可不去!' put the fear of God into sb (infml 口) make sb very frightened 使某人非常恐惧. there's not much fear of sth/that... it is unlikely that sth will happen 某事不太可能发生: There's not much fear of an enemy attack (taking place). 敌人不太可能发动攻击. without ,fear or `favour (fml 文) showing impartial justice 公正的; 不偏不倚的.

  fearful

  / -fl; -fEl/ adj 1 ~ (of sth/of doing sth); ~ (that/lest...) nervous and afraid 紧张而担心的: fearful of waking the baby/fearful that we might wake the baby 生怕把婴儿吵醒. 2 terrible; horrifying 可怕的; 可怖的: a fearful railway accident 火车失事惨剧. 3 (infml 口) very great; very bad 极端的: What a fearful mess!简直是一塌糊涂!

  fearfully

  / -fElI; -fElI/ adv.

  fearfulness

  n [U].

  fearless

  adj ~ (of sth) not afraid (of sth) (对某事物)不怕的; 无畏的: a fearless mountaineer 无畏的爬山者 * fearless of the consequences 不计後果的.

  fearlessly

  adv.

  fearlessness

  n [U].

  fearsome

  / 5fIEsEm; `fIrsEm/ adj frightening in appearance 样子可怕的: The battlefield was a fearsome sight. 这战场的情景触目惊心. * (fig 比喻) a fearsome task, ie one that frightens by being difficult 令人望而却步的任务.

  fear

  / fIE(r); fIr/ v 1 (a) [Tn] be afraid of (sb/sth) 害怕(某人[某事物]); 惧怕: fear death, illness 怕死、 怕生病 * The plague was greatly feared in the Middle Ages. 中世纪时这种瘟疫十分可怕. (b) [I, Tt] feel fear (about doing sth) (对做某事)感到害怕, 忧虑: Never fear (ie Don't worry), everything will be all right. 别害怕, 一切都会好的. * She feared to speak in his presence. 她怕在他的面前说话. 2 [Tn, Tf] have an uneasy feeling about or anticipation of (esp sth bad) 担心(尤指怕出事): They feared the worst, ie thought that the worst had happened or would happen. 他们担心的是最坏的情况(已经发生或可能发生). * `Are we going to be late?' `I fear so.' `我们会迟到吗?'`我看要迟到.' * I fear (that) he is going to die. 我担心他快死了. 3 [Tn] (arch or fml 古或文) have respect and awe for 敬畏: fear God 敬畏上帝. 4 (phr v) fear for sb/sth be anxious or concerned about sb/sth 对某人[某事物]担忧或关心...: I fear for her safety in this weather. 在这种天气里我很担心她的安全.

  feasible

  / 5fi:zEbl; `fizEbl/ adj that can be done; practicable; possible 可做的; 可实行的; 可能的: a feasible idea, suggestion, scheme, etc 切实可行的主意、 建议、 计画等 * It's not feasible to follow your proposals. 按照你的建议去做是行不通的.

  feasibility

  / 9fi:zE-5bIlEtI; 9fizE`bIlEtI/ n [U]: [attrib 作定语] We should do a feasibility study before adopting the new proposals. 我们在采用这些新建议之前应进行可行性研究.

  feasibly

  /-EblI; -EblI/ adv.

  feast

  / fi:st; fist/ n 1 (a) unusually large or elaborate meal 盛宴; 宴会. (b) (fig 比喻) thing that pleases the mind or the senses with its richness or variety 赏心悦目的事物: a feast of colours, sounds, etc 赏心悦目的颜色、 悦耳动听的声音. 2 religious festival celebrated with rejoicing 欢乐的宗教节日: the feast of Christmas 圣诞佳节.

  feast

  v 1 (a) [I, Ipr] ~ (on sth) enjoy a feast 宴饮; 参加宴会: They celebrated by feasting all day. 他们整天大吃大喝地庆祝. (b) [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb (with sth) provide sb with a feast 设宴款待(某人); 宴请(某人): They feasted their guests with delicacies. 他们用美味佳肴款待客人. 2 (idm 习语) feast one's eyes (on sb/sth)enjoy the beauty of sb/sth 欣赏某人[某物]之美; 饱眼福: She feasted her eyes on the beauty of the valley. 她饱览那山谷的美景.

  feat

  / fi:t; fit/ n successful completion of sth needing skill, strength or courage 技艺; 武艺; 功绩; 伟业: brilliant feats of engineering 工程上的伟绩 * perform feats of daring 表演惊险的技艺. =>Usage at act1 用法见act1.

  feather

  / 5feTE(r); `fZTL/ n 1 any of the many light fringed structures that grow from a bird's skin and cover its body 羽毛. =>illus 见插图. 2 (idm 习语) birds of a feather => bird. (be) a `feather in one's cap an achievement, etc that one can be proud of 可引以自豪的成就等: Winning the gold medal was yet another feather in her cap. 夺得金牌是她又一值得骄傲的成就. light as air/as a feather => light1. ruffle sb's feathers => ruffle. show the white feather => show2. smooth sb`s ruffled feathers => smooth2. you could have knocked me down with a feather => knock2.

  feathery

  / 5feTErI; `fZTErI/ adj 1 light and soft like feathers 轻而软的; 似羽毛的: feathery snowflakes 羽毛般的雪片. 2 covered or adorned with feathers 长著羽毛的; 饰有羽毛的: a feathery hat 饰有羽毛的帽子.

  feather bed

  mattress stuffed with feathers 羽绒褥垫.

  feather-bed

  v (-dd-) [Tn] make things easy for (sb), esp by helping financially; pamper 使(某人)安逸或予以方便(尤指资助); 娇养: They have been so feather-bedded in the past that they can't cope with hardship now. 他们一直娇生惯养, 所以现在过不了苦日子.

  feather-brained

  adj (derog 贬) foolish; silly 愚蠢的; 没头脑的.

  featherweight

  n 1 boxer weighing between 53.5 and 57 kilograms, next above bantamweight 次轻量级拳击手(体重在53.5至57公斤间, 高於最轻量级). 2 (a) (infml 口) thing or person that is light in weight 重量轻的物或人. (b) (infml derog 口, 贬) thing or person of little merit or importance 微不足道的事物或人.

  feather

  / 5feTE(r); `fZTL/ v 1 [Tn] cover or fit (sth) with feathers 将羽毛覆盖或装在(某物)上: feather an arrow 给箭装上翎. 2 [I, Tn] (in rowing) turn (one's oar) so that it passes flat just above the surface of the water (划船时)将(桨叶)持平(略出水面而与水面平行): The crew feathered (their oars) for the last few yards of the race. 在划船比赛到最後几码时, 全体队员回桨时把桨叶持平. 3 (idm 习语) feather one's (own) `nest (usu derog 通常作贬义) make oneself richer, more comfortable, etc, usu at sb else's expense 使自己更富足、 更舒适等(通常指牺牲他人的利益); 中饱私囊. tar and feather sb => tar1 v.

  feature

  / 5fi:tFE(r); `fitFL/ n 1 (a) [C] one of the named parts of the face (eg nose, mouth, eyes) which together form its appearance 面部的一部分(如鼻、 口、 眼): His eyes are his most striking feature. 他面部最突出的部分是那双眼睛. =>illus at head 见head插图. (b) features [pl] face viewed as a whole 面貌; 容貌: a woman of handsome, striking, delicate, etc features 相貌漂亮、 动人、 秀气等的女子. 2 [C] distinctive characteristic; aspect 特徵; 特色; 特点: an interesting feature of city life 城市生活的一个有趣特点 * memorable features of the Scottish landscape 苏格兰景色中令人难忘的特徵 * Many examples and extra grammatical information are among the special features of this dictionary. 本词典别具特色, 诸如例证多及新增语法要点等. 3 [C] (a) ~ (on sb/sth) (in newspapers, television, etc) special or prominent article or programme (about sb/sth) (报纸、 电视等中)(关於某人[某事物]的)特写或专题节目: This magazine will be running a special feature on education next week. 这一杂志下周要发表一篇关於教育的专题文章. (b) full-length film as part of a cinema programme (电影的)正片, 故事片: the main feature following the cartoon 动画片之後的正片 * [attrib 作定语] a feature film 故事片.

  feature

  1 v [Tn] give a prominent part to (sb/sth) 给(某人[某事物])以显著地位; 由(某人[某物])主演: a film that features a new French actress 由法国新女星主演的电影. 2 [Ipr] ~ in sth have an important or prominent part in sth 在某事物中起重要作用或扮演主要角色: Does a new job feature in your future plans? 新的工作在你的未来计画中十分重要吗?

  featureless

  adj without distinct features (feature 2); uninteresting 无特色的; 无趣味的.

  Feb

  / in informal use 俗读作 feb; fZb/ abbr 缩写 = February: 18 Feb 1934 1934年2月18日.

  febrile

  / 5fi:braIl; `fibraIl/ adj (fml 文) (a) caused by a fever 发烧引起的: a febrile cough 发烧引起的咳嗽. (b) having a fever 发烧的: a febrile patient 发烧的病人.

  February

  / 5febrUErI; ?@ -UerI; `fZbrJ9ZrI/ n [U, C] (abbr 缩写 Feb) the second month of the year, next after January 二月. For the uses of February see the examples at April. 关於February的用法见April词条中的示例.

  feces

  (US) = faeces.

  fecal

  (US) = faecal (faeces).

  feckless

  / 5feklIs; `fZklIs/ adj (derog 贬) inefficient; irresponsible 效率低的; 不负责任的.

  fecklessly

  adv.

  fecklessness

  n [U].

  fecund

  / 5fi:kEnd, 5fekEnd; `fikEnd, `fZkEnd/ adj (fml 文) fertile; productive 肥沃的; 多产的; 丰饶的: (fig 比喻) a fecund imagination 丰富的想像力.

  fecundity

  / fI5kQndEtI; fI`kQndEtI/ n [U].

  Fed

  / fed; fZd/ n (US infml 口) member of the Federal Bureau of Investigation 联邦调查局成员.

  fed

  pt, pp of feed1.

  fed up

  / 9fed 5Qp; 9fZd `Qp/ adj [pred 作表语] ~ (about/with sb/sth) (infml 口) tired or bored; unhappy or depressed 厌倦; 厌烦; 不愉快; 沮丧: What's the matter? You look pretty fed up. 怎麽啦? 你显得那麽不高兴. * I'm fed up with waiting for her to telephone. 我等她的电话都等得不耐烦了.

  federate

  / 5fedEreIt; `fZdE9ret/ v [I] (of states, organizations, etc) unite into a federation (指州、 团体等)组成联邦, 结成同盟.

  federation

  / 9fedE5reIFn; 9fZdE`reFEn/ n 1 [C] union of states in which individual states retain control of many internal matters but in which foreign affairs, defence, etc are the responsibility of the central (federal) government 联邦. 2 [C] similarly organized union of societies, trade unions, etc (社团、 工会等的)联合会. 3 [U] action of forming a federation 结成联邦政府; 联盟.

  fee

  / fi:; fi/ n 1 [C] (a) (usu pl 通常作复数) amount paid for professional advice or service, eg to private teachers, doctors, etc 服务费, 酬金(如付予私人教师、 医生等的): pay the lawyer's fees 付律师费 * a bill for school fees 学费帐单. =>Usage at income 用法见income. (b) amount paid to sit an examination, join a club, etc (考试的)报名费、 (加入俱乐部的)会费等: If you want to join, there's an entrance fee of 20 and an annual membership fee of 10. 入会须缴入会费20英镑, 年费10英镑. 2 [U] (law 律) (a) rights (esp the right to bequeath) in property that one has inherited 不动产继承权(尤指遗赠权). (b) such property 继承的不动产.

  feeble

  / 5fi:bl; `fibl/ adj (-r, -st) (a) weak; faint 衰弱的; 虚弱的; 微弱的: a feeble old man 衰弱的老人 * a feeble cry 微弱的喊声. (b) (derog 贬) lacking force 无力的: a feeble argument, attempt, gesture, excuse 无力的论据、 尝试、 手势、 辩解.

  feebleness

  n [U].

  feebly

  / 5fi:blI;`fiblI/ adv.

  feeble-minded

  adj having less than usual intelligence; mentally subnormal 弱智的; 低能的.

  feed

  / fi:d; fid/ v (pt, pp fed/ fed; fZd/) 1 (a) [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb/sth (on sth) give food to (a person or an animal) 给(人或动物)食物; 喂; 喂养; 饲养: She has a large family to feed. 她要养活一大家人. * Have the pigs been fed yet? 猪已喂过了吗? * Have you fed the chickens? 你喂过鸡没有? * The baby needs feeding. 这婴儿需要喂了. * The baby can't feed itself yet, ie can't put food into its own mouth. 这婴儿还不会自己吃东西. * What do you feed your dog on? 你用什麽喂狗? (b) [Dn.n, Dn.pr] ~ sth to sb/sth give (a person or an animal) sth as food 给(人或动物)某物作为食物: feed the baby some more stewed apple 给婴儿多喂些炖苹果 * feed oats to horses 用燕麦喂马. 2 (a) [I, Ipr] ~ (on sth) (of animals, or jokingly of humans) eat (指动物; 但若指人时为戏谑语)吃: Have you fed yet? 你吃过饭没有? * The cows were feeding on hay in the barn. 母牛正在牲口棚里吃乾草呢. (b) [Tn] serve as food for (a person or an animal) 供(人或动物)作为食物: There's enough here to feed us all. 这里有足够的食物够我们大家吃的. 3 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ A (with B)/~ B into A supply (sth) with material; supply (material) to sth 给(某物)提供原料; 将(原料)提供给(某物): The lake is fed by several small streams. 这湖是由几条小溪的水汇聚而成的. * feed the fire (with wood) 往火里添柴 * The moving belt feeds the machine with raw material/feeds raw material into the machine. 传送带向机器输送原料[把原料输入机器中]. 4 [Tn] (in football, etc) send passes to (a player) (足球赛等)传球给(队友). 5 (idm 习语) bite the hand that feeds one => bite1. 6 (phr v) feed on sth be nourished or strengthened by sth 受到某事物的滋养; 因某事物而助长: Hatred feeds on envy. 因妒生恨. feed sb up give extra food to sb to make him more healthy 给(某人)额外食物使其更健康: You look very pale; I think you need feeding up a bit. 你面色不好, 得多吃些东西保养一下.

  feeding-bottle

  n bottle with a rubber teat for feeding liquid foods to young babies or animals 奶瓶.

  feed

  / fi:d; fid/ n 1 [C] meal, usu for animals or babies 一顿, 一餐(通常指给动物或婴儿的): When is the baby's next feed? 这孩子下顿什麽时候喂? 2 [U] (a) food for animals 饲料: There isn't enough feed left for the hens. 母鸡的饲料不够了. (b) material supplied to a machine 供给机器的原料; 进料. 3 [C] pipe, channel, etc along which material is carried to a machine 输送原料至机器的管道、 沟槽等; 进料管; 进料槽: The petrol feed is blocked. 汽油管堵了.

  feedbag

  n (US) = nosebag (nose1).

  feedback

  / 5fi:dbAk; `fid9bAk/ n [U] 1 information about a product, etc that a user gives back to its supplier, maker, etc 反馈信息: We need more feedback from the consumer in order to improve our goods. 我们需要从消费者那里多得到些反馈信息以提高产品质量. 2 return of part of the output of a system to its source, esp so as to modify the output 反馈: The feedback from the computer enables us to update the program. 计算机的反馈能使我们更新程序.

  feeder

  / 5fi:dE(r); `fidL/ n 1 (preceded by an adj 用於形容词之後) thing, esp an animal or a plant, that feeds in a specified way (以某种方式)进食或吸收养料者(尤指动植物): a gross, dainty, greedy, etc feeder 吃粗劣食物的、 挑剔的、 贪吃的...进食者. 2 (Brit) baby's bib or feeding-bottle 围嘴; 奶瓶. 3 subsidiary route or means of transport that links outside areas with the main route, service, etc 支路; 支线: [attrib 作定语] a new feeder road for the motorway 连接高速公路的新支线. 4 feeding apparatus in a machine 机器的进料装置; 进料器.

  feel

  / fi:l; fil/ v (pt, pp felt / felt; fZlt/) 1 [Tn, Tw] explore or perceive (sth) by touching or by holding in the hands 摸, 触, 触摸(某物): feel a rock, a piece of cloth, etc 摸摸石头、 布等 * Can you feel the bump on my head? 你能摸到我头上的肿块吗? * Can you tell what this is by feeling it? 你能摸出这是什麽吗? * Feel how rough this is. 摸摸看这东西多粗糙. 2 [Tn, Tng, Tni] (not usu in the continuous tenses 通常不用於进行时态) be aware of or experience (sth physical or emotional); have the sensation of; sense 感觉到, 感受到, 体会到, 体验到(身体上或情绪上的情况); 有知觉; 觉得: We all felt the earthquake tremors. 我们都感觉到地震时的颤动. * Can you feel the tension in this room? 你能觉察出这房间里的紧张气氛吗? * After the accident, she couldn't feel anything in her left leg, ie it was numb. 出事以後, 她的左腿失去了知觉. * I can feel a nail sticking into my shoe. 我觉得有钉子扎进鞋里. * I felt something crawl(ing) up my arm. 我觉得有东西顺著我的胳膊向上爬. 3 [La] be in the specified physical, emotional or moral state 身体上、 情绪上或精神上处於某种状态: feel cold, hungry, comfortable, sad, happy, etc 感到冷、 饿、 舒服、 悲哀、 快乐等 * How are you feeling today? 你今天身体好吗? * You'll feel better after a good night's sleep. 你好好睡上一觉就会好些. * She felt betrayed. 她觉得被人出卖了. * I feel rotten about not taking the children out. 我没带孩子出去觉得很不痛快. 4 [Ipr] ~ (to sb) (like sth/sb) (not in the continuous tenses 不用於进行时态) give a sensation or an impression of sth or of being sth/sb 给人以某种感觉或印象: The water feels warm. 觉得出这水是温的. * How does it feel to be alone all day? 整日独自一人感觉如何? * Nothing feels right in our new house. 我们新房子里, 样样都觉得不对劲. * This wallet feels to me like leather. 我觉得这钱包像是皮的. * It feels like rain, ie seems likely to rain. 好像要下雨. =>Usage 见所附用法. 5 ~ as if .../as though ... (not in the continuous tenses 不用於进行时态) have or give the impression that ... 彷佛觉得...: I feel as if I'm going to be sick. 我觉得我好像要生病了. * My cold feels as though it's getting better. 我的感冒好像好多了. * It felt as though a great weight had been lifted from us. 我们如释重负. 6 [Tn] be particularly conscious of (sth); be affected by 对(某事)特别敏感; 受...的影响: He feels the cold a lot. 他很怕冷. * Of all the children, she felt her mother's death the most. 在所有的子女中, 数她对母亲的去世感到最难过. * We all felt the force of her arguments. 我们都觉得她的论据很有力. * Don't you feel the beauty of the countryside? 你是不是觉得郊外的景色很美呀? 7 [I] be capable of sensation 能感觉; 有知觉: The dead cannot feel. 死人没有知觉. 8 [Tf, Cn.a, Cn.t] have as an opinion; consider; think; believe 认为; 以为; 想; 相信: We all felt (that) our luck was about to turn. 我们都认为快要转运了. * She felt in her bones that she would succeed. 她坚信自己能成功. * I felt it advisable to do nothing. 我认为最好什麽也别做. * He felt the plan to be unwise/felt that the plan was unwise. 他认为这计画不当. 9 [I, Ipr, Ip] ~ (about) (for sb/sth) search with the hands, the feet, a stick, etc (用手、 足、 杖等)寻找, 摸索, 探索: He felt in his pocket for some money. 他在口袋里摸著, 想找些钱. * I had to feel about in the dark for the light switch. 我得在黑暗中摸索著找电灯开关. * She felt along the wall for the door. 她沿著墙摸索著找门. 10 (idm 习语) be/feel called to sth => call2. ,feel `free (infml 口) (said when giving permission 用以表示准许): `May I use your phone?' `Feel free.' `我借用一下你的电话, 行吗?'`随便用吧.' ,feel one's `age realize that one is growing old, as one becomes less strong or one's ideas are thought to be old-fashioned (因体力渐弱或思想守旧)意识到自己老了: My children's skill with computers really makes me feel my age! 我的孩子使用电脑得心应手确使我觉得自己老了. feel one's `ears burning think or imagine that others are talking about one 觉得耳朵在发烧(认为或猜想有人在谈论自己). feel `good feel happy, confident, etc 感到愉快、 有信心等: It makes me feel good to know you like me. 我知道你喜欢我, 感到很高兴. feel (it) in one's `bones (that...) know or sense (sth) intuitively 凭直觉懂得或感到(某事物): I know I'm going to fail this exam I can feel it in my bones. 我知道这次考试要不及格--我有这种直觉. feel like sth/doing sth think that one would like (to do/have) sth; want (to do) sth 想要(做)某事物: I feel like (having) a drink. 我想喝点酒. * We'll go for a walk if you feel like it. 你愿意的话, 咱们就去散散步. feel one's oats (infml 口) be in an energetic and lively mood and act accordingly 感到精神饱满. feel one`self feel fit and healthy 感到有精神: I don't quite feel my`self today. 我今天有些不舒服. feel the `pinch (infml 口) (begin to) suffer from a lack of (esp) money (开始)感到缺乏(尤指钱): The high rate of unemployment is making many families feel the pinch. 失业率很高, 许多家庭感到日子不好过了. feel/take sb's pulse => pulse1. feel one's `way (a) move along carefully, eg in darkness, by touching walls, objects, etc (沿墙壁、 物体等)摸索著走(如在黑暗中). (b) (fig 比喻) proceed cautiously 谨慎行事: At this early stage of the negotiations both sides were still feeling their way. 在这谈判的初始阶段, 双方尚十分谨慎. look/feel small => small. make one's presence felt => presence. 11 (phr v) feel for sb have sympathy for sb 同情, 怜悯(某人): I really felt for her when her husband died. 她丈夫死了, 我十分同情她. feel up to (doing) sth consider oneself capable of (doing) sth 认为自己有能力做某事: If you feel up to it, we could walk into town after lunch. 你要是走得动, 咱们午饭後可以走到城里.

  feel

  NOTE ON USAGE 用法: There are several verbs relating to the five senses of sight, smell, hearing, taste and touch. 有几个动词与视觉、 嗅觉、 听觉、 味觉、 触觉这五种感官有关. They are often used with the verb can. 这些动词常与can连用. Normally, only the simple tenses are used. 通常只用於简单时态. 1 See, smell, hear, taste and feel indicate the experiencing of something through one of the senses *see、 smell、 hear、 taste、 feel分别表示五种感官之一对某物的感知: He saw a light in the window. 他看见窗户里有灯光. * I heard an explosion last night. 我昨晚听到了爆炸声. * I can smell gas. 我闻到有煤气味. 2 These verbs can also indicate somebody's physical ability to perceive with the senses 这些动词还可用以表示某人的感官能力: He can't see, hear, etc very well. 他的视力、 听力等不太好. 3 Look, smell, taste, sound and feel are used to describe how somebody or something is experienced through one of the senses, usually in one of these patterns *look、 smell、 taste、 sound、 feel可用以表示通过五官之一感知某人或某事物, 通常用於下列句型: (a) She looks happy, ie She's smiling. 她看上去很高兴. (b) The wine tastes like water, ie It's very weak. 这酒的味道像水一样. (c) The singer sounds as though she's got a sore throat, ie The sound of her voice suggests that she has a sore throat. 这歌手的声音听起来好像她嗓子疼. 4 Look, smell, listen, taste, feel can indicate that somebody is making a deliberate effort to perceive something *look、 smell、 listen、 taste、 feel可用以表示某人著意要感知某事物: (a) `I can't see the spot.' `Well look harder.' `我看不到有斑点.'`再好好看看.' (b) `I can't hear any music.' `Listen carefully.' `我听不出有音乐.'`再用心听听.' (c) `I can't taste anything.' `Try tasting this.' `我尝不出有什麽味道.'`再尝尝这个.' 5 Feel and look can express the physical or emotional state of a person. *feel和look可表示人的身体或情绪的状态. Here, the continuous tenses can be used 在这种情况下可用进行时态: I feel sick,nervous, disappointed, etc. 我感到不舒服、 紧张、 失望等.* He was feeling tired so he didn't come to the party. 他感到很累, 所以没来参加聚会. * You're looking happy. Have you had good news? 你看来很高兴. 有好消息吗?

  feel

  / fi:l; fil/ n [sing] 1 act of feeling 摸; 触; 触摸: Let me have a feel. 让我摸摸. 2 the feel sense of touch 触觉: rough, smooth, etc to the feel, ie when touched or felt 摸起来感到粗糙、 平滑等. 3 the feel (a) sensation that sth gives when touching or being touched 触摸和被触摸时的感觉: You can tell it's silk by the feel. 你摸摸就知道是绸缎. * She loved the feel of the sun on her skin. 她喜欢太阳照射在皮肤上的那种感觉. (b) sensation created by a situation, etc (环境等给人造成的)感觉, 感受: the feel of the place, the meeting, the occasion 某地方、 会议、 场合的气氛的感受. 4 (idm 习语) get the feel of sth/of doing sth (infml 口) become familiar with (doing) sth 开始熟悉(做)某事: You haven't got the feel of the gears in this car yet. 你对这辆汽车的排挡还不熟悉. have a feel for sth (infml 口) have a sensitive appreciation or an easy understanding of sth 对某事物有敏锐的鉴赏力或很强的理解力: He has a good feel for languages. 他很有语感.

  feeler

  / 5fi:lE(r); `filE/ n 1 long slender part in certain animals, esp insects, for testing things by touch 某些动物(尤指昆虫)的触须, 触角. 2 (idm 习语) put out feelers (infml 口) cautiously check the views of others 谨慎地试探别人的观点: I'll try to put out some feelers to gauge people's reactions to our proposal. 我想试探一下, 看看人们对我们建议的反应.

  feeler gauge

  one of a set of metal blades used for measuring gaps, etc 测隙规; 厚薄规.

  feeling

  / 5fi:lIN; `filIN/ n 1 [U] ability to feel 知觉: I've lost all feeling in my legs. 我的双腿完全失去了知觉. 2 (a) [C] ~ (of sth) thing that is felt through the mind or the senses 感觉; 感触: a feeling of hunger, well-being, discomfort, gratitude, joy, etc 饥饿、 健康愉快、 不适、 感激、 快乐等的感觉. (b) [sing] ~ (of sth/that...) vague notion or belief not based wholly on reason (并非完全基於理性的)模糊观念或想法; 预感: a feeling of danger 对危险的预感 * I can't understand why, but suddenly I had this feeling that something terrible was going to happen. 我说不清为什麽, 但我忽然预感到要出事了. (c) [sing] attitude; opinion 态度; 看法: The feeling of the meeting (ie The opinion of the majority) was against the proposal. 与会的人大都反对此项提议. * My own feeling is that we should buy it. 我个人的看法是我们应该把它买下来. 3 [U] (a) sensitivity; appreciation 感受力; 鉴赏力: He plays the piano with great feeling. 他演奏钢琴时表现出极强的感受力. * She hasn't much feeling for the beauty of nature. 她对大自然的美缺少鉴赏力. (b) ~ (for sb/sth) sympathetic understanding (of sb/sth) (对某人[某事物]的)同情, 体谅: You have no feeling for the sufferings of others. 你对别人的痛苦漠不关心. 4 [C, U] strong emotion, esp of discontent,resentment, etc 激情(尤指不满、 怨恨等): The candidate's speech aroused strong feeling(s) on all sides. 那位候选人的讲话激起了各方面的强烈不满. * She spoke with feeling about the high rate of unemployment. 她针对失业率之高慷慨陈辞. * Feeling over the dismissal ran high, ie There was much resentment, anger, etc about it. 对解雇事件群情鼎沸. 5 feelings [pl] person's emotions rather than intellect (与理智相对而言的)感情: The speaker appealed more to the feelings of her audience than to their reason. 她演讲时并非靠以理服人而是要打动听众的感情. * You've hurt my feelings, ie You've offended me. 你伤了我的感情. 6 (idm 习语) bad/ill `feeling resentment; dissatisfaction 恶感; 反感; 不满: His rapid promotion caused much bad feeling among his colleagues. 他获迅速提升在同事中引起很大的不满. have mixed feelings about sb/sth => mixed. no hard feelings => hard1. one's better feelings/nature => better1. relieve one's feelings => relieve. a/that sinking feeling => sink1. spare sb's feelings => spare2.

  feeling

  adj 1 sympathetic 有同情心的: She is very feeling/is a very feeling person. 她很有同情心. 2 [attrib 作定语] showing strong emotion; heartfelt 激动的; 衷心的: a feeling remark 恳切的言语. feelingly adv with deep emotion 激动地: He spoke feelingly about his dismissal. 他激动地谈到自己被解雇一事.

  feet

  pl of foot1.

  foot

  / fUt; fJt/ n (pl feet/ fi:t; fit/) 1 [C] lowest part of the leg, below the ankle, on which a person or animal stands 脚; 足: He rose to his feet, ie stood up. 他站起身来. * walking round the house in bare feet, ie not wearing socks, shoes, etc 光脚围著房子走 * [attrib 作定语] a foot switch, brake, pump, etc, ie operated by one's foot, not one's hand 脚踏开关、 脚煞车、 脚踏泵. =>illus 见插图. 2 [C usu sing 通常作单数] part of a sock, stocking, etc that covers the foot (袜子等的)足部. 3 [C] (pl feet or, in informal use and attributively, 用於口语或作定语时, 亦作 foot) (abbr 缩写 ft) measure of length: 12 inches (长度单位)英尺(12英寸): We're flying at 35000 feet. 我们飞行的高度是35000英尺. * `How tall are you?'`Five foot nine', ie five feet and nine inches. `你身高多少?'`五英尺九英寸.' * [attrib 作定语] a 6-foot high wall 6英尺高的墙. =>App 4,5 见附录4、 5. 4 [sing] the ~ of sth (a) the lowest part of sth; base or bottom of sth (某物的)最下部, 底部: at the foot of the stairs 在楼梯底部 * They camped at the foot of the mountain. 他们在山脚下露营. * at the foot of the page 在该页的下端. (b) the lower end of a bed or grave 床或坟墓的尾端: Spare blankets lay at the foot of each bed. 每张床的尾端放有备用毛毯. 5 [U] (arch 古) manner of walking or moving 步态: light/swift/fleet of foot 步履轻盈[敏捷/如飞]. 6 [C] unit of rhythm in a line of poetry containing one stressed syllable and one or more unstressed syllables, as in the four divisions of For `men/ may `come/ and `men/ may `go 音步(诗行中的节奏单位, 一个音步包括一个重读音节和一个或几个非重读音节, 如以下为四个音步: For `men/ may `come/ and `men/ may `go. 7 (idm 习语) be on one's `feet be standing 站著: I've been on my feet all day. 我站了一整天. bind/tie sb hand and foot => hand1. the boot is on the other foot => boot. catch sb on the wrong foot => catch1. cut the ground from under sb's feet => ground1. drag one's feet/heels => drag2. fall/land on one's `feet make a quick recovery after an illness, a business failure, etc, esp through good luck (病後、 事业失败後等)迅速恢复(尤指侥幸). find one's feet => find. from head to foot/toe => head1. get/have a foot in the door gain/have a first introduction to a profession, an organization, etc 初入一行业、 机构等: It's difficult to get a foot in the door of publishing. 加入出版界是很难的. get/have cold feet => cold1. have feet of `clay have some basic weakness or fault 有某种根本的弱点或错误. have the ball at one's feet => ball1. have, etc one's/both feet on the `ground be sensible, realistic and practical 脚踏实地; 实事求是. have a foot in both `camps have an interest in two different parties or sides, without a commitment to either 脚踩两只船. have one foot in the grave be so old or ill that one is not likely to live much longer 一只脚已踏进坟墓; 行将就木; 死期不远. have two left feet => left2. in one's stocking feet => stocking. itchy feet => itchy (itch). keep one's `feet keep one's balance, esp on a slippery surface; not fall 站稳脚跟(尤指在很滑的表面上); 不跌倒. let the grass grow under one's feet => grass1. my `foot! (used to express scornful rejection of what sb has just said 用於对某人刚说过的话表示轻蔑的驳斥) nonsense! rubbish!胡说八道! 没这回事! on one's `feet completely recovered from an illness or a set-back (患病或遭受挫折後)完全复原: After his wife's death it took him two years to get back on his feet. 他妻子死後两年, 他才振作起来. * Only our party's policies will put the country on its feet again. 只有我们党的政策才会使国家恢复元气. on foot walking, rather than using any form of transport 步行: We're going on foot, not by car. 我们走著去, 不坐汽车. the patter of tiny feet => patter2. pull the carpet/rug from under sb's feet => pull2. put one's best foot forward => best1. put one's `feet up rest or relax in a chair or on a bed (esp, though not necessarily, with one's feet supported) 在椅子上或床上休息(尤指脚部垫起). put one's `foot down be very firm in opposing sth which sb wishes to do 坚决反对某人想做的事: Mother let us go to the party, but when it came to staying overnight, she put her foot down firmly. 母亲允许我们去参加晚会, 但要说到过夜, 她可决不答应. put one's `foot in it say or do sth that upsets, offends or embarrasses sb 说的话或做的事使人烦恼、 得罪人或令人难堪. put a foot wrong (esp in negative sentences 尤用於否定句) make a mistake 做错事; 出错; 犯错: I've never known him to put a foot wrong, no matter how delicate the issue. 不论问题多麽棘手, 我从没见他出过错. rush/run sb (clean) off his `feet make sb work very hard or move about a lot, so making him exhausted 把某人累坏了; 使某人疲於奔命: Before Christmas the shop assistants are rushed off their feet. 圣诞节前店员忙得不可开交. set foot in/on sth enter or visit (a place); arrive 进入或参观(某地); 到达: the first man to set foot on the moon 第一个登上月球的人 * Don't ever set foot in this house again! 永远别再进这个门! set sb/sth on his/its `feet make sb/sth independent 使某人[某事物]独立. shake the dust off one's feet => shake1. sit at sb's feet => sit. stand on one's own (two) feet be independent and able to take care of oneself 独立自主; 自立: Now that you're growing up you must learn to stand on your own two feet. 你既然已经长大成人, 就得学会独立生活. start off on the right/wrong foot => rtstart2. sweep sb off his feet => sweep1. take the weight off one's feet => weight. ten feet tall pleased with and proud of oneself 沾沾自喜; 自鸣得意: be/feel/look/seem ten feet tall 表现出[感到/显得/似乎]得意扬扬. under one's `feet disturbing one and being a nuisance 碍手碍脚; 讨厌: The children are under my feet all day. 孩子们整天烦我. wait on sb hand and foot => wait1. walk sb off his feet => walk1.

  -footer

  / fUtE(r); `fJtL/ (forming compounds 用以构成复合词) person or thing of the specified length, height or width 某一长度、 高度、 宽度的人或物: a six-footer, ie a person who is six feet tall or thing that is six feet wide or long.

  foot-and-mouth (disease)

  n [U] disease of cattle, etc which causes blisters on the mouth and feet (牛、 羊等的)口蹄疫.

  football

  n (a) [C] large round or oval inflated ball, usu of leather 足球; 橄榄球. (b) [U] any of several outdoor games between two teams, played with such a ball 足球运动; 橄榄球运动. (c) [U] (Brit) = association football (association). =>App 4 见附录4. footballer n person who plays football, esp as a profession 足球运动员(尤指职业的). `football pools (also the pools) form of gambling in which sb tries to forecast the results of football matches 足球赛赌博.

  foot-bridge

  n narrow bridge for the use of people who are walking 步行桥; 人行桥.

  footfall

  n sound of sb walking; sound of a footstep 脚步声.

  foot-fault

  n (in tennis) act of breaking the rules by placing one's feet inside the back line when serving (网球)脚部违例, 脚部犯规(发球踏线犯规).

  foothill

  n [C usu pl 通常作复数] hill or low mountain at the base of a higher mountain or range of mountains 山麓小丘.

  foothold

  n 1 place where one's foot can be supported securely when climbing 立足处(攀登时脚踩的地方). 2 secure position in a business, profession, etc from which further progress may be made (在事业等方面可以进一步发展的)稳固地位: gain a firm foothold in the industry 在这一企业中取得稳固地位.

  footlights

  n [pl] row of lights along the front of the stage in a theatre 脚灯(舞台前面的一排灯). =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page ix.

  footloose

  adj (idm 习语) footloose and fancy-free without personal responsibilities or commitments; free to act as one pleases 无拘无束的; 自由自在的.

  footman

  / -mEn; -mEn/ n (pl -men) male servant, usu in uniform, who admits visitors, serves food at table, etc (负责迎客、 上菜等的)男仆(通常穿制服).

  footmark

  n = footprint.

  footnote

  n additional piece of information at the bottom of a page in a book 脚注(列在一页末了的附注). =>App 3 见附录3.

  footpath

  n = path 1.

  footplate

  n metal platform on which the driver and fireman stand in a locomotive (机车上供司机和司炉站立的金属制的)平台.

  footprint

  n [C usu pl 通常作复数] impression of a human or an animal foot on a surface; mark left by a foot 脚印; 足迹: leave footprints in the snow 在雪地上留下足迹 * muddy footprints on the kitchen floor 厨房地板上的泥脚印.

  foot-slog

  v (-gg-) [I] (infml 口) walk for a long distance and so become very tired 因长途跋涉而步履维艰.

  footsore

  adj having sore or tired feet, esp from walking a long way 脚疼的, 脚酸的(尤指因走长路而引起的): footsore travellers 走疼了脚的旅行者.

  footstep

  n [C] 1 (a) (usu pl 通常作复数) sound or mark of a step taken when walking 脚步声; 足迹: I heard his footsteps in the hall 我听见大厅里有他的脚步声. (b) (distance covered by a) step taken when walking 脚步; 一步的距离. 2 (idm 习语) follow in one's/sb's footsteps => follow.

  footstool (also stool)

  n low stool for resting the feet on when sitting in a chair 脚凳(坐时垫脚的矮凳).

  footway

  n = footpath.

  footwear

  n [U] anything worn on the feet, eg shoes and boots 鞋类(如鞋、 靴).

  footwork

  n [U] (a) manner of moving or using the feet in sports such as boxing or dancing (拳击或舞蹈的)步法. (b) (fig 比喻) ability to react quickly to sudden danger, new opportunities, etc 应变能力(对突发的危险、 新机遇等做出敏捷反应的能力): Thanks to agile footwork he always managed to escape his pursuers. 他善於随机应变, 总能摆脱追踪他的人.

  foot

  / fUt; fJt/ v (idm 习语) foot the `bill (for sth) be responsible for paying the cost of sth 负责缴付费用; 付帐: Who's going to foot the bill for all the repairs? 谁来付所有的修理费? `foot it (infml 口) walk; not travel by bus, etc 步行.

  -footed

  (forming compound adjs 用以构成复合形容词) having feet of the specified kind or number 有所述类型或数量的脚的: bare-footed * flat-footed * four-footed.

  feign

  / feIn; fen/ v [Tn] pretend (sth) 假装, 冒充, 佯作(某事): feign illness, madness, ignorance, etc 装病、 装疯、 佯作无知 * feigned innocence 装出来的清白无辜.

  feint

  / feInt; fent/ n (in war, boxing, fencing, etc) pretended attack to distract an opponent's attention from the main attack (战争、 拳击、 击剑等中的)佯攻, 虚晃.

  feint

  / feInt; fent/ v [I] make a feint 佯攻; 虚晃.

  feint

  / feInt; fent/ adj [usu attrib 通常作定语] (of paper, etc) having faintly printed lines (指纸等)印有隐格线的: a narrow feint pad, ie one with narrowly-spaced faint lines 窄行隐格的拍纸簿.

  feisty

  / 5fi:stI; `fistI/ adj (-ier, -iest) (US infml 口) 1 (approv 褒) spirited; energetic; forceful 精神饱满的; 精力充沛的; 强有力的. 2 (derog 贬) irritable; quarrelsome 脾气坏的; 好争吵的: a feisty old man 脾气很坏的人.

  feldspar

  / 5feldspB:(r); `fZld9spBr/ (also felspar / 5felspB:(r); `fZl9spBr/) n [U] white or red mineral rock that contains aluminium and other silicates 长石.

  felicitate

  / fE5lIsIteIt; fE`lIsE9tet/ v [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb (on sth) (fml 文) congratulate sb 祝贺某人; 向某人道贺.

  felicitation

  / fE9lIsI5teIFn; fE9lIsE`teFEn/ n [U, C usu pl 作不可数名词或可数名词, 後者通常作复数].

  felicitous

  / fE5lIsItEs; fE`lIsEtEs/ adj (fml 文) (esp of words) well-chosen; apt (尤指词语)经推敲的; 恰当的: felicitous remarks 恰如其分的言语 * Her choice of music is felicitous. 她选择的音乐很适当.

  felicitously

  adv.

  felicity

  / fE5lIsEtI; fE`lIsEtI/ n (fml 文) 1 [U] great happiness 幸福; 快乐. 2 [C, U] (instance of a) pleasing style of speaking or writing (言语文字的)得当, 得体: the many felicities of her language 她言辞中妙语如珠 * He expressed himself with great felicity. 他表达自己的意思恰到好处.

  feline

  / 5fi:laIn; `filaIn/ adj, n (of or like an) animal of the cat family 猫科动物; (似)猫科的: walk with a feline grace 轻巧地行走.

  fell

  pt of fall1.

  fell

  / fel; fZl/ adj 1 (arch 古) fierce; destructive 凶猛的; 毁灭性的. 2 (idm 习语) at one fell swoop in a single deadly action 狠狠地一下子.

  fell

  / fel; fZl/ n stretch of bare rocky moorland or hilly land in northern England (英格兰北部的)荒野, 沼泽地: the Lakeland Fells 莱克兰荒野.

  fell

  / fel; fZl/ v [Tn] 1 cut down (a tree) 砍伐(树木). 2 knock down (sb) with a blow 击倒, 打倒(某人): He felled his enemy with a single blow. 他一拳就把敌人打倒了.

  fellatio

  / fE5leIFi:EU; fE`leFio/ n [U] (fml 文) stimulation of the penis by sucking or licking 吮吸或舔阴茎之刺激.

  fellow

  / 5felEU; `fZlo/ n 1 (esp pl, often in compounds 尤作复数, 常用以构成复合词) companion; comrade 同伴; 同志: `playfellows * `bedfellows * fellows in good fortune, misery 共安乐、 共患难的人 * Her fellows share her interest in computers. 她的同伴跟她一样对计算机感兴趣. 2 [attrib 作定语] of the same class, kind, etc 同阶层的; 同种的; 同类的: a fellow member 同一组织的成员 * one's ,fellow-`countrymen 同胞. 3 (esp Brit) member of a learned society 学术团体的成员: Fellow of the Royal Academy 皇家学会会员. 4 member of the governing body of some colleges or universities (某些学院或大学的)董事. 5 (esp US) graduate student holding a fellowship (接受奖学金的)研究生. 6 (fml or rhet 文或修辞) one of a pair 一对中之一: Here's one of my shoes, but where's its fellow? 我的一只鞋在这里, 另一只在哪里呢? 7 (infml 口) man or boy; chap 男人; 男孩; 小伙子: He's a nice fellow. 他是个很好的人. * Poor fellow! 可怜的小伙子! * (joc 谑) Where can a fellow (ie Where can I) get a bite to eat round here? 我在附近什麽地方能弄到点吃的? 8 (idm 习语) be hail-fellow-well-met (with sb) => hail.

  fellow-feeling

  n [U] sympathy with sb whose experience, etc one shares (对与自己经历等相同的人所产生的)同情.

  fellow-traveller

  n 1 person who sympathizes with the aims of a political party (esp the Communist Party) but is not a member (政党, 尤指共产党的)同路人. 2 person one is travelling with 旅伴.

  fellowship

  / 5felEUFIp; `fZlo9FIp/ n 1 [U] friendly association with others; companionship 友谊; 交情: enjoy fellowship with people 喜欢与人交往 * fellowship in misfortune 患难之交. 2 (a) [C] group or society of people sharing a common interest or aim (有共同利益或目标的人组成的)团体, 协会, 联谊会. (b) [U] membership in such a group or society (团体、 协会、 联谊会的)会员资格: admitted to fellowship 获准入会. 3 [C] (esp Brit) position of a (college) fellow (学院中)董事的职位, 研究员的职位. 4 [C] award of money to a graduate student in return for some teaching, research assistance, etc 研究生的奖学金(作为助教、 助研等工作之报酬): We give three research fellowships a year. 我们每年给三个研究生的奖学金.

  felony

  / 5felEnI; `fZlEnI/ n [C, U] (law 律) serious crime, eg murder, armed robbery or arson 重罪(如谋杀、 持械抢劫或放火): a series of felonies 一连串的重罪案 * be convicted of felony 被判犯有重罪.

  felon

  / 5felEn; `fZlEn/ n person guilty of felony 重罪犯.

  felonious

  / fE5lEUnIEs; fE`lonIEs/ adj of or involving felony; criminal 重罪的; 犯重罪的.

  felspar

  = feldspar.

  felt

  pt, pp of feel1.

  felt

  / felt; fZlt/ n [U] wool, hair or fur, compressed and rolled flat into a thick cloth 毛毡: [attrib 作定语] felt hats, slippers, etc 毡帽、 毡制拖鞋.

  felt-pen

  n (also felt-tip, felt-tipped pen) pen with a tip made of felt 毡头笔.

  felucca

  / fE5lQkE; fE`lQkE/ n narrow ship with oars or sails or both, used on Mediterranean coasts (用桨或帆或两者皆用的)小船(用於地中海沿岸).

  fem

  abbr 缩写 = female; feminine. Cf 参看 masc.

  female

  / 5fi:meIl; `fimel/ adj 1 (a) of the sex that can give birth to children or produce eggs 女的; 母的; 雌性的: a female dog, cat, pig, etc 母狗、 母猫、 母猪. (b) (of plants and flowers) producing fruit (指树木、 花卉)结果实的, 雌性的, 有雌蕊的: a female fig-tree 雌性无花果树. 2 of or typical of women 妇女的; 女性的; 女性特有的: female suffrage 妇女选举权 * the female mentality 妇女心态. 3 (of a plug, socket, etc) having a hollow part designed to receive an inserted part (指插头、 插座等)有内孔的, 凹的.

  female

  n 1 female animal or plant 雌性的动物或植物. 2 (often derog 常作贬义) woman 女人: Who on earth is that female he's with? 跟他在一起的那个女人究竟是谁?

  female

  NOTE ON USAGE 用法: 1 (a) Male and female are nouns and adjectives used to indicate the sex of living things *male和female既可作名词也可作形容词, 用以表示生物的性别: a male/female giraffe, bird, sardine, child, flower, etc 公[母]长颈鹿、 鸟、 沙丁鱼; 男[女]孩子; 雄性的[雌性的]花等 * The males in the herd protect the females and the young. 兽群中的雄性动物保护雌性动物和幼仔. (b) When speaking of humans the adjectives male/female refer especially to the physical features of one sex or the other *male/female作形容词用於人时, 尤指男女的性别特徵: The male voice is deeper than the female. 男性的嗓音比女性的低沉. * the female figure 女性的身材. (c) When speaking about occupations, we usually say: a woman doctor/women doctors (NOT a female doctor/female doctors, though we do say a male doctor, NOT a man doctor). 谈到男女的 职业, 通常说: a woman doctor/ women doctors(不可说a female doctor/ female doctors, 但却一定要说a male doctor, 而不可说a man doctor). (d) The nouns male/female should not be used to refer to people (as opposed to their qualities, etc) *male/female作名词时不能用以指人. They can give offence, esp female. 用於指人时会引起反感, 尤其是female一词. We use man/woman instead 这时要用man/woman: Men have more body hair than women. 男人的寒毛比女人的多. 2 (a) Masculine and feminine are adjectives used to describe the behaviour, appearance, etc considered normal or acceptable for humans of one sex or the other. *masculine和feminine为形容词, 用以描述所谓正常的或公认的男女之别, 如行为、 外貌等. They can therefore be used of the `opposite' sex: a man can be described as feminine but not female 形容男人可用feminine而不可用female: She dresses in a very feminine way. 她穿得非常女性化. * She has a deep masculine voice. 她的声音像男人的那样低沉. (b) As nouns and adjectives masculine and feminine (as well as neuter) indicate grammatical gender. *masculine和feminine(以及neuter)作名词和形容词, 分别用以指语法中的阳性和阴性(以及中性).

  feminine

  / 5femEnIn; `fZmEnIn/ adj 1 of or like women; having the qualities or appearance considered characteristic of women 女性的; 女人般的; 具有女性气质或外貌特徵的: a feminine voice, figure, appearance 女性的嗓声、 体形、 容貌. 2 (grammar) belonging to a class of words in English referring to female persons, animals, etc and often having a special form 阴性的: `Lioness' is the feminine form of `lion'. lioness是lion的阴性形式. * The feminine form of `count' is `countess'. count的阴性形式是countess.

  feminine

  n (grammar) feminine word or gender 阴性词; 阴性.

  femininity

  / 9femE5nInEtI; 9fZmE`nInEtI/ n [U] quality of being feminine 女子的气质. =>Usage at female 用法见female. Cf 参看 masculine.

  feminism

  / 5femInIzEm; `fZmE9nIzEm/ n [U] (a) belief in the principle that women should have the same rights and opportunities (legal, political, social, economic, etc) as men 男女平等主义. (b) movement in support of this 争取女权运动.

  feminist

  / 5femInIst; `fZmE9nIst/ n supporter offeminism 男女平等主义者; 争取女权主义者: Suffragettes were among the first feminists in Britain. 争取选举权的妇女是英国最早的男女平等主义者. * [attrib 作定语] He has strong feminist opinions. 他有强烈的男女平等思想.

  femme fatale

  / 9fm fE5tB:l; 9fAm fE`tBl/ (pl femmes fatales / 9fm fE5tB:l; 9fAm fE`tBl/) (French 法) woman to whom a man feels irresistibly attracted, with dangerous or unhappy results 妖媚迷人的女子(为男子的祸患): She was his femme fatale. 她是他的红颜祸水.

  femur

  / 5fi:mE(r); `fimL/ n (pl ~s or femora / 5femErE; `fZmErE/) (anatomy 解) thigh-bone 股骨. =>illus at skeleton 见skeleton插图.

  femoral

  / 5femErEl;`fZmErEl/ adj.

  fen

  / fen; fZn/ n 1 [C] area of low marshy land 沼地; 沼泽. 2 the Fens [pl] low marshy areas in parts of East Anglia (英格兰东部的)沼泽地区. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, pages xiv, xv.

  fence

  / fens; fZns/ n 1 structure of rails, stakes, wire, etc, esp one put round a field or garden to mark a boundary or keep animals from straying 栅栏; 篱笆; 围墙. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page vi. 2 (idm 习语) come down on one side of the fence or the other => side1. sit on the fence => sit.

  fence

  v 1 [Tn] surround, divide, etc (sth) with a fence 用栅栏、 篱笆、 围墙等将(某物)围著或隔开等: Farmers fence their fields. 农人用篱笆把田地围起. * His land was fenced with barbed wire. 他的土地用铁丝网围著. 2 (phr v) fence sb/sth in (a) surround or enclose sb/sth with a fence 用栅栏、 篱笆、 围墙等围著或圈起某人[某物]: The grounds are fenced in to prevent trespassing. 庭院用栅栏围著以防外人进去. (b) restrict the freedom of sb 限制某人的自由: She felt fenced in by domestic routine. 她觉得自己完全被家务事束缚住了. fence sth off separate (one area from another) with a fence 用栅栏、 篱笆、 围墙等将(某处)隔开: One end of the garden was fenced off for chickens. 花园的一端已用篱笆隔开来养鸡.

  fencing

  / 5fensIN; `fZnsIN/ [U] material used for making fences, eg wood, wire, etc 制做栅栏、 篱笆、 围墙等的材料(如木材、 金属丝等).

  fence

  / fens; fZns/ v 1 [I] (sport 体) fight with a long slender sword (foil, epee or sabre) 击剑. 2 [I, Ipr] ~ (with sb/sth) be evasive; avoid giving a direct answer to a question(er) 回避; 避免作正面回答: Stop fencing with me answer my question! 别躲躲闪闪--回答我的问题!

  fencer

  n person who fences (fence2 1) 击剑运动员.

  fencing

  n [U] art or sport of fighting with foils or other types of sword 击剑术; 击剑运动. =>illus 见插图.

  fence

  / fens; fZns/ n person who knowingly buys and resells stolen goods 买卖赃物的人.

  fend

  / fend; fZnd/ v (phr v) fend for one`self take care of or look after oneself; support oneself 照顾自己; 自谋生计; 独立生活: It is time you left home and learnt to fend for yourself. 你应该离家自立了. fend sth/sb off defend oneself from sth/sb; fight sth/sb off 抵御或抵挡某事物[某人]: fend off a blow 挡开一击 * The minister had to fend off some awkward questions from reporters. 部长需避开记者提出的某些尴尬的问题. * He tried to kiss her but she fended him off. 他想吻她, 但她把他挡开了.

  fender

  / 5fendE(r); `fZndL/ n 1 metal frame placed around a fireplace to prevent burning coal, etc from falling out or young children from falling in 壁炉的栅栏. 2 mass of rope, piece of wood, rubber tyre, etc, hung on the side of a boat to prevent damage, eg when it is alongside a wharf or another boat 护舷垫(船舷悬挂的绳团、 木块、 轮胎等, 防碰损用). 3 (US) (a) mudguard (mud) of a bicycle, etc (自行车等的)挡泥板. (b) = wing 4.

  fennel

  / 5fenl; `fZnl/ n [U] herb with yellow flowers, used for flavouring food 茴香(用以调味).

  feral

  / 5fIErEl; ?@ 5ferEl; `fZrEl/ adj (fml 文) (of animals) wild or savage, esp after escaping from captivity or from life as a pet (指动物)野的, 凶猛的(尤指捕後逃脱或豢养後逃脱者): feral cats 野猫.

  ferment

  / fE5ment; fL`mZnt/ v [I, Tn] 1 (make sth) change chemically through the action of organic substances (esp yeast) (使某物)发酵: Fruit juices ferment if they are kept a long time. 果汁放置日久会发酵. * When wine is fermented it gives off bubbles of gas. 酒发酵时会放出气泡. 2 (fig 比喻) excite; stir up 激起; 煽动: ferment trouble among the factory workers 在工人中引起骚动.

  fermentation

  / 9f\:men5teIFn; 9f[mZn`teFEn/ n [U] (action or process of) fermenting 发酵: Sugar is converted into alcohol through the process of fermentation. 糖经发酵变成酒精. * The fermentation of milk causes it to curdle. 牛奶发酵会凝结起来.

  ferment

  / 5f\:ment; `f[mZnt/ n 1 [C] substance, eg yeast, that causes sth to ferment 发酵剂; 酵母. 2 [U] (esp political or social) excitement or unrest (尤指政治或社会方面的)动荡不安: The country was in (a state of) ferment. 这个国家处於动荡不安之中.

  fern

  / f\:n; f[n/ n [C, U] type of flowerless plant with feathery green leaves 蕨; 蕨类植物: ferns growing in pots 长在盆内的蕨类植物 * hillsides covered in fern 长满蕨 类植物的山坡 * a spray of ornamental fern 蕨类植物的枝状饰物.

  ferny

  adj.

  ferocious

  / fE5rEUFEs; fE`roFEs/ adj fierce, violent or savage 残忍的; 凶猛的; 野蛮的: a ferocious beast 猛兽 * ferocious cruelty 残酷的行为 * a ferocious onslaught 猛攻 * (fig 比喻) a ferocious campaign against us in the press 新闻界对我们的猛烈抨击.

  ferociously

  adv: snarling ferociously 凶猛地咆哮.

  ferocity

  / fE5rCsEtI; fE`rBsEtI/ n 1 [U] fierceness; violence 凶恶; 残暴; 凶猛: The lion attacked its victim with great ferocity. 狮子凶猛地扑向猎物. 2 [C] fierce or savage act 凶猛的行为; 暴行.

  ferret

  / 5ferIt; `fZrIt/ n small animal of the weasel family, kept for driving rabbits from their burrows, killing rats, etc 雪貂(用以将兔从洞中逐出、 捕鼠等). Cf 参看 ermine, weasel.

  ferret

  v 1 [I] (usu 通常作 go ferreting) hunt (rabbits, rats, etc) with ferrets 用雪貂捕猎(兔、 鼠等). 2 [I, Ipr, Ip] ~ (about) (for sth) (infml 口) search; rummage 搜寻; 翻找: I spent the day ferreting (about) in the attic (for old photographs). 我一整天都在阁楼上翻找(旧照片). 3 (phr v) ferret sth out (infml 口) discover sth by searching or asking questions thoroughly (通过搜查或仔细盘问)发现某事物; 查获; 侦破: ferret out a secret, the truth, the facts, etc 查明秘密、 真相、 事实等.

  Ferris wheel

  / 5ferIs wi:l; ?@ hwi:l; `fZrIs 9hwil/ (in fairgrounds, etc) large upright wheel revolving on a fixed axle and having seats hanging from its rim (游乐场等处的)摩天轮(在垂直转动的巨轮上挂有座位的游乐设施).

  ferroconcrete

  / 9ferEU5kCNkri:t; 9fZro`kBnkrit/ n [U] = reinforced concrete (reinforce).

  ferrous

  / 5ferEs; `fZrEs/ adj [attrib 作定语] containing or relating to iron 含铁的; 铁的: ferrous and non-ferrous metals 黑色及有色金属.

  ferrule

  / 5feru:l; ?@ 5ferEl; `fZrEl/ n metal ring or cap placed on the end of a stick, an umbrella, etc to stop it splitting or wearing down (手杖、 伞等顶端的)金属箍, 金属包头.

  ferry

  / 5ferI; `fZrI/ n 1 boat, hovercraft, etc that carries people and goods across a stretch of water 渡船: The ferry leaves for France at one o'clock. 渡船於一点钟开往法国. * travel by ferry 乘渡船 * [attrib 作定语] the cross-channel ferry service 摆渡服务. 2 place where such a service operates 渡口: We waited at the ferry for two hours. 我们在渡口等了两小时.

  ferry

  v (pt, pp ferried) [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] transport (people or goods) by boat, aeroplane, etc, usu a short distance over a stretch of water, or regularly over a period of time (用船或飞机等)运送(人或货物)(通常指短程的或定期的): ferry goods to the mainland 将货物运往大陆 * Can you ferry us across? 你能渡我们过去吗? * ferry the children to and from school 接送孩子上学 * planes ferrying food to the refugees 给难民运送食物的飞机.

  ferry-boat

  n boat used as a ferry 渡船.

  ferryman

  / -mEn; -mEn/ n (pl -men / -mEn; -mEn/) person in charge of a (usu small) ferry 渡船主, 渡船工人(通常指小渡船的).

  fertile

  / 5f\:taIl; ?@ 5f\:rtl; `f[tl/ adj 1 (of land/or soil) able to produce much; rich in nutrients (指土地)肥沃的, 富饶的: The plains of Alberta are extremely fertile. 艾伯塔平原极其肥沃. 2 (of plants or animals) able to produce fruit or young (指动植物)能结果实的, 能生育的. 3 (of seeds or eggs) capable of developing into a new plant or animal; fertilized (指籽、 卵)能发芽的, 能孵的, 受精的. 4 (of a person's mind) full of new ideas; inventive (指人的头脑)主意多的, 有创造力的: have a fertile imagination 有丰富的想像力. Cf 参看 sterile.

  fertility

  / fE5tIlEtI; f[`tIlEtI/ n [U] state or condition of being fertile 肥沃; 多产; 丰富: the fertility of the soil 土地的肥沃 * great fertility of mind 丰富的智慧.

  fertilize, fertilise

  / 5f\:tElaIz; `f[tl9aIz/ v [Tn] 1 introduce pollen or sperm into (a plant, an egg or a female animal) so that it develops seed or young 使(动植物)受孕, 受精, 受粉: Flowers are often fertilized by bees as they gather nectar. 蜜蜂采蜜时常使花受粉. 2 make (soil, etc) fertile or productive 使(土地等)肥沃, 多产: fertilize the garden with manure 给花园施肥.

  fertilization, fertilisation

  / 9f\:tElaI5zeIFn; ?@ -lI5z-;9f[tlE`zeFEn/ n [U]: successful fertilization by the male 授精; 受胎.

  fertilizer, fertiliser

  n [U, C] natural or artificial substance added to soil to make it more fertile 肥料; 化肥: Get some more fertilizer for the garden. 给花园再多施些肥料. * Bone-meal and nitrates are common fertilizers. 骨粉和硝酸盐是普通的肥料. Cf 参看 manure.

  fertilizer, fertiliser

  n [U, C] natural or artificial substance added to soil to make it more fertile 肥料; 化肥: Get some more fertilizer for the garden. 给花园再多施些肥料. * Bone-meal and nitrates are common fertilizers. 骨粉和硝酸盐是普通的肥料. Cf 参看 manure.

  fervent

  / 5f\:vEnt; `f[vEnt/ (also fervid) adj showing warmth and sincerity of feeling; enthusiastic; passionate 热诚的; 热情的; 热烈的; 强烈的: a fervent farewell speech 热情的告别演说 * fervent love, hatred, etc 强烈的爱、 恨等 * a fervent admirer 痴心的倾慕者.

  fervently

  adv: believe fervently in eventual victory 坚信最後会取得胜利.

  fervid

  / 5f\:vId; `f[vId/ adj (fml 文) = fervent.

  fervidly

  adv.

  fervour (US fervor)

  / 5f\:vE(r); `f[vL/ n [U] strength or warmth of feeling; enthusiasm 热烈; 热诚; 热情: speak with great fervour 热情洋溢地说.

  festal

  / 5festl; `fZstl/ adj (fml 文) of a festival; gay and joyful 节日的; 欢乐的. Cf 参看 festive.

  fester

  / 5festE(r); `fZstL/ v [I] 1 (of a cut or wound) become infected and filled with pus (指伤口)溃烂, 化脓: a festering sore 化脓的伤处. 2 (fig 比喻) (of feelings or thoughts) become more bitter and angry (指感情或思想)更加痛苦和愤怒: The resentment festered in his mind. 他心中的愤恨有增无已.

  festival

  / 5festEvl; `fZstEvl/ n 1 (day or time of) religious or other celebration 节日; 节期; 喜庆日: Christmas and Easter are Christian festivals. 圣诞节和复活节是基督教的节日. * [attrib 作定语] a festival atmosphere 节日的气氛. 2 series of performances of music, drama, films, etc given periodically (音乐、 戏剧、 电影等的)会演: the Edinburgh Festival 爱丁堡艺术会演 * a jazz festival 爵士音乐会演.

  festive

  / 5festIv; `fZstIv/ adj of or suitable for a feast or festival; joyous 欢宴的; 节日的; 欢乐的: the festive season, ie Christmas 欢乐的节日(即圣诞节) * The whole town is in festive mood. 全镇沉浸在节日的气氛之中. Cf 参看 festal.

  festivity

  / fe5stIvEtI; fZs`tIvEtI/ n 1 [U] rejoicing; merry-making 欢宴; 欢庆; 欢乐: The royal wedding was an occasion of great festivity. 皇室婚礼是喜庆的盛事. 2 festivities [pl] festive, joyful events; celebrations 庆典; 喜庆: wedding festivities 结婚庆典.

  festoon

  / fe5stu:n; fZs`tun/ n chain of flowers, leaves, ribbons, etc hung in a curve or loop as a decoration 花彩.

  festoon

  v [esp passive 尤用於被动语态: Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb/sth (with sth) decorate sb/sth with festoons 给某人[某物]饰以花彩: a room festooned with paper streamers 饰有纸带花彩的房间.

  fetal

  => foetus.

  fetch

  / fetF; fZtF/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p, Dn.n, Dn.pr] ~sb/sth (for sb) go for and bring back sb/sth 接来(某人)[取来(某物)]: Fetch a doctor at once. 快去请医生来. * Please fetch the children from school. 请到学校把孩子接回来. * The chair is in the garden; please fetch it in. 椅子在花园里, 请把它搬进来. * Should I fetch you your coat/fetch your coat for you from the next room? 要我去隔壁房间把你的大衣拿来吗? 2 [Tn, Tn.pr] (dated 旧) cause (sth) to come out 使(某物)出来; 使发出: fetched a deep sigh 发出深深的叹息 * fetch tears to the eyes 使泪水涌上眼眶. 3 [Tn, Dn.n] (of goods) be sold for (a price) (指货物)售得, 卖得(某价钱): The picture should fetch 2000 at auction. 这张画拍卖可得2000英镑. * Those old books won't fetch (you) much. 这些旧书卖不了多少钱. 4 [Dn.n] (infml 口) give (a blow) to (sb) 给(某人)(一击): She fetched him a terrific slap in the face. 她狠狠地给了他一记耳光. 5 (idm 习语) fetch and `carry (for sb) act like a servant (for sb); be busy with small duties 供(某人)差遣; 忙於杂务: He expects his daughter to fetch and carry for him all day. 他希望女儿终日听他支使. 6 (phr v) fetch up (infml 口) arrive at a certain place or in a certain position; land up 到达; 处於: Where on earth have we fetched up now? 我们现在究竟到哪里了?

  fetching

  / 5fetFIN; `fZtFIN/ adj (dated infml 旧, 口) attractive 迷人的; 吸引人的: a fetching smile 迷人的微笑 * You look very fetching in that hat. 你戴著这顶帽子显得格外动人.

  fetchingly

  adv.

  fete

  / feIt; fet/ n outdoor entertainment or sale, usu to raise money for a special purpose (室外举行的)游乐会, 义卖会: the school/village/church fete 学校[村民/教会]举办的义卖会.

  fete

  v [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] honour or entertain (sb) in a special way 特别款待或招待(某人): The queen was feted wherever she went. 女王不论走到哪里都受到盛情款待.

  fetid

  / 5fetId, 5fi:tId; `fZtId, `fitId/ adj smelling foul or unpleasant; stinking 有恶臭的; 臭的: fetid air 臭气.

  fetish

  / 5fetIF; `fZtIF/ n 1 object that is worshipped, esp because a spirit is believed to live in it 物神(尤指认为有神灵寓於其中而受膜拜的). 2 (a) thing to which more respect or attention is given than is normal or sensible 受到过分崇拜或注意的东西: He makes a fetish of his new car. 他把自己的新汽车奉若神明. (b) object or activity that is necessary for or adds to an individual's sexual pleasure; fixation 能引起或增强个人性快感的物体或活动; 不正常的依恋; 固恋: Women's underclothes are a common fetish. 女人的内衣裤是常见的能引起性快感的恋物.

  fetishism

  n [U]: magazines which cater to fetishism in men 迎合男子异常性兴奋需要的杂志.

  fetishist

  n.

  fetlock

  / 5fetlCk; `fZt9lBk/ n part of a horse's leg above and behind the hoof, where a tuft of hair grows 球节(马蹄上生距毛的突起部分). =>illus at horse 见horse插图.

  fetter

  / 5fetE(r); `fZtL/ n (usu pl 通常作复数) 1 chain put round the feet of a person or animal to limit movement 脚镣; (动物的)足械: The prisoner was kept in fetters. 犯人戴著脚镣. 2 (fig 比喻) thing that restricts or hinders 桎梏; 束缚;  绊: the fetters of poverty 贫困的束缚.

  fetter

  v [Tn] 1 put (sb) in fetters 给(某人)戴上脚镣. 2 restrict or hinder (sb) in any way 束缚或阻碍(某人): I hate being fettered by petty rules and regulations. 我讨厌受清规戒律的束缚.

  fettle

  / 5fetl; `fZtl/ n (idm 习语) in fine, good, etc `fettle fit and cheerful 健壮而愉快: The team are all in excellent fettle. 队员们个个精神抖擞、 神采奕奕.

  fetus

  = foetus.

  feud

  / fju:d; fjud/ n long and bitter quarrel between two people, families or groups (两人、 家族或团体间的)长期不和, 世仇: a long-standing feud 夙怨 * Because of a family feud, he never spoke to his wife's parents for years. 由於两家不和, 他已多年不与岳父母说话.

  feud

  v [I, Ipr] ~ (with sb/sth) carry on a feud 长期争斗; 结世仇: feuding neighbours 长期不睦的邻居 * The two tribes are always feuding (with each other). 这两个部落一直争斗不休.

  feudal

  / 5fju:dl; `fjudl/ adj of or according to the system as during the Middle Ages in Europe, under which people receive land and protection from the landowner and work and fight for him in return 封建的; 封建制度的: feudal law 封建制度的法律 * the feudal barons 封建贵族 * The way some landowners treat their tenants today seems almost feudal. 今天有些地主仍以近乎封建的方式对待佃农.

  feudalism

  / -dElIzEm; -dlIzEm/ n [U] (attitudes and structure of) the feudal system 封建制度; 封建主义.

  feudalistic

  / 9fju:dE5lIstIk; 9fjudl`IstIk/ adj.

  fever

  / 5fi:vE(r); `fivL/ n 1 [C, U] abnormally high body temperature, esp as a sign of illness 发烧; 发热: He has a high fever. 他发高烧. * Aspirin can reduce fever. 阿司匹林可以退烧. 2 [U] specified disease in which (a) fever occurs 热病: yellow, typhoid, rheumatic, etc fever 黄热病、 伤寒、 风湿热. 3 [sing] (state of) nervous excitement or agitation 兴奋; 激动: He waited for her arrival in a fever of impatience. 他激动不安地等待她到来. 4 (idm 习语) at/to `fever pitch at/to a high level of excitement 高度兴奋; 极为激动: The speaker brought the crowd to fever pitch. 演讲者激起群众高昂的情绪.

  fevered

  adj [attrib 作定语] 1 affected by or suffering from a fever 发烧的; 发热的: She cooled her child's fevered brow. 她给孩子滚烫的额头降温. 2 highly excited 激动的; 高度兴奋的: a fevered imagination 奔放的想像力.

  feverish

  / 5fi:vErIF; `fivErIF/ adj 1 having a fever; caused or accompanied by a fever 发烧的; 发烧引起的; 伴有发烧的: The child's body felt feverish. 这孩子身上发烧. * During her illness she had feverish dreams. 她生病期间因发烧而做梦. 2 excited; restless 激动的; 焦躁不安的: with feverish haste 急匆匆地. feverishly adv very quickly or excitedly 心急如焚地: searching feverishly for her missing jewels 心急火燎地寻找她丢失的珠宝.

  few

  / fju:; fju/ indef det, adj [usu attrib 通常作定语] (-er, -est) 1 (used with pl [C] ns and a pl v 与复数可数名词和动词复数形式连用) not many 不多; 很少: Few people live to be 100. 很少有人活到一百岁. * a man/woman of few words, ie one who speaks very little 沉默寡言的人 * There are fewer cars parked outside than yesterday. 外面停的汽车比昨天少. * The police found very few clues to the murderer's identity. 警方对杀人凶手的线索所知甚少. * There are very few opportunities for promotion. 晋升的机会很少. * The few houses we have seen are in terrible condition. 我们见到的为数不多的几所房子都非常糟糕. * There were too few people at the meeting. 参加会议的人寥寥无几. * Accidents on site are few. 工地上事故不多. (Cf 参看 There are few accidents on site. ) =>Usage at less 用法见less. =>Usage at much1 用法见much1. 2 (idm 习语) ,few and ,far be`tween infrequent, with long periods of waiting involved 少的(要等候很久的): The buses to our village are few and far between. 到我们村的公共汽车很少. * The sunny intervals we were promised have been few and far between. 我们原可望能有几阵晴天, 结果却很稀少.

  few

  indef pron not many people, things, places, etc 很少的人、 物、 地方等. (a) (referring back 用以复指前文): Of the 150 passengers, few escaped injury. 150名乘客中鲜有未受伤者. * Few can deny the impact of his leadership. 几乎没有人能否定他的领导作用. * (saying 谚) Many are called but few are chosen. 邀请的人多, 选上的人少. * Hundreds of new records are produced each week but few (of them) get into the charts. 每周推出数以百计的新唱片, 但(其中)没有几张能进入每周流行榜. (b) (referring forward 用以预指後文): Few of us will still be alive in the year 2050. 我们很少有人能活到2050年. * The few who came to the concert enjoyed it. 来听音乐会的少数几个人喜欢这场音乐会. * We saw few of the sights as we were only there for two hours. 我们在那里只待了两个小时, 因此没怎麽游览.

  the few

  n [pl v] the minority 少数: a voice for the few 代表少数人的意见.

  few

  / fju:; fju/ a few indef det (used with pl [C] ns and pl vs 与复数可数名词和动词复数形式连用) a small number of; some 少数; 几个: a few letters 几封信 * a few days ago 几天前 * He asked us a few questions. 他问了我们几个问题. * A few people are coming for tea. 有几个人要来吃茶点. * Only a few (ie Not many) students were awarded distinctions. 只有几个学生获得优等成绩. =>Usage at much1 用法见much1.

  a few

  indef pron 1 a small number of people, things, places, etc; some 少数的人、 物、 地方等; 一些. (a) (referring back 用以复指前文): I didn't get any cards yesterday but today there were a few. 昨天我没收到贺卡, 但今天有几张. * She's written hundreds of books but I've only read a few (of them). 她写了几百部书, 但我只读了(其中的)几本. (b) (referring forward 用以预指後文): A few of the seats were empty. 有几个座位是空的. * I recognized a few of the other guests. 在其余的客人中, 我认识几位. 2 (idm 习语) a good few; not a few a considerable number; significantly many 相当多; 不少: There were a good few copies sold on the first day. 第一天就卖了许多本. * Not a few of my friends are vegetarian. 我朋友中不少人吃素. `have a few (usu in the present perfect 通常用於现在完成时态) drink a sufficient amount of alcohol to make one drunk or almost drunk 已醉; 微醉: I've had a few (ie a few glasses of beer, whisky, etc) already, actually. 我喝了几杯, 其实已经醉了. * She looks as if she's had a few. 她像是有些醉了. a few adv a small but significant number 少量的一定数目: a few more/less/too many 再多几个[再少几个/多余了几个].

  fey

  / feI; fe/ adj 1 (Scot 苏格兰) having a feeling of approaching death; able to foretell disaster 感到死期近的; 能预知灾难的. 2 having a strange whimsical charm 有稀奇古怪的魔力的. 3 (derog 贬) (of a person and his behaviour) not serious; frivolous (指人及其行为)不认真的, 轻浮的.

  feyness

  n [U].

  fez

  / fez; fZz/ n (pl fezzes) red felt hat with a flat top and a tassle but no brim, worn by men in certain Muslim countries (某些回教国家男子戴的平顶无边的)红毡帽. =>illus at hat 见hat插图.

  ff

  abbr 缩写 = 1 and the following (pages, lines, etc) 及其後的(页、 行等): early childhood, p 10 ff, eg in the index of a book 童年时期, 自第10页起(如见於书目中). 2 (music 音) very loudly (Italian fortissimo) 极强的; 非常响的(源自意大利文fortissimo). Cf 参看 pp 3.

  fiance (fem 阴性作 fiancee)

  / fI5CnseI; ?@ 9fi:B:n5seI;9fiBn`se/ n man or woman to whom one is engaged to be married 未婚夫; 未婚妻: his fiancee 他的未婚妻 * her fiance 她的未婚夫.

  fiasco

  / fI5AskEU; fI`Asko/ n (pl ~s; US also ~es) complete and ridiculous failure 彻底的失败; 惨败; 大出丑: The party was a total fiasco because the wrong date was given on the invitations. 那个聚会落得一场空, 因为请帖上的日期弄错了.

  fiat

  / 5faIAt; ?@ also 5fi:Et; `faIAt, `fiEt/ n [C, U] (fml 文) formal authorization, order or decree 谕; 命令; 法令: The opening of a market stall is governed by municipal fiat. 开设市场摊位受市政法令管制.

  fib

  / fIb; fIb/ n (infml 口) untrue statement, esp about sth unimportant 谎言; (尤指无伤大雅的)小谎: Stop telling such silly fibs. 别说这种傻乎乎的谎话了. Cf 参看 lie1 n.

  fib

  v (-bb-) [I] say untrue things; tell a fib or fibs 说假话; 撒小谎: Stop fibbing! 别扯谎了! fibber n person who tells fibs 撒小谎的人: You little fibber! 你这个小骗子!

  fib

  / fIb; fIb/ n (infml 口) untrue statement, esp about sth unimportant 谎言; (尤指无伤大雅的)小谎: Stop telling such silly fibs. 别说这种傻乎乎的谎话了. Cf 参看 lie1 n.

  fibre (US fiber)

  / 5faIbE(r); `faIbL/ n 1 [C] any of the slender threads of which many animal and plant tissues are formed (动植物的)纤维: a cotton, wood, nerve, muscle fibre 棉、 木、 神经、 肌肉的纤维. 2 [U] material or substance formed from a mass of fibres 纤维质: cotton fibre for spinning 用以纺纱的棉纤维 * The muscle fibre of this animal is diseased. 这个动物的肌肉纤维产生了病变. * Eating cereals and fruit will give you plenty of fibre in your diet. 吃谷类食物和水果能多摄取纤维素. 3 [U] (a) texture or structure 质地; 结构: material of coarse fibre 粗糙的材料. (b) (fig 比喻) person's character 品格; 性情: a woman of strong moral fibre 道德观念强的女子.

  fibrous

  / 5faIbrEs; `faIbrEs/ adj like or made of fibres 似纤维的; 纤维制的.

  fibreboard (US fiberboard), fibreglass (US fiberglass)

  ns [U] (also glass fibre) material made from glass fibres and resin, used for insulation and in making cars, boats, etc 玻璃纤维: [attrib 作定语] a fibreglass racing yacht 玻璃纤维赛艇.

  fibre optics (US fiber)

  transmission of information by means of infra-red light signals along a thin glass fibre 光导纤维通讯.

  fibrosis

  / faI5brEUsIs; faI`brosIs/ n [U] abnormal increase or development of fibrous tissue or muscle 纤维变性; 纤维化.

  fibrositis

  / 9faIbrE5saItIs; 9faIbrE`saItIs/ n [U] inflammation of the fibrous tissue of the body, esp the muscles of the back, causing severe pain and stiffness 纤维织炎; 肌风湿病. Cf 参看 arthritis, rheumatism.

  fibula

  / 5fIbjUlE; `fIbjElE/ n (pl fibulae / -li:; -9li/) (anatomy 解) outer of the two bones between the knee and the foot 腓骨. =>illus at skeleton 见skeleton插图.

  fickle

  / 5fIkl; `fIkl/ adj often changing; not constant 易变的; 无常的: fickle weather, fortune 变化无常的天气、 变幻莫测的命运 * a fickle person, lover, etc, ie not faithfulor loyal 出尔反尔的人、 用情不专的情人.

  fickleness

  n [U]: the fickleness of the English climate 英国气候之多变.

  fiction

  / 5fIkFn; `fIkFEn/ n 1 [U] type of literature (eg novels, stories) describing imaginary events and people 小说: works of fiction 小说作品 * He writes fiction. 他是写小说的. * Truth is often stranger than fiction. 事实往往比小说更离奇. Cf 参看 non-fiction. 2 [C] thing that is invented or imagined and not strictly true 虚构的或想像出的事; 并非完全真实的事: a polite fiction, ie sth assumed to be true (though it may not be) for social reasons 冠冕堂皇的应酬话. Cf 参看 fact.

  fictional

  / -FEnl; -FEnl/ adj of fiction; told as a story 小说的; 虚构的: fictional characters 虚构的人物 * a fictional account of life on a farm 描述农场生活的虚构情节.

  fictionalize, fictionalise

  / 5fIkFEnElaIz; `fIkFEnE9laIz/ v [Tn] write about (a true event) as if it were fiction or in the style of a fictional story, inventing some of the details, characters, etc 将(真实事情)编写成小说: fictionalized history 演义.

  fictitious

  / fIk5tIFEs; fIk`tIFEs/ adj imagined or invented; not real 想像的; 虚构的; 假的: The account he gives of his childhood is quite fictitious. 他把童年往事说得很假. * All the places and characters in my novel are entirely fictitious. 我这篇小说中所有的地点和人物都是虚构的.

  Fid Def

  / 9fId 5def; 9fId `dZf/ abbr 缩写 = FD.

  fiddle

  / 5fIdl; `fIdl/ n 1 (infml 口) violin 小提琴. 2 (sl 俚) thing done dishonestly; swindle; fraud 骗局; 欺诈; 欺骗行为: It's all a fiddle! 完全是骗局! 3 (idm 习语) be on the `fiddle (sl 俚) behave illegally, or dishonestly 干违法的或不正当的事. fit as a fiddle => fit1. play second `fiddle (to sb/sth) be treated as less important than another person, activity, etc 居次位; 当副手: I have no intention of playing second fiddle to the new director, so I've resigned. 我不想当新董事的副手, 所以辞职了. * His family has had to play second fiddle to his political career. 他因从政而把家庭置於次要地位.

  fiddle

  v 1 [I, Tn] (infml 口) play (a tune on) the violin 用小提琴演奏(曲调): He learned to fiddle as a young boy. 他自幼学小提琴. 2 [I, Ip] ~ (about/around) play aimlessly; fidget or delay 胡混; 坐立不安; 拖拉; 耽误: Stop fiddling (about) and do some work. 别再瞎混了, 做点事吧. 3 [Ipr] ~ (about/around) with sth play carelessly with sth in one's hands 胡乱摆弄: She fiddled with her watch so much that it broke. 她总胡乱摆弄手表, 结果把它弄坏了. 4 [Tn] (infml 口) falsify (accounts, etc); get (sth) by cheating 篡改(帐目等); 骗取(某物): fiddle one's expenses 虚报开支 * He fiddled a free ticket for the match. 他骗得一张那场比赛的免费入场券.

  fiddler

  / 5fIdlE(r); `fIdlL/ n 1 person who plays the violin 小提琴手. 2 (infml 口) person who cheats; swindler 骗子; 诈骗者.

  fiddling

  / 5fIdlIN; `fIdlIN/ adj [usu attrib 通常作定语] (infml 口) trivial; unimportant; petty 微不足道的; 无足轻重的; 小的: fiddling little details 琐碎的细节.

  fiddly

  / 5fIdlI; `fIdlI/ adj (infml 口) awkward to do or use 难弄的; 费事的; 不便使用的: Changing a fuse is one of those fiddly jobs I hate. 我最不愿意干换保险丝这类活儿了. * This tin-opener is awfully fiddly. 这把罐头刀很不好使.

  fiddlesticks

  / 5fIdlstIks; `fIdl9stIks/ interj (dated 旧) nonsense 胡扯; 废话.

  bona fide

  / 9bEUnE 5faIdI; `bonE `faIdI/ adj [esp attrib 尤作定语], adv genuine(ly); without fraud or deception; legal(ly) 真实(的); 真诚(的); 合法(的): a bona fide agreement/contract/deal 真诚的协议[合约/交易].

  bona fides

  / -dIz; -diz/ n [U] (law 律) honest intention; sincerity 诚意; 真诚: establish one's bona fides 证明自己的诚意.

  fidelity

  / fI5delEtI; ?@ faI-; faI`dZlEtI/ n [U] 1 ~ (to sb/sth) (a) loyalty; faithfulness 忠实; 忠贞; 忠诚: fidelity to one's principles, religion, leader 对自己的原则、 宗教信仰、 领袖的忠诚. (b) accuracy; truthfulness 精确; 真实; 确切: fidelity to the text of the play 忠实於剧本的原文 * translate sth with the greatest fidelity 极准确地翻译某材料. 2 quality or precision with which sound is reproduced (音响的)保真度: [attrib 作定语] a high fidelity recording 高保真的录音.

  fidget

  / 5fIdVIt; `fIdVIt/ v [I, Ipr, Ip] ~ (about) (with sth) make small restless movements, thus annoying other people 烦躁不安(惹人生厌): Stop fidgeting! 别坐立不安的! * Hurry up, your father is beginning to fidget, ie show signs of impatience. 快点, 你父亲有些不耐烦了. * It's bad manners to fidget about (with the cutlery) at the table. 用餐时摆弄刀叉玩儿是不雅的.

  fidget

  n 1 [C] person who fidgets 烦躁不安的人: You're such a fidget! 你真是个坐不住的人! 2 the fidgets [pl] restless movements 烦躁; 坐立不安: I always get the fidgets during long meetings. 会议开得长我就坐不住了.

  fidgety

  adj restless or inclined to fidget 烦躁的; 坐立不安的: a fidgety child 烦躁不安的孩子 * Travelling in planes makes me fidgety. 我一坐飞机就心神不安.

  field

  / fi:ld; fild/ n 1 area of land (usu enclosed by a fence, hedge, etc) used for pasturing animals or cultivating crops 田; 地; 牧场: working in the fields 在田间干活 * a fine field of wheat 一片好麦田. 2 (usu in compounds 通常用以构成复合词) (a) wide area or expanse 辽阔的地方; 原野; 旷野: an `ice-field, eg around the North Pole. (b) open space used for a specified purpose (作某用途的)场地, 场所: a `baseball, `cricket, etc field. 3 (usu in compounds 通常用以构成复合词) area from which minerals, etc are obtained 矿区; 产地: `coalfields * `gold-fields * a new `oilfield. 4 range of a subject, an activity or an interest (某种学科、 活动或兴趣的)领域, 范围, 界: in the field of politics, art, science, music, etc 在政治、 艺术、 科学、 音乐等领域 * That is outside my field, ie not among the subjects I have studied. 那不在我所研究的范围之内. 5 (a) area or space within which a specified force can be felt 场(存在某种力的效应的范围或空间): a magnetic `field 磁场 * the earth's gravitational `field, ie the space in which the earth's gravity has an effect 地球引力场. (b) range over which sth can operate effectively 某物的有效作用范围: the field of a telescope 望远镜的视野 * one's field of vision, ie the area that one can see 视野 * a gun with a good field of fire 远射程的炮. 6 area or place where a battle is or was fought 战场: the field of battle/`battlefield 战场. 7 (sport 体) (a) all those taking part or competing in an event (比赛项目的)全体参赛者: The field includes three world record holders. 参赛者中包括三名世界记录保持者. (b) (in cricket and baseball) team that is not batting, with regard to their positions on the field (板球和棒球)守队: bowling to a defensive field 向守队投球. 8 (computing 计) one section of a record, representing a unit of information 字段; 信息组: The firm's payroll has one field for gross pay and one for net pay. 公司工资单上一部分是原工资, 一部分是实发工资. 9 (idm 习语) hold the field (against sb/sth) not be replaced (by sb/sth); remain dominant 不为(某人[某事物])所替代; 保持优势: Einstein's ideas on physics have held the field for years. 爱因斯坦的物理学理论多年来一直保持其权威性. play the `field (infml 口 esp US) avoid committing oneself to one person, activity, etc 不对某一人做出承诺; 不承诺参加某一活动等. take the `field (a) begin a war or battle 开始作战; 上阵. (b) (sport 体) go onto the playing area 开始比赛; 上场.

  field-day

  n 1 day on which military operations are practised 军事演习日. 2 day or period of great excitement and activity 振奋人心的重要日子或时期: Whenever there's a government scandal the newspapers have a field-day. 政府一有丑闻, 报界便紧张忙碌一阵. 3 (esp US) (a) sports day at a school, college, etc (学校等的)体育比赛日, 运动会. (b) day of outdoor scientific study 野外科研活动日.

  field-events

  n [pl] athletic sports other than races, eg jumping and discus-throwing 田赛(如跳高、 跳远、 掷铁饼). Cf 参看 track events (track).

  field-glasses

  n = glasses (glass 6).

  field hockey

  (US) = hockey.

  Field Marshal

  officer of the highest rank in the British Army (英军的)陆军元帅. =>App 9 见附录9.

  field officer

  major or colonel in the army 陆军校级军官.

  field sports

  outdoor sports, eg hunting, fishing and shooting 野外运动(如打猎、 钓鱼、 射击).

  field-test

  v [Tn] test (sth) by using it in the conditions for which it is meant 对(某物)进行实地试验: The equipment has all been field-tested. 这些设备都已经过实地试验. n: undergo rigorous field-tests 进行严格的现场试验.

  field-work

  n 1 [U] practical academic or social work done outside the laboratory or classroom 实地考察工作; 现场调查工作. 2 [C] temporary fortification made by troops 临时筑成的防御工事.

  field-worker

  n person who helps in practical field-work 实地考察者; 现场调查者.

  field

  / fi:ld; fild/ v (a) [I, Tn] (in cricket and baseball) (stand ready to) catch and throw back (the ball) (板球和棒球)(准备)接或掷还(球), 守(球): He fields well. 他接球技术很好. * She fielded the ball. 她把球接住了. (b) [I] (in cricket and baseball) be (in) the team not batting (板球和棒球)任守方: We're fielding first. 我们先作守方. (c) [Tn] select (sb) to play in a game (of football, hockey, cricket, etc) (足球、 曲棍球、 板球等赛中)选派(某人)上场: They're fielding a very strong side this season. 他们本季派了一支很强的球队上场. (d) [Tn] (fig 比喻) deal successfully with (a series of questions, etc) 顺利处理(一系列问题): The minister easily fielded all the journalist's awkward questions. 部长轻而易举地一一回答了记者提出的棘手问题.

  fielder

  n = fieldsman. =>illus at cricket 见cricket插图.

  fieldsman

  / -mEn; -mEn/ n (pl -men / -mEn; -mEn/) (in cricket, etc) member of the team not batting (板球、 棒球等的)外场员, 外野手.

  fiend

  / fi:nd; find/ n 1 evil spirit; devil 恶魔; 魔鬼: the fiends of hell 地狱的魔鬼. 2 (a) very cruel or spiteful person 恶魔般的人; 穷凶极恶的人. (b) person who causes mischief or annoyance 淘气的人; 讨厌的人: Stop teasing her, you little fiend! 别捉弄她了, 你这个小淘气鬼! 3 (infml 口) person who is fond of or strongly drawn to sth specified 耽於某事物者; 迷; 狂: a ,fresh-air fiend 注重呼吸新鲜空气的人.

  fiendish

  adj 1 fierce or cruel 凶猛的; 残酷的: a fiendish temper 残暴的脾气. 2 (infml 口) clever and complicated 巧妙而复杂的: a fiendish plot, plan, idea, etc 巧妙而又复杂的构思、 计画、 主意等. 3 (infml 口) extremely bad, unpleasant or difficult 极坏的; 使人很不愉快的; 极其困难的: fiendish weather 恶劣的天气 * a fiendish problem 难题.

  fiendishly

  adv (infml 口) very; extremely 很; 极: a fiendishly difficult puzzle 极难解开的谜 * It's fiendishly cold outside. 外面冷极了.

  fierce

  / fIEs; fIrs/ adj (-r, -st) 1 violent and angry 凶猛的; 凶狠的; 愤怒的: fierce dogs, winds, attacks 恶狗、 强风、 猛攻 * look fierce/have a fierce look 样子凶恶. 2 (a) intense 强烈的; 极度的: fierce concentration, loyalty, hatred 极端集中、 忠诚、 痛恨. (b) unpleasantly or uncontrollably strong 酷烈的; 激烈的: fierce heat 酷热 * His plan met with fierce opposition. 他的计画遭到激烈反对.

  fiercely

  adv.

  fierceness

  n [U].

  fiery

  / 5faIErI; `faIrI/ adj [usu attrib 通常作定语] 1 (a) like or consisting of fire; flaming 似火的; 含火的; 燃烧著的: fiery red hair 赤色的毛发 * a fiery sky 火红的天空 * fiery eyes, ie angry and glaring 冒著怒火的目光. (b) very spicy; producing a burning sensation 味道强烈的; 辛辣的: a fiery Mexican dish 味道强烈的墨西哥菜 * fiery liquor 火辣辣的烈酒. 2 (a) (of a person, his character, etc) quickly or easily made angry (指人、 性格等)暴躁的, 易怒的: a fiery temper 暴躁的脾气. (b) (of words, etc) intense; passionate (指言语等)激烈的, 充满激情的: a fiery speech 激昂的演说. (c) full of high spirits 情绪高涨的: a fiery horse 精神饱满的马.

  fierily

  / -rElI; -rIlI/ adv.

  fieriness

  n [U].

  fiesta

  / fI5estE; fI`ZstE/ n (a) religious festival in Spanish-speaking countries (西班牙语国家的)宗教节日. (b) any holiday or festival 节日; 假日.

  FIFA

  / 5fi:fE; `fifE/ abbr 缩写 = International Association Football Federation (French Federation Internationale de Football Association) 国际足球联合会(源自法文Federation Internationale de Football Association).

  fife

  / faIf; faIf/ n small high-pitched musical instrument like a flute, used with drums in military music (军乐中与鼓合奏的)横笛: [attrib 作定语] a fife and drum band 笛鼓合奏的乐队.

  fifteen

  / 9fIf5ti:n; `fIf`tin/ pron, det 15; one more than fourteen 15, 十五(个). => App 4 见附录4.

  fifteen

  n 1 the number 15 *15; 十五. 2 team of Rugby Union players 橄榄球队.

  fifteenth

  / 9fIf5ti:nW; `fIf`tinW/ pron, det 15th; next after fourteenth 第15, 第十五(个). n one of fifteen equal parts of sth 十五分之一. For the uses of fifteen and fifteenth see the examples at five and fifth. 关於fifteen和fifteenth的用法见five和fifth词条中的示例.

  fifth

  / fIfW; fIfW/ pron, det 5th; next after fourth 第5, 第五(个): the fifth in line 第五行 * Today is the fifth (of March). 今天是(三月)五号. * the fifth book on the list 书单上的第五本书 * This is the fifth day of the conference. 今天是会议的第五天. * Edward V, ie Edward the Fifth 爱德华五世. =>App 4 见附录4.

  fifth

  n one of five equal parts of sth 五分之一: He gave her a fifth of the total amount. 他给了她总量的五分 之一. * They divided the money into fifths and took one fifth each. 他们把钱分成五份, 每人拿了五分之一.

  fifthly

  adv in the fifth position or place 在第五个位置或地点.

  a fifth column

  organized group of people working for the enemy within a country at war 第五纵队(战时在国内为敌人工作的组织).

  fifty

  / 5fIftI; `fIftI/ pron, det 50; one more than forty-nine 50, 五十(个). =>App 4 见附录4.

  fiftieth

  / 5fIftIEW; `fIftIIW/ pron, det 50th; next after forty-ninth 第50, 第五十(个). n one of fifty equal parts of sth 五十分之一.

  fifty

  n 1 the number 50 *50; 五十. 2 the fifties [pl] numbers, years or temperature from 50 to 59 从50到59的数目、 年数或温度: The total amount is in the fifties. 总共五十多个. * She was born in the fifties, ie in the 1950's. 她生於五十年代. * How warm is it today? It's in the (high/low) fifties. 今天气温有多少度? 五十几度(不到六十度[五十度出头]). 3 (idm 习语) in one's fifties between the ages of 50 and 60 在50岁到60岁之间: She's in her early/mid/late fifties. 她五十刚出头[五十五岁左右/快六十岁了].

  fifty-fifty

  adj, adv (infml 口) shared or sharing equally between two 对半(的); 二一添作五: divide the profits on a fifty-fifty basis, ie take equal shares 平分利润 * a fifty-fifty chance of winning, ie an equal chance of winning or losing 胜负的可能性参半 * We went fifty-fifty on dinner, ie shared the cost equally. 我们平摊用餐费.

  fifty pence (also fifty p, 50p)

  (Brit) (coin worth) fifty new pence 五十新便士(的硬币). For the uses of fifty and fiftieth see the examples at five and fifth. 关於fifty和fiftieth的用法见five和fifth词条中的示例.

  fig

  / fIg; fI^/ n 1 soft sweet fruit, full of small seeds and often eaten dried 无花果. 2 (also `fig-tree) tree with broad leaves on which this grows 无花果树. 3 (idm 习语) not care/give a `fig (for sb/sth) not care at all; consider (sb/sth) valueless or unimportant 毫不理会; 认为(某人[某事物])毫无价值或微不足道: I don't care a fig what others think of me. 我毫不在乎别人对我有什麽想法.

  fig-leaf

  n leaf of a fig-tree, traditionally used for covering the genital organs of nude bodies in drawings, statues, etc 无花果树叶(传统上用作裸体画像、 雕像等的阴部覆盖物).

  fig

  abbr 缩写 = 1 figurative(ly). 2 figure; illustration: see diagram at fig 3 见图3的图解.

  fight

  / faIt; faIt/ v (pt, pp fought/ fR:t; fRt/) 1 (a) [I, Ipr] ~ (against/with sb/sth) struggle against sb/sth using physical force, in a war, battle, etc 搏斗; 打架; 打仗; 作战: soldiers training to fight 为作战而受训的士兵 * Do stop fighting, boys! 别打了, 小伙子们! * The two dogs were fighting over a bone. 两只狗为一块骨头撕咬. * Britain fought with (ie as an ally of) France against Germany in the last war. 在第二次世界大战中, 英国与法国联合作战抗击德国. * Have you been fighting with (ie against) your brother again? 你又跟弟弟打架了吧? (b) [Tn] struggle thus against (sb) 与(某人)搏斗, 打架, 打仗, 作战: We must fight the enemy. 我们必须与敌人作战. * The boxer has fought many opponents. 该拳手已与许多对手交锋. 2 [Tn] engage in, take part in or carry on (a battle, etc) 打(仗); 进行(战斗等): fight a war, duel, etc 打仗、 进行决斗 * The government has to fight several by-elections in the coming months. 政府要在数月内进行几次补选. 3 [Ipr, Tn] ~ (against) sth strive to overcome, destroy or prevent sth 争取克服、 战胜、 摧毁或防止(某事物): fight (against) poverty, oppression, ignorance 与贫困、 压迫、 愚昧现象作斗争 * fight an eviction notice 努力与驱逐房客通知一事周旋 * fight a fire 救火. 4 [Ipr, Tn.pr] make (one's way) or achieve (sth) by fighting or effort (经奋斗或努力)开(路)或获得(某事物): We had to fight (our way) through the crowded streets. 我们得从街道上熙熙攘攘的人群中挤过去. * They fought the bill through Parliament. 他们极力争取使该法案在国会获得通过. 5 [I, Ipr] ~ (about/over sth) quarrel or argue 争吵; 争论: It's a trivial matter and not worth fighting about. 区区小事不值得争吵. 6 (idm 习语) fight like a `tiger attack sb or defend oneself fiercely 极力攻击某人或保护自己: She fought like a tiger to get what she wanted. 她竭力争取自己想要的东西. fight a losing `battle (against sth) struggle without (hope of) success to achieve or prevent sth 为获得或防止某事物而进行毫无成功希望的斗争: Anyone who tries to resist the spread of new technology is fighting a losing battle. 想阻止新技术传播的人注定要失败. fight shy of sth/sb be unwilling to undertake (a task) or confront sb; avoid sth/sb 不愿承担(某任务)或面对(某人); 避开某事物[某人]: He was unhappy in his job for years but always fought shy of telling his boss. 他多年来工作都很不愉快, 却始终未向老板启齿. fight to the `finish fight until one side wins conclusively 战至分出胜负; 一决雌雄. a ,fighting `chance small but distinct chance of success if a great effort is made 需经极大努力或许有成功的可能. fighting `talk/`words defiant statement or challenge showing that one is ready to fight for sth 挑衅的话; 挑战的言语. live like fighting cocks => live2. 7 (phr v) fight back fight with renewed force and strength; show resistance or retaliation 反击; 回击; 抵抗: After a disastrous first half the team fought back to level the match. 该队在上半场惨败後重整旗鼓以求扳成平局. * Don't let them bully you. Fight back! 别让他们欺侮你. 把他们顶回去! fight sth back/down suppress (feelings, etc) 克制, 抑制(感情等): fighting back tears 强忍住眼泪 * fighting down a sense of disgust 抑制厌恶感. fight for sth strive to obtain or accomplish sth 争取获得或完成某事物: fight for freedom, independence, human rights, etc 争取自由、 独立、 人权等. fight sb/sth off resist or repel sb/sth by fighting 抵抗或击退某人[某事物]: fighting off repeated enemy attacks 击退敌人一次又一次的进攻 * fight off a cold, a feeling of tiredness 治愈感冒、 驱除疲劳感. fight sth out settle (an argument, a dispute, etc) by fighting 通过斗争使(争论等)得到解决: I can't help them to resolve their quarrel they must fight it out between them. 我无法帮助他们解决争论--他们得打出个结果来.

  fighter

  n 1 person who fights in war or in sport 战士; 战斗者; 游戏或比赛的参加者. 2 (usu approv 通常作褒义) person who does not yield without a struggle 斗士; 奋斗者: She won't give up easily: she's a real fighter. 她不会轻易放弃的, 她十分顽强. 3 fast military aircraft designed to attack other aircraft 战斗机; 歼击机: a,jet-`fighter 喷气式战斗机 * [attrib 作定语] fighter planes 战斗机 * a fighter pilot 战斗机驾驶员.

  fighting

  n [U]: outbreaks of street fighting 巷战的爆发.

  fight

  / faIt; faIt/ n 1 [C] act of fighting or struggling 战斗; 搏斗; 打架; 斗争: a fight between two dogs 两犬相争 * the fight against poverty, crime, disease 与贫困、 犯罪行为、 疾病所作的斗争 * a prize fight, eg in boxing 职业拳击赛 =>Usage at argument 用法见argument. 2 [U] desire or ability to fight or resist; determination 斗志; 战斗力; 决心: In spite of many defeats, they still had plenty of fight left in them. 他们尽管多次失败, 但仍有很强的战斗力. * Losing their leader took all the fight out of them. 他们失去了首领以後便丧失了斗志. 3 (idm 习语) a fight to the `finish struggle, etc that continues until one side wins conclusively 决定胜负的战斗等. pick a fight/quarrel => pick3. put up a good, poor, etc `fight fight with/without courage and determination 有[无]勇气和决心的战斗.

  figment

  / 5fIgmEnt; `fI^mEnt/ n thing that is not real but only imagined (used esp in the expression shown) 想像中的事物, 虚构的事物(尤用於以下示例): a figment of sb's imagination 凭空想像出来的事物.

  figurative

  / 5fIgErEtIv; `fI^jErEtIv/ adj (abbr 缩写 fig) (of words) used in an imaginative or a metaphorical way rather than literally (指言语)比喻的: `He exploded with rage' shows a figurative use of the verb `to explode'. `他肺都气炸了,'一句中的`炸'字是比喻用法.

  figuratively

  adv.

  figure

  / 5fIgE(r); ?@ 5fIgjEr; `fI^jL/ n 1 [C] (a) written symbol for a number, esp 0 to 9 数字(尤指0至9): Write the figure `7' for me. 给我写个`7'字. * He has an income of six figures/a six-figure income, ie 100000 or more. 他有六位数字的收入(至少为100000英镑). (b) (usu sing 通常作单数) sum of money; price 金额; 价格: We bought the house at a high/low figure, ie for a high/low price. 我们以高[低]价买下了那所房子. 2 [C] (a) diagram or illustration 图解; 图表: The figure on page 22 shows a political map of Africa. 第22页的插图是非洲的政区图. (b) geometrical shape enclosed by lines or surfaces 几何图形. 3 [C] decorative pattern or series of movements 装饰性的图案或系列动作: The skater executed a perfect set of figures. 那个滑冰的人做出了一套完美的花样动作. * [attrib 作定语] figure-skating 花样滑冰. 4 [C] representation of a person or an animal in drawing, painting, etc (绘画等中的)人或动物的像, 画像, 肖像: The central figure in the painting is the artist's daughter. 画中间的那个人是画家的女儿. 5 [C] human form, esp its appearance, what it suggests, and how it is seen by others 身材; (尤指)体态, 相貌: have a good figure, ie be slim, shapely, etc 身材苗条 * I'm dieting to keep my figure, ie in order not to get fatter. 我正在节食以保持身材不变(不发胖). * I saw a figure approaching in the darkness. 我看见黑暗中有个人影走近. * He was once a leading figure in the community, but now he has become a figure of fun, ie His influence was considerable but now he appears merely ridiculous. 他原是该社区的头面人物, 但现在成了人们取笑的对象. * She's a fine figure of a woman, ie pleasing in shape and appearance. 她身材苗条. 6 figures [pl] arithmetic 算术: Are you good at figures? 你的算术好吗? 7 (idm 习语) cut a fine, poor, sorry, etc `figure have a fine, etc appearance 出众、 出丑、 出洋相等. facts and figures => fact. put a figure on sth quote a price or specify a number for sth 报价; 确定某物的数量: It's impossible to put a figure on the number of homeless after the flood. 水灾过後无家可归的人不计其数. in round figures/numbers => round1. single figures => single.

  figure-head

  n 1 (esp formerly) large wooden carving, usu representing a human figure, placed at the prow of a ship (尤指旧时的)船首饰像, 破浪神的雕像. =>illus 见插图. 2 (fig 比喻) person in a high position but without any real authority 有名无实的首脑人物; 傀儡.

  figure of eight (US also figure eight)

  thing that resembles the number 8 in shape `8'字形: skating figures of eight on the ice 在冰上滑`8'字形.

  figure of speech

  word or phrase used for vivid or dramatic effect and not literally 比喻: I didn't really mean she was in outer space it's just a figure of speech. 我不是说她真在外层空间--这只是打个比方.

  figure

  / 5fIgE(r); ?@ 5fIgjEr; `fI^jL/ v 1 [I, Ipr] ~ (in sth) appear or be mentioned, esp prominently 出现或被提及(尤指引人注目的): a character that figures in many of her novels 在她多部小说中出现的一个人物 * She figured conspicuously in the public debate on the issue. 她在该问题的公开辩论中很引人注目. 2 (a) [Tn, Tf] (esp US) think (sth); calculate 想(某事物); 估计: I figured (that) you wouldn't come. 我料想你不会来. * It's what I figured. 我是这样认为的. (b) [I] (used with itor that 与it或that连用) (infml 口) be likely orunderstandable 有可能; 可以理解: `John isn't here today.'`That figures, he looked very unwell yesterday.' `约翰今天没来.'`怪不得, 他昨天就好像不太舒服.' 3 (phr v) figure sth in (US) include sth in one's calculations 将某事物包括在内; 计算在内: Have you figured in the cost of food for our holiday? 你把咱们度假的食物费用计算进去了吗? figure on sth (US) include sth in one's plans; rely on sth 计画; 指望: I figure on being in New York in January. 我计画一月份在纽约. figure sb/sth out (esp US) (a) come to understand sb/sth by thinking 理解某人[某事物]; 弄明白: I've never been able to figure him out. 我一直不能理解他. * I can't figure out why he quit his job. 我琢磨不透他为什麽要辞掉工作.* Have you figured out what's wrong with your car?你找出你汽车的毛病了吗? (b) discover sth by using arithmetic; calculate sth 演算出; 计算出: Have you figured out how much the holiday will cost? 你算出假期得花多少钱了吗?

  lay figure

  / 9leI 5fIgE(r); 9le`fI^L/ wooden figure of the human body with jointed movable limbs, used as a model by artists (艺术家用的四肢可活动的)木制人体模型.

  figurine

  / 5fIgEri:n; ?@ 9fIgjE5ri:n; 9fI^jE`rin/ n small ornamental statue, esp of a person 小塑像; (尤指)人的雕像.

  filament

  / 5fIlEmEnt; `fIlEmEnt/ n 1 very thin strand or fibre, like a thread 细线; 细丝; 线状物. 2 thin wire in a light bulb that glows when electricity is passed through it (电灯泡的)灯丝. =>illus at bulb 见bulb插图.

  filch

  / fIltF; fIltF/ v [Tn] (infml 口) steal (esp sth of small value) 偷(尤指不贵重的东西): Who's filched my pencil? 谁把我的铅笔拿走了?

  file

  / faIl; faIl/ n metal tool with a rough surface for cutting, smoothing or shaping hard substances 锉; 锉刀.

  file

  v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr, Cn.a] cut, smooth or shape (sth) with a file 用锉切削(某物): file one's fingernails 锉指甲 * file sth smooth 把某物锉光滑 * file an iron bar in two 把铁棒锉成两截. 2 (phr v) file sth down make sth smooth and smaller in size by using a file 将某物锉光滑、 锉小.

  filings

  / 5faIlINz; `faIlINz/ n [pl] particles removed by a file 锉屑: iron filings 铁屑.

  file

  / faIl; faIl/ n 1 (a) any of various types of drawer, shelf, holder, cover, box, etc, usu with a wire or metal rod for keeping loose papers together and in order, for reference purposes (存放文件、 公文、 卷宗、 档案等的)抽屉、 架子、 夹子、 封皮、 箱子等: I need another file for my letters. 我还需要一个存放信件的夹子. (b) file and its contents 存放文件等的用具及其中的文件; 档案; 卷宗: Where's the file of our recent correspondence? 我们近期的信件卷宗在哪里? * have/open/keep a file on each member of staff 有[设立/保管]每个职员的档案. 2 organized collection of related data or material in a computer (计算机)文件: I can't access the file on your company because I've forgotten the code. 我无法取出贵公司的文件, 因为我把代码忘了. 3 (idm 习语) on file kept in a file 存档; 归档: We have all your particulars on file. 我们已把你的全部资料存档.

  file

  / faIl; faIl/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] ~ sth (away) place sth in a file; store sth where it can be consulted 将某物归档: file (away) letters in a drawer 把信件归档放入抽屉中. 2 [Tn] send (sth) so that it may be recorded 送交(某物)以便备案; 提交: file an application for divorce 提交离婚申请书.

  filing clerk (US file clerk)

  person who files correspondence, etc and does general office tasks 档案管理员.

  file

  / faIl; faIl/ n 1 line of people or things one behind the other 排成行的人或物. 2 (idm 习语) (in) Indian/single `file (in) one line, one behind the other (成)单行. Cf 参看 the rank and file (rank1).

  file

  v [I, Ipr, Ip] ~ in, out, off, past, etc march or walk in the specified direction in a single line 排成单行沿某方向前进或行走: The men filed onto the parade ground and past the general. 士兵们排成单行进入阅兵场自将军面前走过.

  filet

  / 5fIleI; fi`le/ n (also filet mignon / 9fIleI 5mi:njCn;9fIle `minjon/) (US) small tender piece of beef without bones, cut from a sirloin (牛的)里脊: Two filets mignons, please. 请来两份牛里脊.

  filial

  / 5fIlIEl; `fIlIEl/ adj [usu attrib 通常作定语] of or expected from a son or daughter 子女的: filial duty 孝道.

  filibuster

  / 5fIlIbQstE(r); `fIlE9bQstL/ n (esp US) 1 person who tries to delay or prevent the making of decisions in (esp parliamentary) meetings by making long speeches 以冗长的演说拖延或阻挠会议(尤指议会)做出决定的人. 2 such a speech 此种冗长的演说.

  filibuster

  v [I] (esp US) act as a filibuster (以冗长演说)拖延或阻挠: filibustering tactics 藉冗长演说来拖延的战术.

  filigree

  / 5fIlIgri:; `fIlE9^ri/ n [U] fine ornamental work using gold, silver or copper wire (用金丝、 银丝或铜丝制成的)精工饰品: [attrib 作定语] a filigree brooch 银丝胸针 * filigree ear-rings 金丝耳环.

  filings

  => file1.

  fill

  / fIl; fIl/ v 1 (a) [Tn, Tn.pr, Cn.a, Dn.n, Dn.pr] ~ sth (with sth); ~sth (for sb) make sth full (of sth); occupy all of the space in sth 使某物充满(另一物); 装满; 填满: fill a hole with sand, a tank with petrol, a hall with people 用沙子把洞填满、 把油箱注满汽油、 大厅里挤满人 * Smoke filled the room. 房间里烟雾弥漫. * The wind filled the sails, ie made them swell out. 这阵风把帆吹得鼓鼓的. * (fig 比喻) I am filled with admiration for your bravery. 我由衷钦佩你英勇绝伦. * fill a bucket full of water 装满一桶水 * Please fill this glass for me/fill me this glass. 请把这个杯子给我斟满. (b) [I, Ipr] ~ (with sth) become full 充满; 充塞: The hall soon filled. 那大厅不久就满了. * The sails filled with wind. 帆在风中张得鼓鼓的. 2 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (with sth) block or plug (a hole, gap, etc) 填塞, 堵塞(洞、 隙等): A dentist often has to fill teeth. 牙科医生常常给患者补牙. * I must fill that crack in the wall. 我得把墙上的那条裂缝填补好. 3 [Tn] (a) hold (a position) 任(某职): She fills the post satisfactorily, ie performs her duties well. 她非常尽职. (b) appoint sb to (a position) 派某人担任(某职): The vacancy has already been filled. 那空缺已有人补上了. 4 (idm 习语) fill/fit the bill => bill1. fill sb's shoes take over sb's function, duties, etc and perform them satisfactorily 出色地接替某人的工作、 职务等. 5 (phr v) fill in (for sb) take sb's place for a short time 临时接替某人; 暂代: My partner is on holiday this week so I'm filling in (for him). 我的合伙人本星期休假, 所以我暂代(他)一下. fill sth in (a) (US also fill sth out) add what is necessary to make sth complete 加入必要内容使某事物完备; 补充: fill in an application form, ie write one's name and other details required 填写申请表格. (b) fill sth completely 填满(某物): The hole has been filled in. 洞已填满. (c) spend (time) while waiting for sth (在等候某事物时)打发, 消磨(时间): He filled in the rest of the day watching television. 他看电视来打发当天剩下的时间. fill sb `in (on sth) give sb full details (about sth) 向某人提供(关於某事物的)详情: Can you fill me in on what has been happening? 你能把发生的事情原原本本地告诉我吗? fill `out become larger, rounder or fatter 变得更大、 更圆、 更胖: Her cheeks began to fill out. 她的脸胖起来了. * He used to be a very thin child but he's filled out a lot recently. 这孩子过去很瘦, 近来胖多了. fill sth out => fill sth in (a). fill (sth) up become or make completely full 充满; 填满; 装满: The gutter has filled up with mud. 沟槽里都是泥. * fill up the tank with petrol 把油箱装满汽油.

  filler

  n object or material used to fill a hole in sth or to increase the size of sth 填料; 填塞物.

  filling station

  = petrol station (petrol).

  fill

  / fIl; fIl/ n 1 [C] enough to fill sth 填满某物之量: a fill of tobacco/petrol/oil 一烟斗的烟丝[一桶汽油/一桶油]. 2 [U] one's ~ (of sth/sb) (fml 文) (a) as much as one can eat or drink 吃饱或喝足的量: No more tea, thank you, I've had my fill. 谢谢你, 不要再添茶了, 我已经喝足了. (b) as much as one can tolerate 能忍受的限度: She decided she had had her fill of his cruelty. 她认为自己已经受够了他的虐待.

  fillet

  / 5fIlIt; `fIlIt/ n 1 [C, U] piece of meat or fish without bones 无骨的肉片或鱼片: [attrib 作定语] a/some fillet steak 一块[一些]里脊片. 2 [C] narrow band, ribbon, etc worn round the head to keep the hair in place or as an ornament 束发带; 头带.

  fillet

  v [Tn] cut (meat or fish) into fillets 把(肉或鱼)切成片: grilled filleted sole 烤比目鱼片.

  filling

  / 5fIlIN; `fIlIN/ n 1 [C] (process of putting in) material used to fill a hole in a tooth (补牙洞的)填料; 补牙: I had to have two fillings at the dentist's today. 我今天要请牙医给我补两颗牙. 2 [C, U] food put between slices of bread to make a sandwich, or between layers of cake, etc 馅: a sponge cake with jam filling 果酱馅饼.

  fillip

  / 5fIlIp; `fIlEp/ n 1 stimulus or incentive; encouragement刺激; 激励; 鼓励: an advertising campaign to give a much-needed fillip to sales 刺激销路必不可少的广告运动. 2 quick flick made by pressing a finger against the thumb and then releasing it suddenly 弹指.

  filly

  / 5fIlI; `fIlI/ n young female horse 小母马. Cf 参看 colt1, mare1 1.

  film

  / fIlm; fIlm/ n 1 [C usu sing 通常作单数] ~ (of sth) thin coating or covering on or over sth (某物上)薄薄的一层, 薄膜: a film of dust 一层灰尘 * a film of oil on water 水面上的一层油 * a film of mist over the land 笼罩大地的一层薄雾. 2 [C, U] roll or sheet of thin flexible light-sensitive material for use in photography 软片; 胶卷: put a new film in one's camera 在相机里装上新胶卷 * expose/develop 50 feet of film 使50英尺的软片曝光[冲洗50英尺的软片]. 3 [C] motion picture 电影: What's your favourite film? 你最喜欢哪部电影? * My cousin is in films, ie works in the film industry. 我表兄从事电影业.

  filmy

  adj (-ier, -iest) [usu attrib 通常作定语] thin and almost transparent 薄而近乎透明的: a filmy cotton blouse 极薄的棉质女衬衫.

  film star

  well-known cinema actor or actress 电影明星.

  film-strip

  n series of transparent still photographs that can be projected separately 幻灯片.

  film test

  photographic test to decide whether sb is suitable to act in films 试镜(以决定某人是否适合演电影).

  film

  / fIlm; fIlm/ v 1 (a) [Tn, Tng] make a film or motion picture of (a scene, story, etc) 将(一场面、 故事等)拍成电影: They're filming a new comedy. 他们正在拍摄一部新的喜剧片. * She filmed her children playing in the garden. 她把她的孩子在花园嬉戏的镜头拍摄了下来. (b) [I] be engaged in doing this 从事电影拍摄: They've been filming for six months. 他们已经拍了半年电影. 2 (a) [Tn] cover (sth) with a thin coating or covering layer 给(某物)覆上一薄层: Thin ice filmed the lake. 湖上结了一层薄冰. (b) [Ip] ~ over become covered in this way 覆上一薄层: As she cried, her eyes filmed over. 她哭得泪眼蒙胧.

  filter

  / 5fIltE(r); `fIltL/ n 1 device containing paper, sand, cloth, etc used to hold back any solid material or impurities in a liquid or gas passed through it 过滤器: an oil filter 滤油器 * a coffee filter 咖啡过滤器. =>illus 见插图. 2 screen (esp of coloured glass) that allows light only of certain wavelengths to pass through 滤光镜; 滤色镜: I took this picture with a red filter. 这张照片我是用红色滤光镜拍摄的. 3 device for suppressing certain electrical or sound waves (电波、 声波的)滤波器. 4 (Brit) device that signals to show that traffic may turn left while other traffic waiting to go straight ahead or turn right is still stopped by a red traffic light (在红灯指示其他车辆不得直行或右转时)指示车辆左转的交通设施. =>illus 见插图.

  filter

  v 1 [Tn] (a) pass (liquid, light, etc) through a filter 过滤(液体、 光等): It won't take long to filter the coffee. 用不了多少时间就可以把咖啡过滤好. (b) purify (a liquid) by using a filter 滤清(液体): All drinking water must be filtered. 饮用水均须过滤净化. 2 [I, Ipr, Ip] ~ in, out, through, etc (fig 比喻) pass or flow slowly in a specified direction; become known gradually 慢慢传开; 渗透: New ideas are slowly filtering into people's minds. 新思想逐渐深入人心. * The news of the defeat started to filter through. 战败的消息开始传出来. 3 [I] (Brit) (of traffic) turn left while other traffic waiting to go straight ahead or turn right is stopped by a red traffic light (指车辆)左转行驶(有红灯指示其他车辆不得直行或右转).

  filter-paper

  n [U] porous paper for filtering liquids 滤纸.

  filter-tip

  n (cigarette one end of which contains a) filter for smoke (香烟的)过滤嘴; 滤嘴香烟.

  filter-tipped

  adj.

  filth

  / fIlW; fIlW/ n [U] 1 disgusting dirt 肮脏; 污物: Look at the filth on your trousers! 看你裤子上的脏东西! 2 offensive and obscene words, literature, magazines, etc 下流的言语、 文学、 杂志等: How can you read such filth? 你怎麽能看这种乌七八糟的东西?

  filthy

  adj (-ier, -iest) 1 (a) disgustingly dirty 污秽的; 肮脏的: a beggar dressed in filthy rags 衣衫肮脏褴褛的乞丐. (b) obscene 猥亵的; 淫秽的: filthy language猥亵的语言. 2 (infml 口) (esp of weather) very unpleasant (尤指天气)恶劣的: Isn't it a filthy day? 今天天气糟透了!

  filthily

  adv.

  filthiness

  n [U].

  filthy

  adv 1 in a filthy way 污秽地; 淫秽地: filthy dirty 污秽不堪. 2 (infml 口) very 很; 非常: filthy rich 非常富有. 3 (idm 习语) filthy lucre (derog or joc 贬或谑) money or financial gain 肮脏钱; 不义之财.

  filtrate

  / 5fIltreIt; `fIltret/ n filtered liquid 经过滤的液体.

  filtration

  / fIl5treIFn; fIl`treFEn/ n [U] process of filtering liquid, etc 过滤.

  fin

  / fIn; fIn/ n 1 thin flat projecting part of a fish, used for swimming and steering 鳍. =>illus at fish 见fish插图. 2 thing shaped like this on eg an aircraft or a rocket that helps to keep it stable 鳍状物(如飞行器或火箭上的尾翅). =>illus at aircraft 见aircraft插图.

  finable

  => fine1.

  final

  / 5faInl; `faInl/ adj 1 [attrib 作定语] of the end; coming last 最终的; 最後的: the final chapter of a book 书的最後一章. 2 [usu pred 通常作表语] (of a decision, etc) conclusive; decisive; that cannot be changed (指决定等)确定, 决定性, 不可变更: The judge's ruling is final. 法官的判决是不可改变的. * I'm not coming, and that'sfinal! 我不来了, 就这样定了! 3 (idm 习语) in the last/final analysis => analysis. the last/final straw => straw.

  final

  n 1 (a) last of a series of contests or competitions 决赛: the tennis finals 网球决赛 * the Cup Final, ie the last in a series of esp football matches 优胜杯决赛(尤指足球). (b) (usu pl 通常作复数) last set of university examinations 大学的毕业考试: sit/take one's finals 参加大学毕业考试 * the law final(s) 法律专业的毕业考试. 2 last edition of a day's newspaper (当天报纸的)最後发行的一版: late night final 晚间最後版.

  finalist

  / -nElIst; -nlIst/ n player who takes part in the final(s) of a competition 参加决赛者.

  finally

  / -nElI; -nlI/ adv 1 lastly; in conclusion 最後; 总之: Finally, I would like to say... 最後, 我想说.... 2 conclusively; decisively 确定地; 决定性地: We must settle this matter finally. 我们必须彻底解决这一问题. 3 at last; eventually 最终; 终於: After a long delay the performance finally started. 演出拖延很久, 最後总算开始了.

  finale

  / fI5nB:lI; ?@ -5nAlI; fE`nAlI/ n last part of a piece of music or a drama, etc 终曲, 结局(音乐、 戏剧等的最终部分): the grand finale of a pantomine 童话剧的大结局.

  finalize, finalise

  / 5faInElaIz; `faInl9aIz/ v [Tn] put (sth) into final form; complete 使(某事物)达到最後形式; 使完成: finalize one's plans, arrangements, etc 把计画、 安排等确定下来.

  finalization, finalisation

  / 9faInElaI-5zeIFn; ?@ -lI5z-; 9faInElE`zeFEn/ n [U].

  finality

  / faI5nAlEtI; faI`nAlEtI/ n [U] quality or fact of being final 终结; 定局: She spoke with (an air of) finality, ie gave the impression that there was nothing more to be said or done. 她以做结论式的口吻讲话.

  finance

  / 5faInAns, fI5nAns; `faInAns, fE`nAns/ n 1 [U] management of (esp public) money 财务的管理; (尤指)财政: an expert in finance 财务专家 * the Minister of Finance 财政部长. 2 [U] ~ (for sth) money used or needed to support an undertaking 资金: Finance for the National Health Service comes from taxpayers. 国家卫生局的资金来自纳税人的税款. 3 finances [pl] money available to a person, company or country (个人、 公司或国家)可动用的钱, 财源, 财力: Are the firm's finances sound? 这家公司的财务状况可靠吗?

  finance

  v [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] provide money for (a project, etc); fund 为(某计画等)提供资金, 提供款项: The scheme is partly financed by a government grant. 此计画有一部分是政府资助的.

  finance company (also finance house)

  company that lends money for hire-purchase transactions 信贷公司, 财务公司(贷款给分期付款者的公司).

  financial

  / faI5nAnFl, fI5n-; faI`nAnFEl, fE`nA-/ adj concerning money and finance 财务的; 金融的; 财政的: in financial difficulties, ie short of money 处於财务困难之中 * Tokyo and New York are major financial centres. 东京和纽约是主要的金融中心.

  financially

  / -FElI;-FElI/ adv.

  financial year (US fiscal year)

  period of twelve months over which annual accounts and taxes are calculated 财政年度; 会计年度.

  financier

  / faI5nAnsIE(r); ?@ 9fInEn5sIEr; 9fInEn`sIr/ n person engaged in financing businesses, etc on a large scale 财政家; 金融家.

  finch

  / fIntF; fIntF/ n (often in compounds 常用以构成复合词) any of several types of small songbird with short, stubby bills 雀科鸣鸟(任何一种短喙鸣鸟): a `chaffinch * a `goldfinch * a `bullfinch.

  find

  / faInd; faInd/ v (pt, pp found / faUnd; faJnd/) 1 [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p, Cn.a] discover (sth/sb) unexpectedly or by chance; come across 意外或偶然发现(某事物[某人]); 遇到; 碰到: Look what I've found. 看我发现了什麽. * I found a 5 note on the pavement. 我在人行道上捡到了一张5英镑的纸币. * He woke up and found himself in hospital. 他醒来发觉自己在医院里. * I was disappointed to find you out (ie that you were out) when I called. 我给你打电话时知道你不在, 十分失望. * We came home and found her asleep on the sofa. 我们回到家, 看到她在沙发上睡著了. 2 [Tn, Tn.pr, Dn.n, Dn.pr] ~ sth/sb (for sb) discover sth/sb by searching, inquiry or effort (经寻找、 询问或努力)发现某事物[某人]: After months of drilling, oil was found off the coast. 经数月钻探, 在沿海找到了石油. * find a cure for cancer 找到治疗癌症的方法 * find an answer to a question 找到问题的答案 * I can find nothing new to say on this subject. 对这个问题, 我提不出什麽新看法. * Can you find me a hotel/find a hotel for me? 你能给我找一家旅馆吗? 3 [Tn, Dn.n, Dn.pr] ~ sth/sb (for sb) obtain or get back (esp sth/sb that was lost) 得到或找回(尤指丢失的某物[某人]): Did you find the pen you lost? 你丢的笔找到了吗? * The missing child has not been found yet. 失踪的孩子仍未找到. * I'll help you find your shoes/find your shoes for you. 我来帮你找鞋. 4 [Tn] succeed in obtaining (sth); provide or supply 得到(某事物); 提供; 供给: I keep meaning to write, but never seem to find (the) time. 我一直想写, 但似乎总是找不到时间. * Who will find the money to pay for this trip? 谁来筹措旅费? 5 [Tf, Cn.a] discover (sth/sb) by experience (to be or do sth); become aware of (凭经验)发现(某事物[某人])(为某事物或做某事物); 了解到: I find (that) it pays to be honest. 我认识到为人诚实终受益. * How do you find your new job? 你认为你的新工作怎麽样? * She found it difficult to understand him/found him difficult to understand. 她觉得很难理解他. * We found the beds very comfortable. 我们觉得这些床很舒服. * We found him (to be) dishonest. 我们认为他不诚实. 6 [Tn] arrive at (sth) naturally; reach (自然而然)达到; 到达: Water will always find its own level. 水总会自行流平. * The arrow found its mark. 箭射中了目标. 7 [Tn] (used in a statement of fact, indicating that sth exists 用於对事实的陈述, 说明某事物的存在): You'll find (ie There is) a teapot in the cupboard. 碗橱里有个茶壶. * These flowers are found (ie exist, grow) only in Africa. 只有在非洲才有这类花. 8 [Cn.a] (law 律) decide and declare as a verdict 断定; 裁决; 宣判: How do you find the accused? 你如何裁决被告? * The jury found him guilty (of manslaughter). 陪审团裁定他(误杀)罪名成立. 9 (idm 习语) all `found (of wages) with free food and lodging included (指工资)附带免费食宿. be found wanting be shown to be not sufficiently reliable or capable of undertaking a task, etc 表现出不够可靠或能力不够. find fault (with sb/sth) look for and discover mistakes (in sb/sth); complain (about sb/sth) 找(某人[某事物] 的)错; 埋怨(某人[某事物]): I have no fault to find with your work. 我对你的工作没有说的. * She's always finding fault (with me). 她总是找(我的)茬儿. find/lose favour with sb/in sb's eyes => favour1. find one's `feet (a) become able to stand, walk, etc steadily 能够站稳、 走稳等: After a six-week illness it took me some time to find my feet again. 我病了六个星期, 痊愈後很长时间才能站稳. (b) become able to act independently and confidently 能够独立而有信心地行动: I only recently joined the firm so I'm still finding my feet. 我最近才加入这家公司, 因此还在摸索著干. (not) find it in one's heart/oneself to do sth (usu with can/could 通常与can/could连用) (not) be able to do sth because of kindness or consideration 由於善意或体谅而(不)能做某事物: I cannot find it in myself to condemn a mother who steals for a hungry child. 我不忍心责备为饥儿行窃的女人. * Can you find it in your heart to apologize? 你有诚意道歉吗? `find oneself discover one's true abilities, character and desires 发现自己真实的能力、 性格和愿望: At twenty-two, he's just beginning to find himself. 他在二十二岁时才逐渐发现自己的实际才能. find/meet one's match => match2. find one's own level find and associate with the people with whom one is morally, socially or intellectually equal 找到并结交道德观念、 社会地位或知识层次与自己相当的人. find/lose one's `voice/`tongue be able/unable to speak or express one's opinion 能够[不能够]说出或表达自己的意见: Tell me what you think or have you lost your tongue? 告诉我你的想法--是否你有口难言? find its wayto... reach a destination naturally 自然达到目的地: Rivers find their way to the sea. 江河径自流入海洋. find one's way (to...) discover the right route (to a place) 发现(到某处的)途径: I hope you can find your way home. 我希望你能找到回家的路. * She couldn't find her way out of the building. 她找不到走出大楼的路. take sb as one `finds him accept sb as he is without expecting him to behave in a special way 认为某人就是如此, 并不期望他有其他表现: We've only just returned from holiday so you must take us as you find us. 我们刚刚度假回来, 所以你看我们就是这副样子. 10 (phr v) find (sth) out learn (sth) by study or inquiry (经研究或询问)获知(某事物): Can you find out what time the train leaves? 你能查问出火车什麽时候开吗? find sb out discover sb who has done wrong, lied, etc 发现某人做错事、 说谎等: He had been cheating the taxman but it was years before he was found out. 他一直欺骗税务局, 但多年之後才被查出. find for/against sb (law 律) give a verdict in favour of/against sb 做出对某人有利[不利]的裁决: The jury found for the defendant. 陪审团做了有利於被告的裁决.

  finder

  n 1 person who finds sth 找到某物的人: Lost: one diamond ring. Finder will be rewarded. 寻物: 遗失钻戒一枚, 寻得者将获重酬. 2 small telescope attached to a larger one used for locating an object for observation 寻星镜(附加在大望远镜上便於寻找观察目标的小望远镜). 3 (idm 习语) ,finders `keepers (saying 谚) whoever finds sth has the right to keep it 谁找到归谁.

  finding

  n (usu pl 通常作复数) 1 thing that is discovered as the result of an (official) inquiry (官方的)调查结果: the findings of the Commission 调查团的调查结果 * The report's main finding is that pensions are inadequate. 报告的主要内容是退休金不敷应用. 2 (law 律) decision or verdict of a court or jury 法庭或陪审团的判决或裁决.

  find

  / faInd; faInd/ n 1 thing or person that is found, esp sth/sb valuable or pleasing 发现或找到的物或人(尤指有用的): Our new gardener was a marvellous find. 我们找到了一个很出色的花匠. 2 act of finding sth/sb 发现; 找到: an important archaeological find 重要的考古发现 * I made a great find in that second-hand bookshop yesterday. 我昨天在旧书店找到一本很宝贵的书.

  fine

  / faIn; faIn/ n sum of money that must be paid as a punishment for breaking a law or rule 罚金; 罚款: Offenders may be liable to a heavy fine. 触犯者罚款很重.

  fine

  v [Tn, Tn.pr, Dn.n] ~ sb (for sth/doing sth) punish sb by a fine 处某人以罚款: fined for dangerous driving 因危险驾驶而被罚款 * The court fined him 500. 法庭罚他500英镑.

  finable

  / 5faInEbl; `faInEbl/ adj (of an action) that is likely to be punished by a fine (指行为)应罚款的, 可罚款的: a finable offence 应罚款的过失.

  fine

  / faIn; faIn/ adj (-r, -st) 1 (a) of high quality 高质量的: a fine painting 精美的绘画 * a very fine performance 非常精彩的表演 * fine food, clothes, material 上好的食品、 衣服、 材料. (b) carefully and skilfully made; easily damaged; delicate 精制的; 易损坏的; 纤巧的: fine workmanship 精巧的手工 * fine silk 细绸. (c) good; beautiful; pleasing; enjoyable 好的; 美的; 漂亮的; 令人愉快的: a fine view 美丽的景色 * We had a fine holiday in Switzerland. 我们在瑞士度过了一个愉快的假期. * (ironic 反语) This is a fine mess we're in! 好一个乱摊子! 2 (of weather) bright; clear; not raining (指天气)晴朗的, 无云的, 无雨的: It poured all morning, but turned fine later. 下了一上午的瓢泼大雨, 後来才转晴. 3 made of very small grains or particles 颗粒微小的: fine powder, flour, dust, etc 细粉末、 精制的面粉、 微细的灰尘 * Sand is finer than gravel. 沙子比碎石细. 4 slender; thin 纤细的; 细小的: fine thread 细线 * a pencil with a fine point 很尖的铅笔. 5 (of metals) refined; pure (指金属)精炼的, 纯的: fine gold 纯金. 6 (a) difficult to perceive; subtle 难於察觉的; 细微的: You are making very fine distinctions. 你做的区分非常精细. (b) that can make delicate and careful distinctions 能辨别细微差别的: a fine sense of humour 敏锐的幽默感 * a fine taste in art 对艺术的细致的鉴赏力. 7 (of speech or writing) ornate; rhetorical; complimentary, esp in an insincere way (指语言或文字)词藻华丽的, 修辞的, 恭维的(尤指虚伪地): His speech was full of fine words which meant nothing. 他的讲话净是华而不实的词藻. 8 in good health; well; comfortable 健康的; 舒适的: `How are you?' `Fine, thanks.' `你好吗?'`很好, 谢谢!' 9 (infml 口) satisfactory 满意的: I'm not very hungry a small snack is fine for me. 我不太饿--来点小吃就够了. 10 (idm 习语) chance would be a fine thing => chance1. the finer points (of sth) the details or aspects of sth which can be recognized and appreciated only by those who understand or know it well 只有行家才能领悟和欣赏到的某些方面或细节: I don't understand the finer points of snooker but I enjoy watching it on TV. 我不太懂落袋台球游戏, 但我喜欢看电视里的这种节目. get sth down to a fine `art (infml 口) learn to do sth perfectly 学会将某事物做得尽善尽美: She's got the business of buying birthday presents down to a fine art. 她对购买生日礼品的事非常在行. not to put too fine a `point on it to speak plainly 直截了当地说: I don't much like modern music in fact, not to put too fine a point on it, I hate it. 我不很喜欢现代音乐--说句老实话, 我其实很讨厌现代音乐. one fine `day (in story-telling) on a certain day, in the past or in the future (讲故事用语)有一天(可指过去或将来).

  finely

  adv 1 well; splendidly 美好地; 华丽地: finely dressed 衣著华丽. 2 into small particles or pieces 微小地; 细微地: finely chopped herbs 剁得很碎的药草. 3 with precision; in a subtle way 准确地; 精巧细微地: a finely tuned engine 精确调整的发动机 * The match was finely balanced. 比赛双方刚好势均力敌.

  fineness

  n [U].

  fine art (also the fine arts, art)

  art or forms of art that appeal to the sense of beauty, eg painting, sculpture, etc 美术或美术的各种形式(如绘画、 雕刻等): [attrib 作定语] a fine-arts course 美术课程.

  fine-tooth comb

  (idm 习语) (go over, through, etc sth) with a fine-tooth comb (examine sth) closely and thoroughly 细心地, 彻底地(检查某事物): Police experts are sifting all the evidence with a fine-tooth comb. 警方专门人员仔仔细细地审查所有证据.

  the fine print

  = the small print (small).

  fine

  / faIn; faIn/ adv 1 (infml 口) very well 很好: That suits me fine. 那对我很合适. 2 (in compounds 用以构成复合词) in a fine2(1, 6) way 细微地; 精美地; 难於察觉地: fine-drawn (ie subtle) distinctions 细微的区别 * fine-spun, ie delicate 精细的. 3 (idm 习语) cut it/things `fine leave oneself only the minimum amount, esp of time 给自己剩下最小的量(尤指时间): If we only allow five minutes for catching our train, we'll be cutting it too fine. 假如我们只留五分钟的时间赶火车, 那麽我们卡的时间就太紧了.

  finery

  / 5faInErI; `faInErI/ n [U] gay and elegant clothes or decoration 华丽、 优雅的服装或装饰: court officials dressed in all their finery 穿著华丽衣服的宫廷官员 * The garden looks beautiful in its summer finery, ie with its bright flowers, lawns, etc. 在夏日绚丽的景色中, 花园显得很美.

  finesse

  / fI5nes; fE`nZs/ n 1 [U] skill in dealing with people or situations cleverly or tactfully 手段; 策略: show finesse in averting a threatened strike 在避免一触即发的罢工中显示出深谋大略 * He wheedled money from his father with considerable finesse. 他耍了个手腕儿花言巧语地从父亲那里得到了钱. 2 [C] (in card-games) attempt to win a trick(5) by playing a card that is not the highest one held (纸牌戏中)偷牌(打出手中并非最大的牌以赢得一墩的手法).

  finesse

  v [Tn] (in card-games) play (a card) as part of a finesse(2) (纸牌戏中)为偷牌打出(一张牌)而赢得一墩: She succeeded in finessing her queen. 她为偷牌打出Q而赢得一墩.

  finger

  / 5fINgE(r); `fIN^L/ n 1 any of the five parts extending from each hand (`little finger, `ring finger, `middle finger, `forefinger/`index finger, thumb); any of these except the thumb 手指(小指、 无名指、 中指、 食指、 拇指); 除拇指外的任何一个手指: There are five fingers (or four fingers and one thumb) on each hand. 每只手有五个手指. => illus at hand 见hand插图. => Usage at body 用法见body. 2 part of a glove that fits over a finger (手套的)手指部. 3 (infml 口) measure of alcohol in a glass, roughly equal to the width of one finger 指幅(对杯中酒类的度量, 约略等於一指宽): He poured himself two fingers of whisky. 他给自己倒了两指幅的威士忌. 4 (idm 习语) be all ,fingers and `thumbs be clumsy or awkward with one's hands 笨手笨脚: Can you thread this needle for me? I'm all fingers and thumbs today. 你能替我穿针吗? 今天我手脚不灵. burn one's fingers/get one's fingers burnt => burn2. cross one's fingers => cross2. get, pull, etc a/one's `finger out (infml 口) stop being lazy; work faster 别再偷懒; 干快一些: If you don't pull your finger out, you'll never get the job finished. 你要是不快些, 就绝对干不完. have a finger in every `pie (infml 口) be involved in everything that is happening 参与或插手一切事情. have/keep one's finger on the pulse know all the latest news, developments, etc 充分了解或掌握最近的消息、 情况等. have, etc one's fingers in the till (infml 口) steal money from one's place of work 从自己的工作部门偷钱: be caught with one's fingers in the till 在自己的工作部门偷钱时被捉住. * He's had his fingers in the till for years. 他偷工作部门的钱已多年. lay a `finger on sb/sth touch sb/sth, however slightly (即使轻轻)触碰某人[某物]: If you lay a finger on that boy (ie harm him physically), I'll never forgive you. 你若碰这孩子一下, 我就决不饶你. lift/raise a finger/hand => lift. point the finger => point2. put one's finger on sth identify precisely or point out (an error, the cause of a problem, etc) 准确地看出或指出(错误、 问题的所在): I can't quite put my finger on the flaw in her argument. 我看不出她的论点有何不妥. put the finger on sb (sl 俚) give imformation about (esp a criminal) to the police, etc 向警方等提供(尤指罪犯的)情况. slip through sb's fingers => slip2. snap one's fingers => snap. sticky fingers => sticky. twist sb round one's little finger => twist. work one's fingers to the bone work very hard 非常努力地工作.

  finger-board

  n piece of wood (on a guitar, violin, etc) where the strings are pressed against the neck of the instrument with the fingers to vary the tone (弦乐器的)指板.

  finger-bowl

  n small bowl for rinsing the fingers during meals 洗指盆(用餐时涮手指用的小盆).

  finger-mark

  n mark, eg on a wall, made by a (dirty) finger 指迹, 指痕(如脏手指留在墙上的): leave finger-marks all over the shiny table 在光亮的桌面上到处留下指印.

  finger-nail

  n layer of nail(1) over the upper surface of the tip of a finger 手指甲.

  finger-plate

  n glass, metal or plastic plate fastened on a door near the handle or keyhole to prevent finger-marks 指痕防护板(为防手指弄污而固定於门扶手或锁孔附近的玻璃、 金属或塑料板).

  fingerprint

  n mark made by the tip of a finger on a surface and used for identifying people, esp criminals 指纹: take the prisoner's fingerprints 取囚犯的指纹.

  finger-stall

  n protective cover for an injured finger (保护受伤手指的)护指套.

  fingertip

  n 1 extreme end of a finger 指端; 指尖. 2 (idm 习语) have sth at one's `fingertips be completely familiar with sth 对某事物了如指掌. to one's `fingertips in every way; completely; through and through 各方面; 完全; 彻底: She's an artist to her fingertips. 她是真正的艺术家.

  finger

  / fINgE(r); `fIN^L/ v [Tn] 1 touch or feel (sth) with the fingers 触摸(某物): She fingered the silk to feel its quality. 她摸了摸这块绸料看质量如何. * I don't like eating food that's been fingered by someone else. 我不愿意吃别人摸过的食物. 2 play (a musical instrument) with the fingers 用手指拨弹(乐器). 3 (sl 俚) give information about (esp a criminal) to the police, etc 向警方报信(尤指关於罪犯的消息).

  fingering

  / 5fINgErIN; `fIN^ErIN/ n [U] method of using the fingers in playing a musical instrument or in typing; numbers on a printed piece of music showing this (演奏乐器或打字时的)指法; 乐谱上表示指法的数字: a piano piece with tricky fingering 指法很难的钢琴曲.

  finicky

  / 5fInIkI; `fInIkI/ (also finical/ 5fInIkl; `fInIkl/, finicking/ fInIkIN; `fInIkIN/) adj 1 (derog 贬) too fussy about food, clothes, etc (对饮食、 衣著等)过分挑剔的: a finicky eater, dresser, etc 对吃、 穿等过分挑剔的人. 2 needing much attention to detail 需注意细节的: This job is too finicky for me. 我做不了这麽细致的工作.

  finish

  / 5fInIF; `fInIF/ v 1 (a) [I, Tn, Tg] come or bring (sth) to an end 结束, 完成(某事物): Term finishes next week. 下星期学期结束. * finish one's work 把工作做完 * finish (reading) a book 读完一本书. (b) [I] reach the end of a task or an activity 达到工作或活动的结束阶段: Wait I haven't finished yet. 等一等--我还没有完呢. * Two of the runners failed to finish. 有两名赛跑者没有跑完全程. * She was leading for part of the race but finally finished fourth. 她在比赛中一度领先, 但最後得第四名. 2 [Tn, Tn.p] ~ sth (off/up) eat, drink or use what is left of sth 把所剩之物吃完、 喝完或用完: We might as well finish (up) the cake; there isn't much left. 咱们索性把蛋糕吃完吧, 也没剩多少了. 3 [Tn, Tn.p] ~ sth (off) complete sth or make sth perfect 完成某事物; 使某事物臻於完美; 加工: a beautifully finished wooden bowl 加工精美的木碗 * put the finishing touches to a work of art 为艺术作品作最後的修饰 * This blouse needs to be finished off before I can wear it. 这件(女)衬衣还要再加一下工我才能穿. 4 [Tn, Tn.p] ~ sb (off) (infml 口) exhaust sb completely 使某人筋疲力尽: That bike ride absolutely finished me (off). 我骑了一路自行车已筋疲力尽. 5 (phr v) finish sb/sth off (infml 口) destroy sb/sth 毁坏某人[某事物]: That fever nearly finished him off. 那次高烧险些要了他的命. * The last bullet finished off the wounded animal. 最後的那颗子弹结束了这受伤动物的性命. * (fig 比喻) It would finish me off to see her with him. 看见她和他在一起我简直活不了啦. finish with sb/sth (a) no longer be busy with sb; no longer be using sth 不再为某人忙碌; 不再使用某物: Can you wait a minute? I haven't finished with Ann yet. 你能稍等一下吗? 我和安还没完事呢. * You'll be sorry by the time I've finished with you, eg finished punishing you. 等我收拾完你(如惩罚完你), 你就後悔去吧. * Please put the saucepan away if you've finished with it. 你用完了那个长柄锅, 就把它收起来. (b) end a relationship with sb or a connection with sth 与某人断绝关系; 终止与某事物的联系: She should finish with him he treats her very badly. 她应该和他断绝关系--他对她太不好了. * I've finished with gambling it's a waste of money. 我已经戒赌了--赌博完全是浪费钱财. finish (up) with sth have sth at the end 以某事物作结尾: We had a quick lunch and finished up with a cup of coffee/and a cup of coffee to finish up with. 我们匆忙吃了午饭, 最後又喝了一杯咖啡. finish up (followed by an adj or n 後接形容词或名词) be at the end; end up 终结; 结束: He could finish up dead or badly injured. 他到头来不是死就是重伤.

  finish

  n 1 [C] last part or end of sth 某事物的最後部分或结尾: the finish of a race 赛跑的终点 * There were several close finishes during the competition, ie ones in which the leading competitors were close together at the end. 那几个参赛者在比赛临近结束时成绩极接近. 2 (a) [C, U] state of being finished or perfect 完成的或完美的状态: furniture with a fine finish 最後工序做得很细致的家具 * (fig 比喻) His manners lack finish. 他的仪态稍欠文雅. (b) [C] method, material or texture used for completing the surface of woodwork, etc 用於处理木器等表面的方法、 材料或物质: varnishes available in a range of finishes 可以产生各种表面效果的漆料. 3 (idm 习语) be in at the `finish be present at the end of sth 在某事物的终结时在场. fight to the finish => fight1. a fight to the finish => fight2.

  finisher

  n person or animal that finishes a race, etc 跑完赛程等的人或动物.

  finishing school

  private (usu expensive) school where girls are taught how to behave in fashionable society 精修学校(教导女子在上流社会中仪态举止的私立学校, 通常学费极昂贵).

  finished

  / 5fInIFt; `fInIFt/ adj 1 [pred 作表语] ~ (with sb/sth) (infml 口) in a state of having completed sth or no longer dealing with sb/sth 完成某事物; 不再与某人[某事物]有联系: I won't be finished for another hour. 我还有一个小时才能完事. * I'm not finished with you yet. 我和你还有事未完. * She decided she was finished with working for others. 她决定不再为别人做事. 2 [pred 作表语] no longer effective; ruined 不再有效; 毁灭了: The scandal means he's finished in politics. 这一丑闻意味著他在政治上已身败名裂. * Everything is finished between her and him. 她和他已一刀两断了. 3 [usu attrib 通常作定语] made; completed 制造好的; 完成的: the finished product, article, etc 制成品、 物件等.

  finite

  / 5faInaIt; `faInaIt/ adj 1 having bounds; limited; not infinite 有限的; 有限制的; 有限度的: Human knowledge is finite, ie There are things we do not know. 人类的认识是有限的. 2 (grammar) of a verb form that agrees with its subject in person and number 限定的(在人称和数上与主语一致的动词形式的): `Am', `is', `are', `was' and `were' are the finite forms of `be'; `be', `being' and `been' are the non-finite forms. *am、 is、 are、 was、 were 是动词 be 的限定形式; be、 being、 been 是非限定形式.

  fink

  / fINk; fINk/ n (US sl derog 俚, 贬) 1 person who gives information to the police about criminals (向警方)通报罪犯情况的人. 2 person who continues to work while others are on strike 工贼(罢工时仍继续工作的人). 3 unpleasant or contemptible person 讨厌的人; 可鄙的人.

  Finn

  / fIn; fIn/ n native of Finland 芬兰人.

  Finnish

  n [U] language of the Finns 芬兰语. adj of the Finns or their language 芬兰人的; 芬兰语的.

  finnan

  / fInEn; `fInEn/ n (also ,finnan `haddock) type of smoked haddock 熏鳕鱼.

  fiord (also fjord)

  / fjR:d; fjRrd/ n long narrow inlet of the sea between high cliffs, as in Norway 峡湾(在悬崖峭壁之间的狭长海湾, 如挪威的).

  fir

  / f\:(r); f[/ n 1 [C] (also `fir-tree) type of evergreen tree with leaves like needles on its shoots 枞; 冷杉. 2 [U] wood of this tree 此种树的木材.

  fir-cone

  n fruit of the fir-tree 冷杉的球果.

  fire

  / 5faIE(r); faIr/ n 1 [U] burning that produces light and heat 火; 火焰; 燃烧: man's discovery of fire 人类对火的发现. 2 (a) [U] destructive burning 火灾; 失火: Have you insured your house against fire? 你的房子保火险了没有? (b) [C] instance of this 火灾; 失火: forest fires 森林火灾 * a fire in the warehouse 仓库失火. 3 (a) [C] burning fuel in a grate, furnace, etc for cooking food or heating a room 炉火: make/build a fire 生火 * lay a fire, ie put paper, wood, etc together for a fire, usu in a grate 准备生火 * a blazing/roaring fire 炽烈的[熊熊的]火. (b) [C] apparatus for heating rooms, etc 取暖装置: a gas/electric fire 煤气[电]暖炉. Cf 参看 heater (heat2), stove 2. 4 [U] shooting from guns 开火(枪炮的射击): The soldiers kept up a steady fire. 士兵们不停地射击. * return sb's fire, ie shoot back at sb 用枪炮向某人还击. 5 [U] strong emotion; angry or excited feeling; enthusiasm 激情; 愤怒或激动的感情; 热情: His speech lacked fire, ie was uninspiring. 他的讲话缺乏热情. 6 (idm 习语) a ball of fire => ball1. a baptism of fire => baptism. between two `fires being shot at from two directions 腹背受敌(受到两面夹攻). catch fire => catch1. draw sb's fire => draw2. the fat is in the fire => fat2. ,fire and `brimstone torture suffered in Hell as a result of God's anger 因触怒上帝在地狱中遭受的煎熬: (fig 比喻) She was breathing fire and brimstone, ie was furiously angry. 她火冒三丈. ,fire and `sword (fml 文) burning and killing, esp in war 杀人放火(尤指於战争中). get on like a house on fire => house1. go through ,fire and `water (for sb/sth) endure great hardship and danger (for sb/sth) (为某人[某事物])冒极大危险及忍受巨大苦难, 赴汤蹈火. hang fire => hang1. have, etc many irons in the fire => iron1. heap coals of fire on sb's head => heapv. hold one's `fire stop shooting (for a period of time) 停止射击(一段时间) make up a `fire add wood, coal, etc to a fire to make it burn more strongly 在火上加木柴、 煤等使其燃烧更旺. no smoke without fire => smoke1. on `fire (a) burning 燃烧: The house is on fire! 房子著火了! (b) (fig 比喻) burning with emotion, passion or sensation 感情激动的; 激情冲动的. open fire => open2. out of the frying-pan into the fire => frying-pan (fry1). play with `fire take foolish anddangerous risks 玩火(进行愚蠢的冒险). set fire to sth/set sth on fire cause sth to start burning 使某物开始燃烧; 放火. (not/never) set the `Thames/ temz; tZmz/on fire (not) do sth remarkable (不)做惊人之举: He's a good student, but he won't ever set the Thames on fire. 他是好学生, 但也绝成不了大器. set the world on fire => world. under `fire (a) being shot at 遭到射击: come under intense fire 受到枪炮猛烈攻击. (b) (fig 比喻) being criticized severely 受到严厉批评: The government is under fire from all sides on its economic policy. 政府在经济政策上受到各方的严厉批评.

  fire-alarm

  n bell or other device that gives warning of a fire; sound made by this 火警报警器; 火警警报.

  firearm

  n (usu pl 通常作复数) portable gun of any sort, eg a rifle, revolver, etc (便携式)枪枝(如步枪、 左轮手枪等): carry firearms 携带枪枝.

  fire-ball

  n 1 large bright meteor 火流星. 2 centre of an atomic explosion 原子弹爆炸的中心. 3 (fig 比喻) very energetic person 精力极充沛的人.

  fire-bomb

  n bomb that burns fiercely after it explodes, causing destruction by fire; incendiary 燃烧弹.

  fire-box

  n place where fuel is burned in a steam-engine or boiler (蒸气机或锅炉内燃料的)燃烧室.

  firebrand

  n 1 piece of burning wood 燃烧的木块. 2 (fig 比喻) person who causes (esp social or political) trouble 引起(尤指社会的或政治的)动乱的人.

  fire-break

  n strip of land cleared of trees to stop fire from spreading in a forest (森林中除掉树木以防止森林火蔓延的)防火带, 防火线.

  fire-brick

  n type of brick made to withstand great heat, used in building grates, furnaces, chimneys, etc 耐火砖; 火砖.

  fire brigade (US fire department)

  organized team of people trained and employed to extinguish fires 消防队; 消防处: call out the fire brigade 召唤消防队来.

  fire-clay

  n [U] type of clay used to make fire-bricks 耐火黏土(制做耐火砖用的).

  firecracker

  n (esp US) small firework that explodes with a cracking noise 鞭炮; 爆竹.

  firedamp (also damp)

  n [U] gas in coal-mines, explosive when mixed in certain proportions with air; methane (煤矿中与一定比例的空气混合的)瓦斯; 沼气; 甲烷.

  firedog

  n = andiron.

  fire-drill

  n [C, U] (practice of) what people must do to escape safely from a burning building, ship, etc 消防演习.

  fire-eater

  n 1 person who appears to swallow fire as part of an entertainment act 表演吞火的人. 2 person who easily becomes angry or quarrelsome 易怒的人; 爱吵架的人.

  fire-engine (also appliance)

  n special vehicle carrying equipment for fighting large fires 消防车.

  fire-escape

  n special staircase or apparatus by which people may escape from a burning building, etc 可藉以逃离火场的太平梯或机械装置.

  fire extinguisher (also extinguisher)

  portable metal container with water or a chemical mixture inside for putting out small fires 灭火器.

  fire-fighter

  n person who fights (esp forest) fires 消防人员(尤指护林的).

  firefly

  n type of winged insect that glows in the dark 萤火虫.

  fire-guard

  n protective metal frame or grating round a fire in a room (室内取暖炉的)炉挡.

  fire-irons

  n [pl] tools used for tending a fire, usu kept near the fireplace, eg poker, tongs, shovel, etc 火炉用具(如通条、 火钳、 铲子等).

  firelight

  n [U] light from a fire in a fireplace 壁炉发出的火光: sitting in the firelight 坐在壁炉周围.

  fire-lighter

  n [C, U] (piece of) inflammable material used to help start a fire in a grate 用於引火的易燃材料; 引火物.

  fireman

  / -mEn; -mEn/ n (pl -men / -mEn; -mEn/) 1 member of a fire brigade 消防队员. 2 person who tends the fire in a furnace, steam-engine, etc (熔炉、 蒸气机等的)司炉工.

  fireplace

  n open space for a fire in a room, usu made of brick or stone and set into a wall 壁炉.

  fire-plug

  n (esp US) connection in a water-main for a fireman's hose; hydrant 消防栓.

  fire-power

  n [U] capacity to destroy, measured by the number and size of guns available 火力.

  fireproof

  adj that can resist great heat without burning, cracking or breaking 防火的; 耐火的: a fireproof wall, door, etc 防火墙、 门等. v [Tn] make (sth) fireproof 使(某物)防火.

  fire-raising

  n [U] deliberately setting fire to property, etc; arson 放火; 纵火.

  fire-raiser

  n.

  fireside

  n (usu sing 通常作单数) part of a room beside the fireplace 壁炉旁: sitting at the fireside 坐在壁炉旁 * [attrib 作定语] a fireside chair 壁炉旁的椅子.

  fire station

  building for a fire brigade and its equipment 消防站.

  fire-walking

  n [U] (usu religious) ceremony of walking barefoot over very hot stones, ashes, etc as an act of faith 渡火(赤脚在灼热的石头、 炭灰等之上行走, 通常为宗教仪式).

  fire-walker

  n.

  fire-watcher

  n person who watches for fires, esp those caused by bombs during war 火灾警戒员(尤指空袭时的).

  fire-water

  n [U] (infml 口) strong alcoholic drink, eg whisky, gin, etc 烈酒(如威士忌、 杜松子酒等).

  firewood

  n [U] wood used for lighting fires or as fuel 木柴.

  firework

  n [C] device containing chemicals that burn or explode spectacularly, used at celebrations or as a signal (庆典用或作信号用的)烟火: set off (ie explode) a few fireworks 燃放几个烟火. 2 `fireworks [pl] (a) display of fireworks 烟火表演. (b) (fig 比喻) display of anger, wit, etc 愤怒、 机智等的表现: Just you watch the fireworks when your father catches those boys! 等你父亲抓住那几个男孩子的时候, 你就能看到他的火气有多大了!

  fire

  / 5faIE(r); faIr/ v 1 [I, Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr] ~ (sth) (at sb/sth); ~ (sth) into sth shoot with a gun (at sb/sth); shoot (a bullet) from a gun; shoot a bullet from (a gun) 用枪炮(向某人[某物])射击; 从枪中射出(子弹); 从(枪)中射出子弹: `Fire!' ordered the captain. `开火!'上尉命令道. * The officer ordered his men to fire (at the enemy). 军官命令士兵(向敌人)射击. * The police fired (several rubber bullets) into the crowd. 警察向人群射击(数发橡皮子弹). * This weapon fires anti-aircraft missiles. 这种武器是发射防空导弹的. * He fired several shots (at the target). 他向目标射出了几发子弹. * fire (a pistol) into the air (用手枪)向天空开枪 * fire a 21-gun salute, ie fire 21 shots from guns into the air as a sign of respect in a ceremony 鸣放21响礼炮. 2 [Tn.pr] ~ sth at sb address (words) in quick succession at sb 对某人急速地连续说(话): fire insults, questions, ideas, etc at sb 对某人像发连珠炮似的说侮辱的话、 提出问题、 看法等. 3 [Tn] (infml 口) dismiss (an employee) from a job 解雇, 开除(雇员): He was fired for stealing money from the till. 他因从柜台抽屉偷钱而遭解雇. 4 [Tn] ignite or set fire to (sth) with the aim of destroying it (为焚毁)点火或纵火烧(某物): fire a haystack 点燃草堆. 5 [I] (of the explosive mixture in an engine) ignite (指发动机内的可燃气体混合物)点火; 发动: The engine will not fire. 这发动机发动不起来. * The engine is only firing on three cylinders. 这发动机只有三个汽缸工作. 6 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb with sth; ~ sb into sth/doing sth stimulate (the imagination); fill sb with (a strong emotion); inspire or excite sb to do sth 激发(想像力); 使某人充满(激情); 鼓励或鼓动某人做某事物: Adventure stories fired his imagination. 冒险小说激发起他的想像力. * fire sb with enthusiasm, longing, desire, etc 以热情、 渴望、 欲望等激励某人 * The party leader's rousing speech fired the members into action. 该党领袖令人振奋的讲话激发了党员行动起来. 7 [Tn] heat (an object made of clay) in an oven in order to harden and strengthen it (在 内)烧制(陶瓷制品): fire pottery, bricks, etc in a kiln 在 内烧陶瓷、 砖瓦等. 8 (idm 习语) working/firing on all cylinders => cylinder. 9 (phr v) fire away (usu as a command 通常作命令语) (infml 口) begin asking questions; begin to speak 开始问问题; 开始说话: `I've got a couple of questions I'd like to ask you.' `Right, fire away.' `我有几个问题想问你.'`好, 你说吧.' fire sth off shoot (a bullet) from a gun 从枪中射出(子弹): fire off a few rounds, all one's ammunition, etc 射出几发子弹、 所有的弹药等.

  -fired

  (forming compound adjs 用以构成复合形容词) supplied by or using the specified fuel 使用某种燃料的: gas-fired central heating * a coal-fired power station.

  firing

  / 5faIErIN; `faIrIN/ n 1 [U] action of firing guns 开火; 开枪; 开炮; 射击: There was continous firing to our left. 在我们左翼有连续的射击. 2 [C, U] (act of) firing (fire2 7) a clay object (黏土制物的)焙烧: It will take several firings to clear the shelves of all these pots. 把这些架上的陶罐全都烧好要烧好几窑.

  firing-line

  n 1 front line of battle, nearest the enemy 火线(离敌人最近的前沿地带). 2 (idm 习语) be in the `firing line be subject to criticism, blame, etc because of one's responsibilities or position (由於所负的责任或所处的地位)易受到批评、 责备等: She'll have to be careful now she's directly in the firing-line of the new director. 现在她要格外小心了--她正在新主任的眼皮底下工作.

  firing-squad

  n [CGp] group of soldiers ordered to shoot a condemned person 行刑队(对判处死刑的犯人执行枪决的士兵): He was sentenced to death by firing-squad. 他被判枪决.

  firm

  / f\:m; f[m/ adj (-er, -est) 1 (a) not yielding when pressed; fairly hard 坚实的; 结实的; 坚硬的: This wet ground is not firm enough to walk on. 这块湿地不够坚实, 不能在上面走. * firm soil 坚硬的土壤 * a firm cushion, mattress, sofa, etc 结实的坐垫、 床垫、 沙发等 * firm flesh/muscles 结实的肌肉. (b) strongly fixed in place; secure or solid 牢固的; 稳固的; 坚固的: firm foundations 坚固的基础 * a firm foothold 稳固的立足点 * firm concrete fencing 坚固的混凝土围墙材料. 2 (of a movement) steady and strong; not weak or uncertain (指动作)稳定而有力的: a firm handshake, grip, hold, etc 有力的握手、 紧抓、 紧握. 3 not subject to change; definite 不易改变的; 肯定的; 坚定的: a firm belief/believer in socialism 对社会主义的坚定的信念[拥护者] * a firm decision, date, arrangement, offer 不改变的决定、 确定的日期、 不更改的排列方式、 实盘 * firm opinions, convictions, principles, etc 坚定的意见、 信念、 原则等 * firm news, evidence, information, etc 可靠的新闻、 证据、 信息等 * `Burnside' is the firm favourite to win the race, ie the horse that is confidently expected to win. `伯恩赛德'是肯定会获胜的热门马. 4 ~ (with sb) strong and consistent in attitude and behaviour; not easily persuaded to change one's mind; decisive 坚定的; 坚决的: Parents must be firm with their children. 父母对孩子一定要严格. * exercise firm leadership, control, discipline, etc 实行坚决的领导、 严格的控制、 严格的纪律等 * `I don't want to be unkind,' he said in a firm voice. `我不想发狠心,'他以坚定的口吻说. 5 [usu pred 通常作表语] ~ (against sth) not lower than another currency, etc and possibly about to rise in price 稳定, 坚挺(不低於其他货币等而且有可能升值的): The pound remained firm against the dollar, but fell against the yen. 英镑对美元保持稳定, 但对日元则疲软. 6 (idm 习语)

  be on firm ground

  be sure of one's facts; be secure in one's position, esp in a discussion 对事实确信无疑; 立场坚定(尤指在讨论中). a firm `hand strong discipline or control 严明的纪律; 牢固控制: That boy needs a firm hand to help him grow up. 那个男孩需要严加管教才能有所长进. have, etc a firm/tight hold on sth => hold2.

  firm

  v 1 [I, Ip, Tn, Tn.p] ~ (sth) (up) (cause sth to) become firm (使某物)变得坚实、 稳固: firm (up) soil 把土地弄得坚实. 2 (phr v) firm sth up (a) put sth into a final fixed form 使某物最後达到固定的形式或状态: firm up a contract, deal, agreement, etc 使合同、 交易、 协议等达成最後形式. (b) make (part of the body) firmer and less fatty 使(身体某部)更结实, 脂肪少: Exercise will firm up your muscles. 锻炼身体能使肌肉结实.

  firm

  adv (idm 习语) hold firm to sth not abandon a principle, theory, etc 不放弃原则、 理论等: hold firm to one's beliefs, ideals, principles, etc 坚持自己的信仰、 理想、 原则等. stand fast/firm => fast2.

  firmly

  adv in a firm way 坚实地; 结实地; 坚固地; 稳固地; 坚定地; 稳定地: The fence posts were fixed firmly in the ground. 栅栏的立柱牢牢地固定在地上. * The business was soon firmly established in the town. 该商店不久即在城里稳固地建立起来. * The suggestion was politely but firmly rejected by the chairman. 主席婉言而果断地回绝了该建议.

  firmness

  n [U].

  firm

  / f\:m; f[m/ n [CGp] (esp infml 尤作口语) businesscompany 公司; 商行; 商号: a firm of accountants 会计师事务所 * our firm has/have made 200 workers redundant 我们公司已裁减200名雇员.

  terra firma

  / 9terE 5f\:mE; `tZrE`f[mE/ dry land; the ground (contrasted with water or air) 陆地, 大地(与水或空中相对): glad to be on terra firma again, eg after a trip by boat or aeroplane 又回到陆地上, 很高兴(如下船或下飞机时).

  firmament

  / 5f\:mEmEnt; `f[mEmEnt/ n the firmament [sing] (arch 古) the sky 天空; 苍天.

  first

  / f\:st; f[st/ det 1 (a) 1st; coming before all others in time, order, importance, etc 第一的; 最初的; 最早的; 最先的; 首要的: the first public performance of the play 该剧的首次公演 * his first wife 他的第一个妻子 * their first baby 他们的第一个孩子 * her first job 她的第一份工作 * students in their first year at college 学院一年级学生 * at first light, ie dawn 黎明 * at the first (ie earliest) opportunity 一有机会 * the first signs that winter isapproaching 冬天来临的最初迹象 * one's first impression/reaction 最初的印象[反应] * She won first prize in the competition. 她在竞赛中获一等奖. * King Edward I (ie said as `King Edward the First') 英王爱德华一世 * go back to first (ie basic) principles 回到基本的原则上 * of the first importance 最重要的 * the first violins, ie in an orchestra 第一小提琴手(管弦乐队中的) * Your first duty is to your family. 你的首要责任是照顾家庭. (b) never having happened or been experienced before 初次的: It was the first time they had ever met. 那是他们初次会面. * his first real taste of success 他对成功的初次真实感受. Cf 参看 last1 1. =>App 4 见附录4. 2 (idm 习语) first/last/next but one, two, three, etc: Take the first turning but one (ie the second turning) on your left. 在第二个路口向左转. * I live in the last house but two (ie the third house from the end) in this street. 我住在这条街上倒数第三座房子里. first/last thing=> thing. ,first things `first (saying 谚) the most important or necessary duties or concerns must be dealt with before others 最重要的事要先做. (For other idioms containing first, see the entries for the other major words in each idiom 查阅含有first一词的其他习语, 见这类习语中含有其他主要词的词条, 如 at first glance/sight => glance; not have the first idea about sth => idea.)

  firstly

  adv (in giving a list) to begin with (用於列举事项)首先, 第一: The illness can develop in two ways: firstly, in cases of high blood pressure and secondly... 这种病有两种情况: 第一, 由高血压引起; 第二....

  first aid

  treatment given to an injured person before a doctor comes 急救.

  first balcony

  = dress circle (dress).

  first base

  1 first of the bases (base1 6) that must be touched in a game of baseball (棒球运动中的)一垒. 2 (idm 习语) not get to first base (with sth) (infml 口 esp US) not make a successful start (in a project); not even achieve the first step 不能顺利开始(一项计画); 连第一步也迈不出.

  first class

  1 most comfortable accommodation in a train, ship, etc (火车、 船等的)头等: Smoking is not allowed in first class. 头等舱中不准吸烟. * [attrib 作定语] first-class carriages, compartments, seats, etc 头等的车厢、 车室、 座位等. 2 class of mail most quickly delivered 第一类邮件(快件): First class costs 5p more. 第一类邮件贵5便士. * [attrib 作定语] A first-class letter should arrive the following day. 按第一类邮件投递的信应於次日到达. * Ten first-class stamps, please. 请来十张快信邮票. 3 in the best group or highest category; excellent 第一流的; 最好的; 最优的: The entertainment provided was first class. 提供的招待是一流的. * [attrib 作定语] They can afford to eat at first-class restaurants. 他们去得起一流的饭店. * She got first-class results in her exams. 她的考试成绩优异. * They're first-class people you'll like them. 他们是大好人--你会喜欢他们的. adv by the best or quickest form of transport or mail 以最好的和最快的方式运输或邮寄: travel first class 乘头等车[船/飞机]旅行 * I sent the letter first class on Monday. 星期一我已把信用快递寄出.

  first cousin

  = cousin.

  first-day cover

  envelope with a set of special stamps postmarked on the first day of issue 首日封.

  first degree

  least serious of three categories of murder or burn 第一级的, 第一度的(谋杀或烧伤、 烫伤的三级分类中的最轻者): He was charged with murder of the first degree/first-degree murder. 他被控告一级谋杀罪. * Hot coffee can give first-degree burns. 热咖啡能造成一度烫伤.

  first finger

  finger next to the thumb; index finger 食指.

  first floor

  (usu 通常作 the first floor) 1 (Brit) floor immediately above the floor on ground level 二楼: [attrib 作定语] a first-floor `flat 二楼的一套公寓. 2 (US ) floor on ground level 一楼. => Usage at floor1 用法见floor1.

  first-footing

  n [U] (esp Scottish) custom or practice of waiting for the first person to enter a house in the New Year before celebrations can begin (尤指苏格兰的)等候进屋的第一个人以开始庆祝新年的习俗.

  first-fruit

  n (usu pl 通常作复数) 1 earliest agricultural produce, crops, etc of the season 一个季节中最早收获的农产品等. 2 (fig 比喻) first results of sb's work or efforts 某人工作或努力的最初成果.

  first gear

  lowest gear on a car, bicycle, etc 汽车、 自行车等的最低挡.

  firsthand

  adj [attrib 作定语], adv gained or coming directly from the original source 第一手(的); 直接从来源处得到(的): firsthand information 第一手信息 * experience sth firsthand 亲身经历某事.

  first lady

  1 the First Lady (US) wife of the President of the USA; wife of a state governor 总统夫人; 州长夫人. 2 (usu sing 通常作单数) leading woman in a specified activity or profession 某活动或行业中首屈一指的女性: recognized as the first lady of romantic fiction 公认为浪漫主义小说的主要女作家.

  first name

  personal name or names given to sb at his birth, usu coming before a surname or family name 名字, 教名(通常置於姓前): Mrs Thatcher's first name is Margaret. 撒切尔夫人的名字叫玛格丽特. * [attrib 作定语] We are all on first-name terms with our boss, ie We call him by his first name (a sign of a friendly informal relationship). 我们和老板都以名相称(不冠姓, 显示关系密切不拘束). => Usage at name1 用法见name1. Cf 参看 forename, given name (given), Christian name (Christian).

  first night

  first public performance of a play, film, etc; opening night (戏剧、 电影等的)首场演出, 首映夜场: the first night of `The Sound of Music' `音乐之声'(又译`仙乐飘飘处处闻')首映夜场 * [attrib 作定语] suffer from ,first-night `nerves 首演怯场.

  first offender

  person who has been found guilty of a crime for the first time 初犯.

  first officer

  officer second in command to a captain on a merchant ship (商船上的)大副.

  the first person

  1 (grammar) set of pronouns and verb forms used by a speaker to refer to himself 第一人称代词和动词的搭配形式: `I am' is the first person singular of the present tense of the verb `to be'. I am是单数第一人称代词和动词to be的搭配形式. * [attrib 作定语] `I', `me', `we' and `us' are first-person pronouns. I、 me、 we、 us都是第一人称的代词. 2 style of story-telling in which the author writes or speaks as if tellingthe story personally 用第一人称叙述的文体: Hemingway often writes in the first person. 海明威常用第一人称写作.

  first-rate

  adj excellent; of the best quality 第一流的; 优良的; 质量最佳的: a ,first-rate `meal 最好的饭菜 * The food here is first-rate. 这里的食品是第一流的. adv in very good health; very fit 非常健康; 身体好: feel first-rate 身体极好.

  first refusal

  right of deciding whether to accept or refuse sth before it is offered to others 优先取舍权(有先於他人对某事物取舍的权利): If you ever decide to sell your car, I hope you'll give me (the) first refusal. 你要是决定把汽车卖掉, 我希望你先让我考虑要不要, 我不要你再卖给别人.

  first school

  (in Britain) school for children between the ages of 5 and 8 or 9 (英国)第一学校(5岁至8、 9岁之间的儿童上的学校).

  the First World War (also World War I)

  the major international war of 1914-18, fought mainly in Europe 第一次世界大战(1914-1918).

  first

  / f\:st; f[st/ adv 1 (a) before anyone or anything else; at the beginning 第一; 最初; 最先: Susan came into the room first. 苏珊第一个来到屋子里. * Who came first in the race? ie Who won? 谁赛跑得第一? * Ladies first, ie said by a man, allowing a woman to enter a room, car, etc before he does. 女士先请(男子请女子先进屋、 先上车等时说的话). (b) before another event or time 先; 首先: First I had to decide what to wear. 首先我得决定穿什麽衣服. * Think first, then act. 先想清楚再行动. * `Have some tea.' `I'll finish my work first.' `喝点茶吧.'`我先把工作做完再说.' Cf 参看 last2. 2 for the first time 第一次; 首次: When did you first meet him? 你第一次见他是什麽时候? * The play was first performed in Paris. 此剧首次在巴黎公演. * When he first arrived in this country, he couldn't speak any English. 他刚到这个国家时, 一句英语也不会说. 3 (in giving a list) to begin with (用於列举事项)第一, 首先: This method has two advantages: first it is cheaper and second(ly) it is quicker. 这个方法有两个优点: 一是较便宜, 二是较迅速. =>Usage 见所附用法. 4 in preference to sth else 宁愿; 宁可: He said he'd resign first, eg rather than compromise his principles. 他说他宁愿辞职(例如也不愿在原则上妥协). 5 (idm 习语) at `first at or in the beginning; initially 起初; 当初: At first I thought he was shy, but then I discovered he was just not interested in other people. 起初我还以为他很 腆, 後来我才发觉他是不爱理人. * (saying 谚) If at first you don't succeed, try, try again. 一次不成功, 那就再接再厉地干下去. come `first be considered as more important than anything else 首先要考虑到的: You know that your wife and children come first. 你要知道首先要考虑的是你的妻子儿女. ,first and `foremost more than anything else; firstly and most importantly 比什麽都重要; 首要的: He does a bit of writing, but first and foremost he's a teacher. 他也写一些文章, 但他主要是个教师. ,first and `last (fml 文) taking everything into account; completely 考虑到一切因素; 完全地: He was a real gentleman, first and last. 从各方面来看, 他都是个正人君子. ,first `come, ,first `served (saying 谚) people will be dealt with, seen, etc strictly in order of their arrival or application 先来後到. ,first of `all before (doing) anything else; initially; most importantly 首先; 最初; 首要: First of all she just smiled, then she started to laugh. 最初她只是微笑, 後来才放声大笑. * Well, first of all we can't possibly spare the time. 你看, 最主要的是我们实在抽不出时间. first `off (infml 口) before anything else 首先: First off, let's see how much it'll cost. 首先, 让我们看看要花多少钱.head first => head1. last in, first out => last2. put sb/sth `first consider sb/sth to be more important than anyone/anything else 把某人[某事物]放在首位: put one's career, reputation, children first 把事业、 名誉、 儿女放在首位. see sb in hell first => hell.

  first-born

  n, adj [attrib 作定语] (dated 旧) (child) born before other children; eldest (孩子中)头生的; 长子或长女: their first-born son 他们的长子.

  first

  NOTE ON USAGE 用法: When ordering items in a list, first(ly), second(ly), third(ly), etc are put at the beginning of the sentence or clause. 在列举项目时, 要将first(ly)、 second(ly)、 third(ly)等词置於句子或从句之首. They are usually followed by a comma. 在这些词後面通常用逗号. Some speakers prefer first to firstly 有些人说话时愿用first而不用firstly: There are three reasons for my resignation. First(ly), I am dissatisfied with my wages; secondly, the hours are too long; and thirdly, there is little chance of promotion. 我辞职有三个原因. 一是我对工资不满意; 二是工作时间太长; 三是几乎没有晋升机会. Alternatively, first, second, third, etc could be used. 在上述这类句子中也可使用first、 second、 third等.

  first

  / f\:st; f[st/ n, pron 1 the first first person or thing mentioned or occurring (提到的或出现的)第一个人或事物: Sheila was the first to arrive. 希拉是第一个到达的. * I'm the first in my family to go to university. 我是我们家第一个上大学的. * I'd be the first to admit (ie I will most willingly admit) I might be wrong. 我愿第一个承认我可能错了. * The first I heard about the firm closing down (ie The first time I became aware of it) was when George told me. 我最初听到公司倒闭的消息是乔治告诉我的. 2 [C] (infml 口) notable achievement, event, etc never done or experienced before (以前从未有过的)显著成就、 事件等: a real first for the German team 德国队的创举. 3 [C] ~ (in sth) (Brit) university degree of the highest class (大学学位的)最高成绩, 优等: She got a first in maths at Exeter. 她在埃克塞特大学数学系毕业, 获一级荣誉学位. 4 [U] lowest gear on a car, bicycle, etc (汽车, 自行车等的)最低挡: go up the hill in first gear 挂一挡上山坡. 5 (idm 习语) from the (very) `first from the beginning 一开始: I found the idea attractive from the first, and now I'm convinced its the only solution. 一开始我就感到这主意很不错, 现在我深信这是唯一的解决方法. from ,first to `last from beginning to end; throughout 自始至终; 始终; 一贯.

  firth

  / f\:W; f[W/ n (esp in Scotland) narrow inlet of the sea; part of a river when it flows into the sea (尤指苏格兰的)狭窄的海湾, 河流的入海口.

  fiscal

  / 5fIskl; `fIskl/ adj of or related to government money or public money, usu taxes 国库的; 公款的; (通常指)岁入的; 财政的: the government's fiscal policy 政府的财政政策.

  fiscal year

  (US) = financial year (financial).

  procurator fiscal

  / 9prCkjUreItE 5fIskl; 9prBkjE9retL`fIskEl/ (in Scotland) public official whose job is to decide whether sb suspected of crime should be prosecuted (苏格兰)地方检察官.

  fish

  / fIF; fIF/ n (pl unchanged or ~es 复数或不变或作fishes) =>Usage 见所附用法. 1 [C] cold-blooded animal living in water and breathing through gills, with fins and a tail for swimming 鱼: They caught several fish. 他们捉到几条鱼. * fishes, frogs and crabs 鱼、 青蛙和螃蟹 =>illus 见插图. 2 [U] flesh of fish eaten as food 鱼肉: frozen, smoked, fresh, etc fish 冻鱼、 熏鱼、 鲜鱼 * boiled, fried, grilled, etc fish 煮鱼、 炸鱼、 烤鱼 * Fish was served after the first course. 第一道菜之後就上了鱼. 3 (idm 习语) a big fish => big. a cold fish => cold1. a different kettle of fish => different. drink like a fish => drink2. a fine, etc kettle of fish => kettle. a ,fish out of `water person who feels uncomfortable or awkward because he is in unfamiliar surroundings 离开水的鱼(因环境不熟悉而感到不舒服或尴尬的人): With my working-class background I feel like a fish out of water among these high-society people. 我出身於工人阶级, 在上流社会中感到很不自在. have `bigger/`other fish to fry have more important, interesting, etc things to do 另有要事或有兴趣的事要做. neither fish, flesh nor good red herring (saying 谚) difficult to identify or classify; vague; ambiguous 难以识别或分类的; 非驴非马的; 不伦不类的. an `odd/a `queer fish (infml 口) eccentric person; person whom others find hard to understand 古怪的人; 难以理解的人: He's a bit of an odd fish -- he's never been out of his house for years. 他这个人很古怪--多年来深居简出. play a `fish (when fishing with a rod and line) allow a fish to exhaust itself by forcing it to pull against the line (钓鱼时)让鱼拉钓线使之疲乏. there are (plenty of) `other fish in the sea; there are (plenty) `more (good) fish in the sea there are many other people/things that are as good as the one that has proved unsuccessful ?W海里的鱼有的是(这个不成, 好的人[事物]还有很多).

  fishy

  adj (-ier, -iest) 1 of or like a fish, esp in smell or taste 鱼的; 鱼味的; 鱼腥味的: a fishy smell 鱼腥味. 2 (infml 口) causing a feeling of doubt or suspicion 可疑的; 引起怀疑的: There's something rather fishy going on here. 这里有些事不大对头.

  fish and chips

  fish fried in batter and eaten with fried potato chips 软炸鱼加炸土豆条: Fish and chips is getting very expensive now. 现在软炸鱼加炸土豆条越来越贵了.

  fish cake

  small flat cake of cooked fish and mashed potato, usu covered with breadcrumbs 鱼饼(鱼、 土豆泥, 通常裹以面包屑制成的饼).

  fish-eye lens

  wide-angled lens with a distorting effect 鱼眼镜头; 超广角镜头.

  fish-farm

  n area of water used to breed fish artificially 养鱼场.

  fish finger (US fish stick)

  small oblong piece of fish covered with breadcrumbs or batter 鱼条(裹著面包屑或面糊的长方形鱼肉条).

  fish-hook

  n barbed metal hook for catching fish 鱼钩. => illus at hook 见hook插图.

  fish-kettle

  n oval pan used for boiling fish 椭圆形煮鱼锅.

  fish-knife

  n blunt knife with a broad blade used for eating fish (吃鱼用的)餐刀.

  fishmonger

  / -mQNgE(r); -9mQN^L/ n (Brit) person whose job it is to sell fish in a shop (商店的)鱼贩: buy fish at the fishmonger's/from the fishmonger 从鱼贩那里买鱼.

  fish-net

  n 1 [C] net used for catching fish 鱼网. 2 [U] fabric made with small holes 网眼织物: [attrib 作定语] fish-net tights 鱼网状裤袜.

  fish-slice

  n kitchen tool consisting of a broad flat blade that has slits in it and is attached to a long handle, used for turning or lifting food when cooking 煎鱼铲(铲面上带有长孔). => illus at kitchen 见kitchen插图.

  fishwife

  n 1 woman who sells fish 卖鱼妇. 2 (derog 贬) nagging abusive person (usu a woman) 粗俗爱骂街的人(通常指女人): She was screaming like a fishwife! 她像泼妇一样尖叫!

  fish

  NOTE ON USAGE 用法: 1 Fish as a countable noun has two plural forms: fish and fishes. *fish一词作可数名词时有两个复数形式: fish和fishes. 1 Fish is the more usual form, used when referring to a mass of them in the water to be caught or seen 较普通的形式是fish, 指水中可捕捉或可看见的鱼: The number of fish in coastal waters has decreased. 沿海鱼的数量已减少了. * A lot of fish were caught during the competition. 在比赛中捉到很多鱼. 2 Fishes is used to refer to different species of fish *fishes的形式是用以指鱼的不同品种: He studies in particular the fishes of the Indian Ocean. 他专门研究印度洋的鱼类.

  fishing

  n [U] catching fish as a job, sport, or hobby 捕鱼(为生、 为娱乐或为业余爱好的): deep-sea fishing 深海捕鱼 * Fishing is still the main industry there. 捕鱼业仍为那里的主要行业. * [attrib 作定语] a fishing boat 渔船 * a fishing ground 渔场.

  fishing-line

  n line1(9a) with a hook attached for catching fish (系有钓钩的)钓线, 钓丝.

  fishing-rod

  n (US fishing pole) long wooden or (jointed) metal rod with a fishing-line attached to it 钓竿.

  fishing-tackle

  n [U] equipment used in fishing 渔具.

  fish

  / fIF; fIF/ v 1 (a) [I, Ipr] ~ (for sth) try to catch fish with hooks, nets, etc (用鱼 、 鱼网等)捕鱼: I often fish/go fishing at weekends. 我常在周末去钓鱼. * fishing for salmon 捕大麻哈鱼. (b) [Tn] try to catch fish in (an area of water) 在(某水域)中捕鱼: fish a river, lake, etc 在河中、 湖中等捕鱼. 2 [Ipr] ~ for sth search for sth, esp in an area of water or a hidden place 寻找某物(尤指於某水域或隐蔽处): fish for pearls 采集珍珠 * Fishing (around) in the bag for the keys. 在袋子里摸找钥匙. 3 (idm 习语) fish in troubled waters try to gain advantages for oneself from a disturbed state of affairs 混水摸鱼. 4 (phr v) fish for sth try to gain sth by indirect methods 设法用间接手段得到某事物: fish for compliments, information, praise 拐弯抹角获得恭维、 情报、 赞扬. fish sth out (of sth) take or pull sth out (of sth) esp after searching for it 经搜寻後从(某物)中拖出或拉出某物: Several old cars are fished out (of the canal) every month. 每月都从运河中打捞出几辆旧汽车来. * He fished a length of string out of his pocket. 他从口袋里掏出一条绳子.

  fish-plate

  / 5fIFpleIt; `fIF9plet/ n flat piece of iron joining one length of railway line to the next 鱼尾板(用於连接铁轨的结合板).

  fisherman

  / 5fIFEmEn; `fIFLmEn/ n (pl -men) person who catches fish, esp as a job but also as a sport or hobby 渔民, 渔夫, 钓鱼人(尤指作为职业者, 但也可指作为运动、 娱乐或爱好者). Cf 参看 angler (angle2).

  fishery

  / 5fIFErI; `fIFErI/ n 1 (usu pl 通常作复数) part of the sea where fish are caught commercially 渔场(商业捕鱼海域): offshore fisheries, ie at some distance from the coast 近海渔场. 2 business or industry of fishing 渔业: the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food 农业、 渔业和粮食部.

  fissile

  / 5fIsaIl; ?@ 5fIsl; `fIsl/ adj (fml 文) 1 capable of undergoing nuclear fission 可进行核裂变的. 2 tending to split or divide 易裂的; 易分开的: fissile wood 易裂的木材.

  fission

  / 5fIFn; `fIFEn/ n [U] 1 splitting of the nucleus of an atom with the release of a large amount of energy 裂变: nuclear fission 核裂变. 2 (biology 生) splitting or division of biological cells as a method of reproduction 分裂生殖.

  fissionable

  / -FEnEbl; -FEnEbl/ adj (of material) with a nucleus that can be split (指材料)可作核裂变的.

  fissiparous

  / fI5sIpErEs; fI`sIpErEs/ adj reproducing by division of biological cells 分裂生殖的.

  fissure

  / 5fIFE(r); `fIFL/ n long deep crack in rock or in the earth (岩石中或土地中的)深长裂缝.

  fist

  / fIst; fIst/ n 1 hand when closed tightly with the fingers bent into the palm 拳; 拳头: He struck me with his fist. 他用拳头打我. * He clenched his fists. 他紧握拳头. * She shook her fist at him, ie as an angry threatening gesture. 她向他挥动拳头. =>Usage at body 用法见body. 2 (idm 习语) an iron fist/hand in a velvet glove => iron1. the mailed fist => mail2. make money hand over fist => money.

  fistful

  / 5fIstfUl; `fIstfJl/ n number or quantity that can be held in a fist 可握在手中的数或量: a fistful of ten-pound notes 一把十英镑面额的纸币.

  fisticuffs

  / 5fIstIkQfs; `fIstI9kQfs/ n [pl] (arch or joc 古或谑) fighting with the fists 用拳殴打: engage in fisticuffs 以拳互殴.

  fistula

  / 5fIstjUlE; `fIstFJlE/ n 1 long pipelike ulcer with a narrow mouth 瘘管. 2 abnormal or surgically made passage in the body (身体中异常的或手术造成的)通道.

  fit

  / fIt; fIt/ adj (-tter, -ttest) 1 [usu pred 通常作表语] ~ for sb/sth; ~ to do sth suitable or suited for sb/sth; well adapted for sb/sth; good enough for sb/sth 对某人[某事物]适宜; 合适; 适当: a land fit for heroes to live in 适合英雄生活的国土 * The food was not fit for human consumption/not fit to eat, ie was too bad to be eaten. 这食物不适宜人吃. 2 [usu pred 通常作表语] ~ to do sth (infml 口) in such a condition as to be likely or ready to do or suffer sth specified 可能或准备做某事物; 可能或准备受罪: They worked till they were fit to drop, ie likely to collapse from exhaustion. 他们一直工作到快要累垮了. * He's so angry that he's in no fit state to see anyone. 他气成那个样子, 简直无法见人. * (used as an adv after a v and to + infinitive 用作副词, 在动词 及to+不定式之後) He laughed fit to burst. 他要笑破肚子了. * His shouting was fit (ie loud enough) to wake the dead. 他大喊大叫都要把死人吵醒了. 3 ~ (for sth/to do sth) in good health, esp because of regular physical exercise 健康的(尤指因经常锻炼): World-class athletes are extremely fit. 具有国际水平的运动员体格非常好. * He's been ill and isn't fit for work yet. 他一直在生病, 尚不能工作. * He keeps himself fit by running 5 miles every day. 他每天跑5英里以保持身体健康. * fighting fit, ie in very good physical condition and ready for energetic action 健壮而精力充沛. => Usage at healthy用法见healthy. 4 (fml 文) suitable and right, usu according to accepted social standards 恰当的; 正当的; 得体的: As George introduced Peter and Sarah it is only fit (and proper) that he should be best man at their wedding. 因是乔治介绍彼得与萨拉相识的, 由他来作他们婚礼的男傧相是最合适的. 5 (idm 习语) (as) ,fit as a ,fiddle in very good physical condition 非常健康: I felt as fit as a fiddle after my walking holiday. 我经过假期徒步旅行, 身体极好. see/think `fit (to do sth) consider it correct, convenient or acceptable (to do sth); decide or choose 认为(做某事)为正当的、 适宜的或得体的; 决定; 愿意: The newspaper did not see fit to publish my letter. 该报认为不宜发表我的信. * Do as you think fit. 你认为怎麽做好就怎麽做吧.

  fitness

  n [U] 1 condition of being physically fit 健康: In many sports (physical) fitness is not as important as technique. 在许多体育运动中, 体能没有技巧重要. 2 ~ for sth/to do sth suitability for sth 适合某事物: Her fitness for the job cannot be questioned. 她能胜任这项工作, 这是无庸置疑的.

  fit

  / fIt; fIt/ v (-tt-, pt, pp fitted; US also fit) 1 (a) [I, Tn] be the right shape and size for (sb) 形状及大小对(某人)合适; 合身: These shoes don't fit (me). 这双鞋(我)穿著不合适. * Her coat fits (her) exactly. 她的大衣很合身. * I can never get clothes to fit me. 我总也买不到合身的衣服. * a close-fitting dress 紧身连衣裙 * The key doesn't fit the lock. 这把钥匙打不开这把锁. (b) [Tn.pr esp passive 尤用於被动语态] ~ sb for sth try (clothing) on sb in order to adjust it to the right size and shape 试穿(衣服): He went to the tailor's to be fitted for a coat. 他去裁缝店试穿大衣. 2 (a) [Ipr, Ip] be of the right size to go somewhere 大小适合装入某处: The cooker won't fit in/into your new kitchen. 你的新厨房装不下这套炉具. * The mask fitted tightly over his face. 他用面具把脸蒙得严严的. * a tightly-fitting mask 严实的面具 * The lift was so small that only three people could fit in. 电梯很小, 只容得下三个人. (b) [Tn.pr, Tn.p] ~ sth into sth/in find or have sufficient space or room for sth in a place 找到或尚有足够的地方容纳某物: We can't fit any more chairs into the room. 房间里没有地方多放椅子了. * This card just fits nicely into that envelope. 这张卡片正好能装进那个信封里. 3 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ A (on/to B); ~ B with A supply sth and fix or put it into place 安装或装置某物: fit handles on the cupboards/fit the cupboards with handles 给柜橱安装把手 * The room was fitted with a new carpet. 房间里铺上了新地毯. 4 [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] ~ A (onto/to B); ~ A and B together join one thing to another to make a whole 将一物装到另一物上: fit the tail assembly to the fuselage 把装配好的机尾安装到机身上 * fit the pieces of a model kit together 把模型的各个部件组装在一起. 5 [I, Tn] be in agreement with (sth); match or suit 与(某事物)相符; 相称; 相协调: Something doesn't quite fit here. 这里有些不太协调. * All the facts certainly fit your theory. 所有的事实都和你的说法相符. * The punishment ought to fitthe crime. 罚需当罪. 6 [Tn, Tn.pr, Cn.t] ~ sb/oneself/sth for sth make sb/oneself/sth suitable for a particular role or task 使某人[自己]胜任某职位或任务; 使某物适合某用途: Am I really fitted for the role of director? 我真能胜任董事一职吗? * His experience fitted him for the job/to do the job. 他有经验, 能胜任这项工作. 7 (idm 习语) fill/fit the bill => bill1. fit (sb) like a `glove (a) fit the wearer perfectly in size or shape 某人穿著非常合身: My dress fits (me) like a glove. 我的连衣裙非常合身. (b) be very suitable and accurate 合适而准确; 恰如其分: `Cautious' is a description that certainly fits the new president like a glove. 用`谨小慎微'来形容新会长很恰当. if the cap fits => cap. 8 (phr v) fit sb/sth in; fit sb/sth in/into sth succeed in finding time to see sb or to do sth 找到见某人或做某事物的时间: I'll try and fit you in after lunch. 我尽可能在午饭以後见你. * I had to fit ten appointments into one morning. 我要在一个上午里安排十个约会. fit in (with sb/sth) be a smoothly fitting part (of sth); be in harmony (with sb/sth) 与(某事物)相适应; 与(某人[某事物])相协调: He's never done this type of work before; I'm not sure how he'll fit in (with the other employees). 他以前从未做过这种工作, 我不知道他是否能(与其他雇员)配合好. * Do these plans fit in with your arrangements? 这些计画与你的安排一致吗? fit sb/sth out/up (with sth) supply sb/sth with the necessary equipment, clothes, food, etc; equip 供给某人[某事物]必要的设备、 衣物、 食品等; 装备: fit out a ship before a long voyage 为远航的轮船准备必需品 * I'm getting the children fitted out with clothes for their new school. 我在为孩子们准备到新学校去的衣服.

  fitted

  adj [attrib 作定语] 1(of a carpet) cut so that it covers a floor completely and is fixed into place (指地毯)铺满地面而固定的. 2 (a) (of furniture) built to be fixed into a particular space (指家具)(按放置位置)定做的: fitted cupboards 定做的柜橱. (b) (of a room) having fitted furniture (指房间)有定做的家具的: a fitted kitchen 有固定设备的厨房. 3 (of a sheet) having sewn corners so that it fits tightly over a mattress (指床单)四角缝紧兜住床垫的.

  fitter

  n 1 person whose job is to put together, adjust and repair machinery and equipment 装配工: a gas fitter 煤气装配工. 2 person whose job is to cut out, fit and alter clothes (负责剪裁、 试样和修改服装的)裁缝.

  fit

  / fIt; fIt/ n [sing] (usu with a preceding adj 通常前面有形容词) way in which sth, esp a garment, fits 某物适合的样子; (尤指)合身: The coat was a good, bad, tight, loose, etc fit. 那件大衣很合身、 不合身、 很瘦、 很宽松等.

  fit

  / fIt; fIt/ n 1 sudden attack of epilepsy or other disease with violent movements and loss of consciousness (癫痫的)发作; 痉挛; 昏厥: an epileptic `fit 癫痫发作. 2 sudden (usu short) attack of a minor illness (轻微疾病的)发作(通常为片刻的): a fit of coughing 一阵咳嗽 * a `fainting fit 一阵眩晕. 3 sudden burst of (usu uncontrollable) laughter, activity, etc (大笑、 活动等的)突然爆发(通常指控制不住的): a fit of laughter/(the) giggles 一阵大笑[格格的笑] * We were all in fits (of laughter) (ie laughing uncontrollably) at his jokes. 他的笑话逗得我们前仰後合. * a fit of energy, letter writing, spring-cleaning, etc 一股干劲、 猛写一阵信、 一阵大扫除. 4 short period of an intense feeling (强烈感情的)突发, 冲动: a fit of anger, rage, frustration, etc 一股怒气、 一阵怒火、 一阵心烦. 5 (idm 习语) by/in ,fits and `starts in irregular bursts of activity over a period of time 一阵一阵地: Because of other commitments I can only write my book in fits and starts. 因为我有其他的事要做, 所以这本书只能时写时辍. have/throw a `fit (a) suffer a fit(1) 癫痫病发作; 痉挛; 昏厥. (b) (infml 口) be greatly shocked, alarmed, outraged, etc 震惊; 惊恐; 愤怒: Your mother would have a fit if she knew you were here. 你母亲要是知道你在这里准会非常生气.

  fitful

  / -fl; -fEl/ adj occurring in short periods, not regularly and steadily 一阵阵的; 不规则的; 不稳定的: fitful bursts of energy 一阵阵的干劲 * a fitful night's sleep 夜间时断时续的睡眠.

  fitfully

  / -fElI; -fElI/ adv.

  fitment

  / 5fItmEnt; `fItmEnt/ n (usu pl 通常作复数) piece of furniture or equipment, esp one forming part of a unit or series 家具或设备(尤指一套中的一件): kitchen fitments, eg cupboards 厨房设备(如柜橱).

  fitting

  / 5fItIN; `fItIN/ adj suitable for the occasion; right or proper 得体的; 恰当的; 适合的: It was fitting that he should be here to receive the prize in person. 他应该亲自来领奖才对.

  fitting

  / 5fItIN; `fItIN/ n 1 (usu pl 通常作复数) small standard part or component 小型标准零件或配件: electrical fittings 电气配件 * stainless-steel light fittings 不锈钢灯具. 2 (usu pl 通常作复数) items, such as a cooker and shelves, that are fixed in a building but can be removed when the owner moves house (搬家时可移走的)装置(如炉具、 橱架等). Cf 参看 fixture 1, movables (movable). 3 process or occasion of having a garment fitted 试穿; 试衣: a fitting for a wedding dress 试 穿结婚礼服 * costume fittings 服装试穿.

  five

  / faIv; faIv/ pron, det 5; one more than four 5, 五(个): Look at page five. 见第五页. * Everyone took the exam, but only five passed. 所有的人都参加了考试, 但只有五人及格. * Five (of the students) passed. 五个(学生)及格. * There were five children at the party. 聚会中有五个孩子. * This shirt cost five pounds, ie 5. 这件衬衣五英镑. * He's five (years old) today. 今天他五岁了. =>App 4 见附录4.

  five

  n the number 5 *5; 五: a birthday card with a big five on it 印有一个大大的`五'字的生日卡 * a row of fives on the blackboard 黑板上的一行`五'字 * Five and five make ten. 五加五等於十.

  five-

  (in compounds 用以构成复合词) having five of the thing specified 五个: a five-day week, ie working five days out of seven, usu Monday to Friday * a five-year contract * a five-sided figure.

  fiver

  / 5faIvE(r); `faIvL/ n 1 (Brit infml 口) five pound note; 5 面值为五英镑的钞票; 5英镑: Can I borrow a fiver? 能借给我五英镑吗? 2 (US infml 口) five dollar note; $5 面值为五美元的钞票; 5美元.

  five o'clock shadow

  dark appearance on a man's chin and face caused by the slight growth of hair that has occurred since he shaved in the morning (早晨刮脸後)傍晚(又长出少许胡须)的容貌.

  five pence (also five p, 5p)

  (Brit) (coin worth) five new pence 五便士; 面值为五便士的硬币.

  fivepenny

  adj [attrib 作定语] (Brit) costing or worth five new pence 五便士的.

  fives

  / faIvz; faIvz/ n [sing v] (Brit) game in which a ball is hit with gloved hands or a bat against the walls of a court 墙手球(一种球戏, 带著手套用手或用球拍向球场的墙上击球).

  fix

  / fIks; fIks/ v 1 [Tn.pr] fasten (sth) firmly to sth 将(某物)固定到另一物上; 安装: fix a shelf to the wall 把架子装在墙上 * fix a post in the ground 把杆子固定在地上 * (fig 比喻) fix the blame on sb 把过错推诿给某人 * fix sb's name in one's mind, ie make great efforts to remember it 牢记某人的名字. 2 [Tn.pr] ~ sth on sb/sth direct (esp one's eyes) on sb/sth with steady attention 全神贯注於、 (尤指)凝视某人[某物]: Her eyes were fixed on the gun. 她紧盯著那枝枪. * fix one's thoughts/attention on what one is doing 全神贯注地工作. 3 [Tn] decide (sth) definitely; set or determine 决定(某事物); 确定: The time for our meeting has been fixed already. 我们开会的时间已经确定了. * We will fix the rent at 100 a week. 我们要把租金定为每周100英镑. 4 [Tn] repair or mend (sth) 修理(某物): My watch has stopped it needs fixing. 我的表停了--需要修理了. 5 [Tn] put (sth) in order; adjust 整理(某事物); 调整: Let me fix my hair (ie brush and comb it) and I'll be ready. 我梳梳头, 马上就好. 6 [Tn, Tn.p] ~ sth (up) arrange sth 安排某事物: I'll fix (up) a meeting. 我来安排会议. * I could fix it up with Geoffrey. 我可以和杰弗里商量一下, 把这事安排好. 7 [Tn] find out (the exact nature, position, time, etc of sth) 确定(某事物的真正性质、 位置、 时间等). 8 [Tn, Dn.n, Dn.pr] ~ sth (for sb)(esp US) provide or prepare (esp food) 供给或准备(尤指食物): He's just fixing a snack. 他在准备一点小吃. * Can I fix you a drink? 我给你弄点饮料好吗? * Let me fix supper for you. 我去给你准备晚饭. 9 [Tn] treat (photographic film, dyed fabric, etc) with a chemical so that the colours do not change or fade (用化学药品)使(摄影底片、 染过的织物等的颜色)固定不变, 定影. 10 [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] (infml 口) influence the result or actions of (sth), by unfair or illegal means 作弊: I knew the race was fixed. 我知道这次比赛有鬼. * The jury/judge had been fixed. 有人操纵了陪审团[法官]. 11 [Tn] (infml 口) punish or kill (esp sb who has harmed one); get even with 惩罚或杀死(尤指伤害过自己的人); 报复: I'll fix him so that he never bothers you again. 我来收拾他, 叫他再也不能打扰你. 12 [I, Tn] (sl 俚) inject oneself with (a narcotic drug) 给自己注射(毒品). 13 (phr v) fix on sb/sth decide to have sb/sth; choose 决定要某人[某事物]; 选定; 确定: They've fixed on Ashby as the new chairman. 他们决定让阿什比做新的主席. * Have you fixed on a date for the wedding?你们举行婚礼的日期确定了吗? fix sth up repair, redecorate, or adapt sth 修理、 重新装饰或改装某物: He fixed up the cottage before they moved in. 他把农舍修整好, 他们才搬进去. fix sb up (with sth) (infml 口) arrange for sb to have sth; provide sb with sth 为某人安排某事物; 向某人提供某事物: I'll fix you up with a place to stay. 我来给你安排住处. * She's got herself fixed up with a cosy flat. 她弄到了一套舒适的公寓. fix sb with sth (fml 文) direct one's gaze, attention, etc at sb 凝视某人; 注视某人: He fixed her with an angry stare. 他怒目注视著她.

  fixed

  / fIkst; fIkst/ adj 1 already arranged and decided; not changing; set 已决定的; 确定不变的; 固定的: fixed prices 固定的价格 * a fixed rate of interest 固定的利率. 2 (of ideas, wishes, etc) held firmly and sometimes obsessively (指想法、 愿望等)坚定的, 执著的, 固执的: He had the fixed idea that a woman's place was in the home. 他有个成见, 认为女人的天地是在家里. 3 [attrib 作定语] (of an expression on sb's face) not changing; intent (指表情)不变的, 专注的: a fixed smile, glare, stare, etc 呆板的微笑、 眼睛一动不动的怒视、 目不转睛的注视. 4 [pred 作表语] ~ for sth (infml 口) provided or supplied with sth 供给或供应某物: How are you fixed for money, food, time, etc? 你的钱、 食物、 时间等是怎麽来的? 5 (idm 习语) (of) ,no fixed a`bode/ad`dress (law 律) (having) no permanent place to live in 无固定住所[住址](的): Lovejoy, of no fixed abode, was charged with murder. 洛夫乔伊, 居无定所, 被控谋杀. fixedly/ 5fIksIdlI; `fIksIdlI/ adv without altering one's gaze; intently 目不转睛地; 专注地: stare fixedly at sb 目不转睛地注视某人. fixed `assets permanent business assets, eg buildings and equipment 固定资产(如建筑物和设备). Cf 参看 current assets (current1). fixed `costs business costs that do not vary with the amount of work produced 固定成本(不随产量变化而变动的企业成本). ,fixed `star star so far from the earth that it seems to have no movement 恒星.

  fixer

  / 5fIksE(r); `fIksL/ n 1 (infml 口) person who makes (usu illegal) arrangements 代为做(通常为非法的)安排的人. 2 (chemical) substance that fixes (fix1 9) photographs or dyes 定影剂; 定色剂.

  fixity

  / 5fIksItI; `fIksEtI/ n [U] ~ of sth quality of being fixed; firmness 固定性; 稳定性: She displayed great fixity of purpose. 她目标始终如一.

  fix

  / fIks; fIks/ n 1 [C usu sing 通常作单数] (infml 口) awkward or difficult situation 尴尬的境地; 窘况; 困境: be in/get oneself into a fix 处於[使自己陷入]尴尬的境地. 2 [C] (a) action of finding the position of a ship, an aircraft, etc by taking measurements with a compass, etc (用罗盘对船只、 飞行器等的)方位测定. (b) position found by these means 测出的方位. 3 [sing] (infml 口) thing arranged dishonestly 不光明正大的安排; 搞鬼; 勾当: Her promotion was a fix, I'm sure. 我敢肯定她的提升有鬼. 4 [C] (sl 俚) injection of a narcotic drug, eg heroin 注射麻醉品(如海洛因): get oneself a fix 给自己注射毒品.

  fixated

  / fIk5seItId; `fIk9setId/ adj [pred 作表语] ~ (on sb/sth) having an abnormal emotional attachment (to sb/sth) (对某人[某事物])固恋, 异常依恋: He is fixated on things that remind him of his childhood. 他异常依恋那些使他回忆起童年生活的东西.

  fixation

  / fIk5seIFn; fIks`eFEn/ n ~ (on sb/sth) unhealthy emotional attachment (to sb/sth); obsession (对某人[某事物])情感上不健康的依恋, 固恋: a mother fixation 对母亲的固恋 * fixations about marriage 对婚姻的固恋.

  fixative

  / 5fIksEtIv; `fIksEtIv/ n [C, U] 1 substance used for fixing (fix1 9) photographic film, dye, etc, or for preventing perfume from evaporating too quickly 定影剂; 固色剂; 防(香料)挥发剂. 2 substance used for sticking things together or keeping things in position, esp false teeth or hair 固定剂(尤指粘假牙或假发的): Dentures require a strong fixative. 粘假牙需用强力固定剂.

  fixture

  / 5fIkstFE(r); `fIkstFL/ n 1 (usu pl 通常作复数) thing, such as a bath, water tank or toilet, that is fixed in a building and is not removed when the owner moves house (建筑物内的)固定装置(如澡盆、 水箱、 马桶等): plumbing fixtures 管道装置 * The price of the house included many existing fixtures and fittings that were not to our taste. 房价包括不合我们心意的许多固定装置和附 加设备. Cf 参看 fitting2 2, movables (movable). 2 (day fixed or decided for a) sporting event 体育运动项目(已确定的比赛日期). 3 (infml 口) person or thing that is firmly established and appears unlikely to leave a place or position 地位稳固而不大可能离开某处或某职位的人; 固定於某处不大可能移动之物: Professor Gravity now seems to have become an unwanted fixture in the college. 格雷维蒂教授现在好像成了学院里的累赘.

  fizz

  / fIz; fIz/ v [I] 1 (of a liquid) produce bubbles of gas; effervesce (指液体)冒泡, 起泡. 2 make a hissing or spluttering sound 发出嘶嘶声或 啪声: The match fizzed. 火柴发出嘶嘶声.

  fizz

  n [U] 1 quality of having a lot of bubbles of gas in a liquid; effervescence 液体冒泡的性能; 起泡: This lemonade has lost its fizz. 这汽水跑气了. 2 fizzing sound 嘶嘶声或 啪声: the fizz of a firework 烟火的嘶嘶声; (infml 口) drink, eg champagne, that has a lot of bubbles of gas 起泡的饮料(如香槟).

  fizzle

  / 5fIzl; `fIzl/ v 1 [I] make a weak fizzing sound 发出微弱的嘶嘶声. 2 (phr v) fizzle out end or fail in a weak or disappointing way 虎头蛇尾般结束或失败: After a promising start, the project soon fizzled out. 这项计画开始时很有希望, 但不久就失败了.

  fizzy

  / 5fIzI; `fIzI/ adj (-ier, -iest) (of a drink) having a lotof bubbles of gas that make a hissing sound; effervescent or carbonated (指饮料)有大量气泡因而嘶嘶作响的, 含二氧化碳的: fizzy lemonade 汽水.

  fizziness

  n [U].

  fjord

  = fiord.

  fl

  abbr 缩写 = floor: Accounts Office 3rd fl 四楼会计室.

  fl oz

  abbr 缩写 = (pl unchanged or fl ozs 复数或不变或作fl ozs) fluid ounce: 5 fl oz 5液量盎司.

  flab

  / flAb; flAb/ n [U] (infml derog 口, 贬) soft loose fatty flesh on a person's body 人体上松弛的肌肉: middle-age flab, ie on people aged about 40-60 years 中年人的松弛的肌肉.

  flabby

  / 5flbI; `flAbI/ adj (-ier, -iest) (derog 贬) 1 (a) soft and loose; not strong or firm 松软的; 松弛的: flabby muscles, thighs, flesh, etc 松弛的肌肉、 松软的大腿、 松软的肉. (b) having soft loose fatty flesh 肥胖而肌肉松弛的: He's getting fat and flabby because he doesn't have enough exercise. 他因为缺少锻炼而日见肥胖肌肉松弛. =>Usage at fat1 用法见fat1. 2 feeble and weak; ineffective 软弱无力的; 无效的: flabby excuses 软弱无力的托辞 * a flabby argument, plot, speech, etc 无力的论据、 松散的情节、 欠说服力的讲话.

  flabbily

  adv.

  flabbiness

  n [U].

  flabbergast

  / 5flAbEgB:st; ?@ -gAst; `flAbL9^Ast/ v[Tn usu passive 通常用於被动语态] (infml 口) overwhelm(sb) with shocked amazement: surprise very greatly 使(某人)目瞪口呆, 大吃一惊: He was flabbergasted when he heard that his friend had been accused of murder. 他听说朋友被控谋杀罪, 大吃一惊.

  flaccid

  / 5flAksId; `flAksId/ adj (fml 文) soft and weak; loose and limp; not firm 软弱的; 松弛的; 不结实的.

  flaccidity

  / flk5sIdEtI; flAk`sIdEtI/ n [U].

  flag

  / flAg; flA^/ n 1 (usu oblong or square) piece of cloth with a particular design, that can be attached by one edge to a rope, pole, etc and used as a symbol of a country, party, etc or as a signal 旗: The national flag of the United Kingdom is called the Union Jack. 英国的国旗称作Union Jack. * The ship was sailing under the Dutch flag, ie the Dutch flag was flying from its mast. 那条船航行时悬挂著荷兰国旗. * All the flags were flying at half-mast, ie in honour of a famous dead person. 所有的旗帜都降半旗致哀. * The guard waved his flag and the train left the station. 列车长摇动手中的旗子, 火车随之开出车站. * The white flag is a symbol of a truce or surrender. 白旗表示停战或投降. =>illus 见插图. 2 small piece of paper or cloth attached to a stick or pin, esp one given to sb who contributes to a charity appeal 小纸旗或小布旗(尤指送给为慈善事业捐款者的): children selling flags for a cancer research appeal 为癌症研究募捐而售旗的孩子们. 3 sign displayed to show that a taxi is for hire (计程车表示可载客的)旗形牌. 4 (idm 习语) a ,flag of con`venience flag of a foreign country under which a ship registers to avoid the taxes and certain regulations of the owner's home country 方便旗(船只为逃避本国捐税或避免履行某些规章而在他国注册所挂的该国国旗). fly/show/wave the flagmake known one's support of or loyalty to one's country, party, movement, etc, esp in order to encourage others to do the same 表示对自己的国家、 党派、 运动等的拥护或忠诚. keep the `flag flying continue to support one's country or a set of principles 坚持拥护自己的国家或一套原则: Our exporters proudly kept the flag flying at the international trade exhibition. 在国际贸易展览会上, 我国的出口商为国争光.

  flag

  v (-gg-) 1 [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] place a flag or flags on (sth); decorate with flags 悬旗於(某物); 用旗装饰: The streets were flagged to celebrate the royal wedding. 街上挂起了旗子, 庆祝皇室婚礼. 2 [Tn] mark (sth) for particular attention with a special mark or label (用特殊记号或标签)标出(某物, 以引起特别注意): All the surnames in the list have been specially flagged so that the computer can print them out easily. 名单上的姓氏都特别标出, 以便计算机容易打印出. 3 (phr v) flag sth down signal to (a moving vehicle) to stop, usu by waving one's arm 向(行驶的车辆)发出停车信号(通常指挥动手臂): flag down a taxi 挥手拦截计程车.

  flag-day

  n 1 (US tag day) day on which money is collected in public places for a charity, a small paper flag or sticker being given to those who contribute 售旗募捐日(该日於公共场所募捐, 捐款者获小纸旗或标贴). 2 Flag Day (US) 14 June, anniversary of the day in 1777 when the Stars and Stripes became the national flag 美国国旗制定纪念日(6月14日, 为纪念1777年该日决定以星条旗为美国国旗).

  flag-pole

  n long pole on which a flag is flown 旗杆.

  flagship

  n 1 ship which has the commander of a fleet on board 旗舰. 2 (fig 比喻) most important of a group of products, projects, services, etc (一批产品、 工程、 服务设施等中)最重要者: This dictionary is the flagship of Oxford's range of learners' dictionaries. 本词典执牛津一系列学习者词典之牛耳.

  flagstaff

  n flag-pole 旗杆.

  flag-waving

  n [U] (esp excessive) expression of patriotic or group feeling(s) (尤指过激的)爱国情绪或宗派情绪: [attrib 作定语] I didn't think much of that speech it was just a flag-waving exercise, ie one that did not deal with real issues. 我认为他的话无足轻重--只不过是偏激的派性空话.

  flag

  / flAg; flA^/ v (-gg-) [I] 1 become tired, less active, or less interesting; weaken 变得疲倦、 不活跃或乏味; 衰弱: My strength, interest, enthusiasm, etc is flagging. 我的力气、 兴趣、 热情等正在减退. 2 (esp of plants) become limp or feeble; hang down or droop (尤指植物)萎蔫, 枯萎: Roses will flag in the summer heat. 夏天炎热玫瑰就要枯萎.

  flag

  / flAg; flA^/ n = flagstone.

  flagged

  / flAgd; flA^d/ adj paved with flagstones 用石板铺成的: a flagged terrace 用石板铺成的台地.

  flag

  / flAg; flA^/ n type of plant with blade-like leaves, usu growing in wet land 菖蒲; 香蒲. Cf 参看 iris 2.

  flagellant

  / 5flAdVElEnt; `flAdVElEnt/ (fml 文) n person who whips himself or another person, either as a religious penance or to obtain or give sexual pleasure (为宗教苦行或为获得或给予性快感)鞭笞自己或他人者.

  flagellate

  / 5flAdVEleIt; `flAdVE9let/ v [Tn] (fml 文) whip (sb or oneself), as a religious penance or for sexual gratification (作为宗教苦行或为满足性欲)鞭笞(某人或自己).

  flagellation

  / 9flAdVE5leIFn; 9flAdVE`leFEn/ n.

  flagon

  / 5flAgEn; `flA^En/ n 1 large rounded bottle in which wine, cider, etc is sold, usu holding about twice as much as an ordinary bottle 大肚酒瓶(通常容量为普通酒瓶的两倍). 2 container with a handle, lip and lid for serving wine at a table (有把手、 壶嘴、 壶盖的)酒壶. 3 amount of liquid contained in a flagon 一个大肚酒瓶或酒壶的量: drink a flagon of wine 喝一大壶酒.

  flagrant

  / 5fleIgrEnt; `fle^rEnt/ adj (usu of an aciton) particularly bad, shocking and obvious (通常指行为)极坏的, 骇人听闻的, 公然的: a flagrant breach of justice 公然违反公正原则 * flagrant violations of human rights 对人权的粗暴践踏.

  flagrantly

  adv.

  flagstone

  / 5flAgstEUn; `flA^9ston/ (also flag) n flat piece of stone (usu square or oblong) for a floor, path or pavement 石板(通常为正方形或长方形, 用以铺室内地面、 小径或边道).

  flail

  / fleIl; flel/ n tool consisting of a stick swinging from a long handle, used esp formerly to separate grain from chaff 连枷(有长柄的农具, 尤於旧时作打谷用).

  flail

  v 1 [I, Tn] (cause sth to) wave or swing about wildly (使某物)乱摇或乱摆: The dying lamb fell, its legs flailing (about) helplessly. 小羊快要死了, 倒在地上四条腿又踢又蹬. * flail one's arms/hands above one's head 将双臂[双手]举过头顶摇动. 2 [Tn] beat (sth) (as if) with a flail (似)用连枷打(某物).

  flair

  / fleE(r); flZr/ n 1 [sing, U] ~ for sth natural ability to do sth well 天资; 天分: He doesn't show much flair for the piano. 他对弹钢琴没有什麽天资. * She has a real flair for languages, ie is quick at learning them. 她真有学习语言的天分. 2 [U] original and attractive quality; stylishness 天生的吸引人的特质; 风度.

  flak

  / flAk; flAk/ n [U] 1 guns shooting at enemy aircraft; fire from those guns 高射炮; 高射炮火: run into heavy flak 陷入密集的高射炮火中. 2 (infml 口) severe criticism 严厉的批评: The plans for the new tax have come in for a lot of flak, ie have been very strongly criticized. 新的税务计画遭到了猛烈抨击.

  flak jacket

  heavy protective jacket reinforced with metal (衬有金属片的)防护衣; 避弹衣.

  flake

  / fleIk; flek/ n small thin layer or piece, esp one that has broken off a surface or object; small loose bit 小薄片(尤指从物体上剥落下来的); 小碎片: Scrape off all the loose flakes of paint before redecorating. 先把翘起来的漆皮刮掉再重新装修. * snowflakes 雪花 * soap-flakes 肥皂片.

  flake

  v 1 [I, Ip] ~ (off/away) come or fall off in flakes 成片状剥落: The paint on the walls is beginning to flake (off). 墙上的漆开始剥落了. 2 [I, Tn] separate (usu food) into flakes (使)(通常为食物)成片: flaked fish 切成片的鱼. 3 (phr v) flake out (infml 口) collapse or fall asleep from exhaustion (因精疲力竭)瘫倒或入睡: When I got home from the airport, I flaked out in the nearest armchair. 我从机场回到家, 便一下瘫倒在离我最近的沙发上了.

  flaky

  adj (-ier, -iest) made up of flakes; tending to break into flakes 由薄片组成的; 易分裂成薄片的: flaky pastry 酥饼.

  flakiness

  n [U].

  flambe

  / 5flCmbeI; ?@ flB:m5beI; flCm`be/ adj (French 法) (following ns 置於名词之後) (of food) covered with brandy or other spirit, set alight and served (指食物)浇上白兰地等酒类, 点燃後供食用的: pancakes flambe 带火焰的薄饼.

  flamboyant

  / flAm5bRIEnt; flAm`bRIEnt/ adj 1 (of a person or his character, manner, etc) showy, very confident and extravagant (指人或性格、 举止等)爱炫耀的, 非常自信的, 奢华的: rich flamboyant film stars 阔绰而爱炫耀的电影明星 * flamboyant gestures 炫耀的姿态. 2 brightly coloured or decorated 艳丽的; 装饰华丽的: flamboyant clothes 华丽的服装.

  flamboyance

  /- 5bRIEns; -bRIEns/ n [U].

  flamboyantly

  adv.

  flame

  / fleIm; flem/ n 1 [C, U] hot glowing portion of burning gas that comes from something on fire 火焰: The curtains were enveloped in a sheet of flame. 窗帘被火焰吞没. * the tiny flame of a cigarette-lighter 打火机小小的火焰 * The house was in flames, ie was on fire, burning. 房子失火了. * An oil heater was knocked over and burst instantly into flames, ie suddenly began to burn strongly. 油加热器碰倒了, 顿时燃起了一片大火. * The whole hotel went up in flames (ie was destroyed by fire) in minutes. 整个旅馆几分钟就烧毁了. =>illus at candle 见candle插图. 2 [C] bright light or brilliant colour, usu red or orange 明亮的光线或灿烂的颜色(通常指红色或橙色): The flowering shrubs were a scarlet flame. 花丛一片嫣红. 3 [C] (rhet 修辞) intense feeling, esp love 强烈的感情(尤指爱情): the flame of passion 激情的烈焰 * A flicker of interest soon turned into the burning flames of desire. 一丝情趣的星星之火未几演成了乾柴烈火. 4 [C] (infml 口) person with whom one was once in love; sweetheart or lover (used esp in the expression shown) 旧情人, 情人, 爱人(尤用於以下示例): an old flame 老相好. 5 (idm 习语) add fuel to the flames => add. fan the flames => fan2. pour oil on the flames => pour.

  flame-thrower

  n weapon that projects a stream of burning fuel 火焰喷射器; 喷火器.

  flame

  / fleIm; flem/ v 1 [La, I] burn with a brighter flame 燃烧; 发出火焰: The burning coals started to flame yellow and orange. 燃烧著的煤开始发出了黄色与橙色的火焰. 2 [La, I, Ipr] glow or shine like (the colour of) flames; blaze 似火焰(的颜色)般地闪耀; 放光: wooded hillsides that flame red in autumn 长满树木的山坡, 在秋季红如火焰 * a flaming sunset 火红的晚霞 * flaming red hair 如火的红发 * His face flamed (with anger/embarrassment). 他(气得[窘得])面红耳赤.

  flaming

  adj [attrib 作定语] 1 passionate or violent 激情的; 激烈的; 暴躁的: a flaming row/argument/temper 激烈的争吵[激烈的争论/暴躁的脾气]. 2 (infml 口) (used to emphasize a judgement or comment) absolute; utter (用以加强判断或评论的语气)非常的, 十足的: You flaming idiot! 你这个大笨蛋!

  flamenco

  / flE5meNkEU; flE`mZNko/ n [C, U] (pl ~s) (music for a) strongly rhythmical dance performed originally by Spanish gypsies 弗拉明柯舞(曲)(源於西班牙吉普赛人的节奏强烈的舞蹈).

  flamingo

  / flE5mINgEU; flE`mIN^o/ n (pl ~s) long-legged wading-bird with a long neck and pink feathers 红鹳.

  flammable

  / 5flAmEbl; `flAmEbl/ adj easily set on fire; that can burn easily 易燃烧的: Pyjamas made from flammable material have been removed from most shops. 大部分商店都不再出售用易燃材料做的睡衣了. Cf参看 inflammable, non-flammable. =>Usage at invaluable 用法见invaluable.

  flan

  / flAn; flAn/ n open pastry or sponge pie case containing a fruit, jam or savoury filling 果馅饼: an apple flan 苹果馅饼. Cf 参看 pie, tart2.

  flange

  / flAndV; flAndV/ n raised outside edge, eg of a railway wheel, to hold it in place 凸缘; 法兰.

  flank

  / flANk; flANk/ n 1 fleshy part of the side of an animal or person between the ribs and the hip 肋; 腰腹. =>illus at horse 见horse插图. 2 side of sth, eg a building or mountain 侧面(如建筑物或山的). 3 left or right side of an army or a body of troops (部队的)侧翼: Our orders are to attack their left flank. 我们的命令是攻击他们的左翼. * [attrib 作定语] a flank attack 侧翼攻击.

  flank

  v [Tn usu passive 通常用於被动语态] place (sb/sth) on each side of or at the side of sb/sth 置(某人[某物])於某人[某物]的两侧或一侧: The prisoner was flanked by the two detectives, ie There was a detective on each side of him. 那个囚犯夹在两名侦探的中间. * The garden is flanked to the north with large maple trees. 花园的北侧是一些高大的枫树.

  flannel

  / 5flAnl; `flAnl/ n 1 [U] type of soft loosely woven woollen cloth 法兰绒: [attrib 作定语] flannel trousers 法兰绒裤子. 2 flannels [pl] men's trousers made of flannel 法兰绒男裤: a pair of cricket flannels 一条男用法兰绒板球裤. 3 = face-flannel (face1). 4 [U] (infml 口) wordy language that avoids talking about sth directly and is often intended to flatter 兜圈子的(常为奉承的)言语: He gave me a lot of flannel but I still don't know the answer to my question. 他说了很多恭维话, 我仍然不知道怎样解决我的问题.

  flannel

  v (-ll-; US -l-) [I] (infml 口) speak or write flannel(4) 说或写兜圈子的言语: Stop flannelling and give a straight answer! 别再兜圈子了, 直截了当地回答!

  flannelette

  / 9flAnE5let; 9flAnl`Zt/ n [U] type of soft cotton material 棉法兰绒; 绒布: [attrib 作定语] flannelette night-gowns, sheets, pyjamas, etc 绒布睡袍、 床单、 睡衣等.

  flap

  / flAp; flAp/ n 1 ~(of sth) flat piece of material that covers an opening or hangs down (用以覆盖开口的或垂下的)扁平物: the flap of an envelope 信封的封盖 * the flap of a tent, pocket, etc 帐篷的帘、 衣袋的盖 * the flap of a table, ie an extra hinged section that hangs down when not in use 桌子的活边(以铰链与桌面相连, 不用时可以垂下). 2 part of the wing on an aircraft that can be lifted in flight to change the aircraft's upward direction (飞行器的)襟翼. =>illus at aircraft 见aircraft插图. 3 action or sound of flapping; light blow, usu with something flat 拍打; 拍打声; 轻击(通常指用扁平物击打). 4 (idm 习语) be in/get into a flap (infml 口) be in/get into a state of agitation, confusion, nervous excitement, etc 处於忐忑不安、 慌乱、 紧张、 激动等的状态: I got into a real flap when I lost my keys. 我丢了钥匙, 心里发慌.

  flap

  / flAp; flAp/ v (-pp-) 1 [I, Tn] (cause sth to) move, swing, wave, etc up and down or from side to side, usu making a noise (使某物)上下或左右移动、 摆动、 摇动等(通常发出声响): The sails were flapping gently in the wind. 船帆随风摆动. * The bird flapped its wings and flew away. 那鸟振翅飞去. 2 [Ipr, Tn.pr] (attempt to) give a light blow at (sth) with a flat object (用扁平物体)轻拍(某物): flap at a fly with a cloth/flap a cloth at a fly 用布来拍打苍蝇. 3 [I] (infml 口) become confused, excited or disturbed 困惑; 激动; 不安: There's no need to flap! 不必惊慌! 4 (phr v) flap across, away, by, etc (of a bird) fly in the specified direction by moving its wings (指鸟)振翅而飞: The heron flapped slowly off across the lake. 那白鹭振翅向湖对岸慢慢飞去.

  flapjack

  / 5flApdVk; `flAp9dVAk/ n 1 biscuit made from oats, butter and honey or syrup (用燕麦粉、 黄油和蜂蜜或糖汁做的)饼乾. 2 (esp US) thick pancake 厚煎饼.

  flapper

  / 5flApE(r); `flApL/ n 1 broad flat device used for killing flies, etc (打苍蝇等的)拍子; 蝇拍. 2 (dated infml 旧, 口) fashionable and unconventional young woman of the 1920s (20世纪20年代的)不拘传统的时髦少女.

  flare

  / fleE(r); flZr/ v 1 [I] burn brightly but briefly or unsteadily 燃烧; 闪耀: The match flared in the darkness. 火柴的光亮在黑暗中一闪. * flaring gas jets 闪耀著的煤气火焰. 2 [I] (fig 比喻) burst into sudden activity or anger (行动或愤怒)爆发: Tempers flared at the conference. 会上群情激奋. 3 (phr v) flare up (a) burn suddenly more intensely 火焰突然变旺: The fire flared up as I put more logs on it. 我加上了几块木柴, 火顿时旺起来. (b) reach a more violent state; suddenly become angry 达到更激烈的状态; 突然发怒: Violence has flared up again. 暴乱又起. * He flares up at the slightest provocation. 稍一激他, 他就大发脾气. (c) (of an illness) recur (指疾病)复发: My back trouble has flared up again. 我的後背又疼起来了.

  flare

  n 1 (usu sing 通常作单数) bright and unsteady or brief light or flame (耀眼而摇曳的)闪光或火焰: the sudden flare of a torch in the darkness 手电筒的光在黑暗中的一闪. 2 (device that produces a) flaring light used esp as a signal 闪光(装置)(尤指用作信号的): The captain of the sinking ship used flares to attract the attention of the coastguard. 轮船正在下沉, 船长向海岸巡逻队发出闪光信号求救.

  flare-path

  line of lights on a runway to guide aircraft landing or taking off (供飞行器用的)照明跑道.

  flare-up

  n 1 sudden burst of light or flame (光或火焰的)突然闪耀. 2 sudden outburst of strong or violent activity or feeling (激烈行动或情感的)爆发.

  flare

  / fleE(r); flZr/ v [I, Ip, Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] (cause sth to) become wider at the bottom (使某物)底部变宽: This skirt flares (out) at the hem. 这条裙子的下摆张得很大. * Her nostrils flared angrily. 她气得鼻孔鼓了起来. * flared trousers 喇叭裤. Cf 参看 taper2.

  flare

  n 1 gradual widening; flared shape 逐渐加宽; 喇叭状: a skirt with a slight flare 略成喇叭状的裙子. 2 flares [pl] (infml 口) flared trousers 喇叭裤.

  flash

  / flAF; flAF/ n 1 [C] (a) sudden bright burst of light or flame 闪光; 闪烁: a flash of lightning 一道闪电. (b) (fig 比喻) sudden show of wit, understanding, etc (机智等的)显露; 恍然大悟: a flash of inspiration, intuition, etc 灵机一动、 直觉的感触. 2 [C] = news flash (news). 3 [C, U] device or system that produces a brief bright light for taking photographs indoors or in poor light 闪光灯: This camera has a built-in flash. 这架照相机有内置闪光灯. * I'll need flash for this shot; the light isn't good enough. 我拍这张照片需用闪光灯, 这里光线不好. 4 [C] coloured stripe or patch of cloth worn as an emblem on a military uniform, eg on the shoulder (佩於军服上的)徽章(如肩章). 5 [C usu sing 通常作单数] (infml 口) brief showing of the sexual organs, esp by men; indecent exposure 瞬间展露性器官(尤指男子); 猥亵性暴露. 6 [attrib 作定语] (infml derog 口, 贬) expensive-looking, showy and usu not in good taste 花哨的; 炫耀的: a flash sports car 花里胡哨的跑车. 7 (idm 习语) a ,flash in the `pan sudden brilliant success that lasts only a short time and is not repeated 昙花一现: His first novel was a flash in the pan, and he hasn't written anything decent since. 他的第一部小说如昙花一现, 此後他再没写出像样的东西. in a/like a `flash very quickly; at once; immediately 很快; 立刻; 立即: I'll be back in a flash. 我马上就回来. quick as a flash => quick.

  flashbulb

  n bulb in a flash1(3) 闪光灯泡.

  flash cube

  set of four flashbulbs arranged as a cube for taking photographs one after the other 四连闪光灯(呈立方形, 四面各一闪光灯泡, 逐一使用).

  flash-flood

  n sudden destructive flood of water 暴洪.

  flash-gun

  n device that holds and operates the flashlight at the same time as the camera shutter opens 闪光操纵器, 闪光枪(与摄影机快门同步的闪光装置).

  flashlight

  n 1 (device that produces a) brief bright light for taking photographs indoors or in poor light 摄影闪光(装置). 2 (esp US) = torch. 3 (source of) light used for signalling, eg in a lighthouse 闪光信号灯(如灯塔中的).

  flash-point

  n 1 temperature at which the vapour above a liquid such as oil gives a brief flash, but does not catch fire, when a flame is brought near it 闪点; 燃点; 引火点. 2 (fig 比喻) point at which violence or anger breaks out (暴力事件或愤怒的)爆发点: Community unrest is rapidly approaching the flashpoint. 群众的不安定情绪已接近一触即发之势.

  flash

  / flAF; flAF/ v 1 (a) [I] give or send out a brief bright light 发出闪光: Lightning flashed during the storm. 暴风雨中闪电大作. * A lighthouse was flashing in the distance. 灯塔在远处发出闪烁的光. * (fig 比喻) His eyes flashed angrily. 他的眼睛怒火闪闪. (b) [Tn, Tn.pr] cause (sth) to shine briefly or suddenly 使(某物)短暂地或突然地发光: flash a torch in sb's eyes/at sb 用手电筒照某人的眼睛[照某人]. 2 [Tn, Tn.pr] (a) communicate with a light 用光联络: flash a signal (to sb) with one's car headlights 用汽车前灯(给某人)发信号. (b) send or reflect (sth) like a flash 如闪光般发出或反映出(某物): Her eyes flashed anger and defiance (at everyone). 她(看著大家,)眼中闪现著愤怒与轻蔑的神情. 3 [Tn] send (sth) by radio, television, etc (通过无线电、 电视等)传送(某事物): flash a message on the screen 在屏幕上映出一信息. 4 [Tn, Tn.p] show or display (sth) briefly 短暂地显示或出示(某事物): flash an identification card 出示一下身分证 * (derog 贬) He's flashing his money around, ie to try to gain the admiration of others. 他到处显示自己有钱. 5 [I] (infml 口) (esp of a man) show one's sexual organs briefly and indecently (尤指男子)猥亵性瞬间展露性器官. 6 (phr v) flash along, by, past, through, etc move very quickly in the specified direction 急速向某方向运动: The train flashed by at high speed. 火车疾驶而过. * (fig 比喻) An idea flashed into her mind. 她突然闪出一个念头. flash back (of one's thoughts) return to an earlier time (指某人的思想)回溯, 回顾, 回忆: My mind flashed back to our previous meeting. 我又想起了我们上次会面时的情景.

  flasher

  / 5flAFE(r); `flAFL/ n 1 (infml 口) person who flashes (flash2 5) 猥亵性瞬间展露性器官的人. 2 (device that controls esp a) flashing light on a vehicle used to indicate which way the vehicle is turning (尤指)车辆转向闪光指示灯(的装置).

  flashback

  n part of a film, play, etc that shows a scene earlier in time than the main story (电影的)闪回, 闪回镜头; (戏剧、 小说等的)倒叙, 倒叙情节: The events that led up to the murder were shown in a series of flashbacks. 酿成谋杀案的各个环节是通过一系列倒叙手法来表现的.

  flash card

  card on which a word or words are printed or written, used as a visual aid to learning 教学卡片(有单词或词语的直观教具).

  flashy

  / 5flAFI; `flAFI/ adj (-ier, -iest) attractive but usu not in good taste; showy 华丽而俗气的; 炫耀的: flashy clothes, jewellery, etc 花哨的服装、 首饰等 * a flashy car 花里胡哨的汽车.

  flashily

  adv: flashily dressed 穿得花里胡哨.

  flask

  / flB:sk; ?@ flAsk; flAsk/ n 1 (a) bottle with a narrow neck, esp one used in scientific laboratories for mixing or storing chemicals 细颈瓶; (尤指)烧瓶. (b) similarly shaped container for storing oil, wine, etc (装油、 酒等的)细颈瓶. 2 (also `hip-flask) small flat-sided bottle of metal or (often leather-covered) glass that is used for carrying alcoholic spirits in the pocket (小而扁的)金属酒瓶或(常为有皮套的)玻璃酒瓶(可装在衣袋里). 3 = vacuum flask (vacuum). 4 amount contained in a flask 一小酒瓶的容量: drink a flask of wine, whisky, tea, etc 喝下一小瓶葡萄酒、 威士忌、 茶等.

  flat

  / flAt; flAt/ n (esp Brit) (also esp US apartment) set of rooms (living-room, bedroom, kitchen, etc) for living in, usu on one floor of a building 公寓; 单元房; 一套房间: a new block of flats 一座新的公寓楼 * They're renting a furnished flat on the third floor. 他们租了四楼的一套带家具的房间. * Many large old houses have now been converted into flats. 许多旧的大房子都己改建成了单元房.

  flatlet

  / -lIt; -lIt/ n very small flat 小公寓.

  flat

  / flAt; flAt/ adj (-tter, -ttest) 1 smooth and level; even 平坦的; 平的: a flat surface for writing on 可以在上面写字的平面 * The countryside is very flat here, ie has no hills. 这一带农村地势平坦. 2 spread out on a single plane; extending at full length 平的; 平展的; 平伸的: People used to think that the world was flat; now we know it is round. 从前人们以为地球是平的, 现在知道是圆的. 3 with a broad level surface and little depth 浅的(从上到下距离短的): a flat cap 扁帽子 * flat dishes, plates, etc 浅碟子、 盘子等 * The cake was flat, ie did not rise while cooking. 这蛋糕没发起来. 4 (of a tyre) not containing enough air, eg because of a puncture; deflated (指车胎)气不足的(如有穿孔), 撒气的. 5 dull; uninteresting; monotonous 枯燥的; 平淡无味的; 单调的: speak in a flat voice 用平淡的语调说 * He felt a bit flat after his friends had gone. 朋友们走了以後他觉得有些无聊. 6 not having much trade or business 生意清淡的; 萧条的; 不景气的: The market has been flat today. 今天市场上生意一直很清淡. 7 having a single price for a variety of goods or services (各种商品或服务)价格一律的或统一的: a flat fare of 70p 一律为70便士的票价 * a flat rate 统一收费率 * flat-rate (ie standard and fixed) contributions 定额捐款. 8 (of a carbonated or gaseous liquid) having lost its gas or effervescence (指充有二氧化碳气或含气的液体)走了气的, 跑了气的: The lager tastes/has gone flat. 这啤酒喝起来没有气[走气]了. 9 (of a battery) unable to supply any more electric current; run down (指电池)电用完了的. 10 (music 音) (half a tone) lower than true or correct pitch 降(半)音的: B flat is a semitone below the note B. 降B音比B音低半音. * Your piano is flat; it needs tuning. 你的钢琴的音低了, 该调一调了. Cf 参看 sharp 12. 11 (a) [usu pred 通常作表语] (of pictures, photographs or colours) without contrast or shading; with no sense of depth or contrast (指图画、 照片等)无景深, 无反差; (指颜色)无变化, 单调: The colours used are flat and unvaried. 使用的颜色既单调又无层次. * His paintings are deliberately flat, it's part of his style. 他作画刻意用单一色调, 这是他的一种风格. (b) (of paint) not glossy; matt (指油漆)无光泽的, 不发亮的. 12 absolute; unqualified 绝对的; 断然的; 直截了当的: [attrib 作定语] give sb a flat denial/refusal 对某人所指断然否认[断然拒绝某人]. 13 (of feet) not having normal raised arches (指脚)扁平的, 扁平足的. 14 (idm 习语) and ,that's `flat that's my final decision 这是我的最後决定: I'm not going out with you and that's flat! 我不跟你出去, 说定了! be in/go into a flat spin; (as) flat as a pancake completely flat 十分平坦或平淡: The whole landscape looked as flat as a pancake. 整个地形十分平坦. * The surprise party turned out as flat as a pancake, ie was very disappointing. 这次本想让大家感到惊奇的聚会到头来却十分扫兴.

  flatly

  adv 1 in a flat2(5) manner 淡淡地; 无精打彩地: `Maybe,' he said flatly, `I'll see.' `也许吧,'他淡淡地说, `我考虑一下.' 2 in an outright, direct manner; positively; absolutely 直截了当地; 断然地; 绝对地: The allegations were all flatly denied. 这些指责遭到断然否认. * Our request was flatly rejected. 我们的请求遭到断然拒绝.

  flatness

  n [U].

  flat-bottomed

  adj (of a boat) having a flat bottom and used in shallow water (指船)平底的.

  flatcar

  n (US) railway carriage without a roof or raised sides, used for carrying freight (铁路上的)平车, 敞车, 平板货车.

  flat-fish

  n type of fish with a flat body, eg plaice or sole 比目鱼(体形扁平的鱼, 如鲽或鳎).

  flat-footed

  adj 1 having feet without normal raised arches 有扁平足的. 2 (infml 口) clumsy or awkward 笨手笨脚的: His speed and skill makes other players look flat-footed. 他速度快、 技术好, 使其他运动员相形见绌.

  flat-iron

  n heavy iron heated with coals or by the fire and used for pressing linen, etc 熨斗; 烙铁.

  flat racing

  horse-racing over level courses without jumps (无障碍物的)平地赛马. Cf 参看 steeplechase 1.

  flat spin

  1 fast, often uncontrollable, descent of an aircraft spinning nearly horizontally 平旋下坠(飞行器近平面旋转急速下降, 常因失控所致). 2 (idm 习语) be in/go into a flat `spin (infml 口) be/become very confused or agitated 惊慌失措.

  flat

  / flAt; flAt/ adv 1 lower than the true or correct pitch 低於正常的或准确的音: She sings flat all the time. 她总是唱低了音. 2 stretched out on one level; lying at full length 平坦地; 平伸地; 平躺地: She lay flat on her back in the warm sunshine. 她在温暖的阳光下平躺著. * He knocked his opponent flat. 他把对手打倒在地上. * The earthquake laid the city flat, ie demolished it, making all the buildings fall. 地震把这座城市夷为平地. 3 outright; positively; completely 直截了当; 断然; 完全: My boss told me flat that I could not leave early. 我的老板明确地告诉我不能早走. * She went flat against my orders, ie disobeyed or ignored them completely. 她全然无视我的命令. * I'm flat broke, ie have absolutely no money. 我一贫如洗. 4 (idm 习语) fall flat (of a joke, story, performance, etc) fail completely to produce the effect intended or expected (指笑话、 故事、 表演等)未达到预期的效果: All my funny stories fell completely flat. 我讲的有趣的故事都没有人觉得可笑. fall flat on one's face (infml 口) suffer a humiliating and undignified setback, esp after attempting sth that is too ambitious 遭到丢脸的挫折(尤指不自量力者). flat/stony broke => broke2. flat `out (a) as fast as possible; using all one's strength or resources 尽快地; 全力以赴地; 竭尽全力地: running, working, training, etc flat out 全速奔跑、 竭尽全力地工作、 全力以赴地训练. (b) exhausted 精疲力竭的; 疲惫的: After running in the marathon, she was flat out for a week. 她参加马拉松比赛後一星期都疲惫不堪. in 10 seconds, 5 minutes, etc `flat in the period of time specified, but always implying an unexpectedly short period of time 才10秒钟、 5分钟等: I can change a tyre in 2 minutes flat. 我只用两分钟就能换上一个轮胎. * She was out of bed, dressed and at the breakfast table in 50 seconds flat. 她起床、 穿衣、 坐到饭桌旁, 一共才用了50秒钟.

  flat

  / flAt; flAt/ n 1 [sing] the ~ (of sth) flat level part of sth (某物的)平面部分: the flat of the hand 手掌 * the flat of a sword, a blade, an oar 剑面、 刀面、 桨面 * on the flat, ie level, not uphill or downhill 在平面上(非上坡或下坡). 2 [C usu pl 通常作复数] level ground; stretch of low flat land, esp near water 平地; 低洼地(尤指近水的): `mud flats 泥塘 * `salt flats 盐田. 3 the flat [sing] season of flat racing for horses 平地赛马季节. 4 [C] (music 音) flat2(10) note or sign flat symbol indicating this 降半音符号. =>illus at music 见music插图. Cf 参看 natural 6, sharpn. 5 [C] (esp US infml 口) flat2(4) tyre 撒了气的车胎. 6 movable upright section of stage scenery mounted on a frame 平面布景; 布景屏.

  flatten

  / 5flAtn; `flAtn/ v 1 [I, Ip, Tn, Tn.p] ~ (sth) (out) become or make (sth) flat 变平; 使(某物)变平: The land flattens out near the coast. 海岸附近地势变得很平坦. * The graph flattens out gradually after a steep fall. 图表上的曲线突降之後逐渐趋於平稳. * a field of wheat flattened by storms 因暴风雨而倒伏的一片小麦 * flatten (out) a piece of metal by hammering it 把一块金属砸平 * flatten oneself against a wall to let people get by 紧贴墙站直, 以便他人通过. 2 [Tn] (fig 比喻) defeat (sb) completely; depress or humiliate 彻底打败(某人); 使沮丧; 使丢脸: He was totally flattened by her sarcasm. 她说的挖苦话使他无地自容.

  flatter

  / 5flAtE(r); `flAtL/ v 1 [Tn] praise (sb) too much or insincerely, esp in order to gain favour for oneself 恭维, 奉承, 讨好(某人): If you flatter your mother a bit she might invite us all to dinner. 你要是奉承你母亲几句, 说不定她会把我们全请去吃饭. 2 [Tn usu passive 通常用於被动语态] give a feeling of pleasure or honour to (sb) 使(某人)感到高兴或荣幸: I was very flattered by your invitation to talk at the conference. 承蒙你邀我在会上讲话, 深感荣幸. 3 [Tn] represent (sb) in a way that makes him seem better-looking than he really is 使(某人)显得(较其实际相貌)好看: (ironic 反语) This photograph certainly doesn't flatter you, ie It makes you look rather ugly. 这张相片实在不如你本人好看. 4 [nopassive 不用於被动语态: Tn, Dn.f] ~ oneself (that...)believe, usu mistakenly, that one has achieved sth or has certain abilities or good qualities 认为(通常指误以为)自己成就了某事物或有某种能力或优秀品质: Do you really think he likes you? You flatter yourself! 你真以为他喜欢你? 你那是自作多情! * He flatters himself that he speaks French well. 他自以为法语说得很好.

  flatterer

  / 5flAtErE(r); `flAtErL/ n person who flatters 谄媚者; 奉承者: Don't believe him he's a real flatterer. 别相信他--他纯粹是奉承.

  flattering

  / 5flAtErIN; `flAtErIN/ adj that flatters (flatter 3) a person 使一个人美过其实的: That's a very flattering dress Ann's wearing. 安穿著那条连衣裙显得更漂亮了.

  flattery

  / 5flAtErI; `flAtErI/ n [U] insincere praise 奉承; 恭维话: With a little flattery I might persuade him to do the job. 我说几句好听的, 也许能说服他去做这工作. * (saying 谚) Flattery will get you nowhere, ie I will not be influenced by your flattering remarks. 你恭维奉承也无济於事.

  flatulent

  / 5flAtjUlEnt; `flAtFElEnt/ adj 1 causing or suffering from gas in the stomach or digestive tract 使肠胃气胀的; 患肠胃气胀的. 2 (of a person's speech, behaviour, etc) pretentious or pompous (指言语、 行为等)做作的, 浮夸的.

  flatulence

  / 5flAtjUlEns; `flAtFElEns/ n [U] 1 (a) gas in the stomach or digestive tract 胃或肠中的气. (b) feeling of discomfort caused by this 肠胃气胀引起的不适: suffer from flatulence 患肠胃气胀病. 2 pretentiousness or pomposity 做作; 浮夸.

  flaunt

  / flR:nt; flRnt/ v [Tn] (usu derog 通常作贬义) show (sth considered valuable) in order to gain the admiration of other people 炫耀; 夸耀; 夸示: flaunt one's new clothes, car, etc 炫耀自己的新衣服、 汽车等 * He's always flaunting his wealth. 他总是摆阔.

  flautist

  / 5flR:tIst; `flRtIst/ (US flutist/ flu:tIst; `flutIst/) n person who plays the flute, esp as a profession 吹笛者; (尤指)职业笛手.

  flavour (US flavor)

  / 5fleIvE(r); `flevL/ n 1 [U] taste and smell, esp of food 味道与气味(尤指食物的): Adding salt to food improves the flavour. 食物中加盐可以提味. 2 [C] distinctive or characteristic taste 特别的味道: wines with a delicate flavour 有清香味道的葡萄酒 * six different flavours of ice-cream 六种不同味道的冰激凌. 3 [C, U] special quality, characteristic or atmosphere特性; 特色; 气氛: The film retains much of the book's exotic flavour. 这部电影保存了原著的许多异国情调.

  flavour (US flavor)

  v [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (with sth)give flavour to sth by adding herbs, spices, etc (加入香料、 调味品等)给(某物)调味: flavour a stew (with onions) (加洋葱)给炖肉提味 * meat strongly flavoured with pepper 胡椒味很重的肉.

  flavouring (US flavoring)

  / 5fleIvErIN; `flevErIN/ n [C, U] thing added to food to give it flavour 调味品; 调味香料: This orange drink contains no artificial flavourings. 这种橙汁饮品不含人工调味料. * The soup needs more flavouring.这汤应该再加点调料.

  -flavoured (US -flavored)

  (forming compound adjs 用以构成复合形容词) having a flavour of the specified kind 有某种味道的: lemon-flavoured sweets.

  flavourless (US flavorless)

  adj having no flavour 无味的; 无滋味的.

  flaw

  / flR:; flR/ n 1 crack or fault (in an object or in material); imperfection (物体或材料的)裂纹或缺陷, 瑕疵: This vase would be perfect but for a few small flaws in its base. 这花瓶底部没有那几个小斑点就十全十美了. 2 mistake that lessens the effectiveness or validity of sth 错误; 缺点: an argument full of flaws 错误百出的论点 * a flaw in a contract 合同中的一个漏洞. 3 weak part in sb's character (某人性格上的)缺陷: Pride was the greatest flaw in his personality. 傲慢是他品格上的最大缺陷.

  flaw

  v [Tn usu passive 通常用於被动语态] cause (sth) to have a flaw 使(某事物)有缺陷: His reasoning can't be flawed. 他的推理无懈可击. * a flawed masterpiece, ie a work of art that is very great despite its minor faults 有瑕疵的杰作.

  flawless

  adj perfect 无瑕的; 完美的: a flawless complexion 无雀斑的面容 * a flawless performance 完美的表演.

  flawlessly

  adv.

  flax

  / flAks; flAks/ n [U] 1 plant grown for its fibre and seeds 亚麻. 2 fibre from the stem of this plant, used to make linen 亚麻纤维.

  flaxen

  / 5flAksn; `flAksn/ adj (of hair) pale yellow (指毛发)淡黄色的: a flaxen-haired child 长著淡黄色头发的孩子.

  flay

  / fleI; fle/ v [Tn] 1 (a) remove the skin from (a dead animal) 剥(死动物)的皮. (b) whip violently and cruelly (用鞭子)毒打: He was so angry he nearly flayed his horse alive, ie He beat it so much that some of its skin came off and it almost died. 他气得几乎把马活活抽死. 2 (fig 比喻) criticize (sb/sth) severely 严厉批评(某人[某事物]).

  flea

  / fli:; fli/ n 1 small jumping insect without wings that feeds on the blood of animals and humans 跳蚤; 虼蚤: I must have been bitten by a flea, my arms are itchy. 我一定是让跳蚤咬了, 胳膊很痒. * The cat's got fleas. 这猫长虼蚤了. 2 (idm 习语) with a `flea in one's ear rebuked, reprimanded or humiliated after an attempt at sth (做某事以後)受到责难、 批评或羞辱: He burst into our meeting and got sent away with a flea in his ear. 我们正在开会他闯了进来, 大家把他轰走了.

  flea-bag

  n (sl 俚) 1 (Brit) dirty or unpleasant person or animal 肮脏或令人讨厌的人或动物: I hate the old lady next door she's a real flea-bag. 我讨厌隔壁的老太太--她纯粹是个邋遢鬼. 2 (esp US) cheap dirty hotel 廉价的肮脏旅馆.

  flea-bite

  n 1 bite of a flea 蚤咬. 2 small but annoying inconvenience 小麻烦.

  flea market

  (infml 口) open-air market that sells old and used goods at low prices 跳蚤市场(廉价出售旧物 的露天市场).

  flea-pit

  n (infml derog 口, 贬) old and dirty cinema, theatre, etc 破旧肮脏的电影院、 剧场等.

  fleck

  / 5flek; flZk/ n ~ (of sth) 1 very small patch or spot of a colour 斑点: flecks of brown and white on a bird's breast 小鸟胸部棕色和白色的斑点. 2 small particle or grain of sth 微粒: flecks of dust, soot, dandruff 灰尘的微粒、 煤炱、 头皮屑.

  fleck

  v [Tn.pr usu passive 通常用於被动语态] ~ sth with sth mark with flecks 使有斑点: The sea was flecked with foam. 大海上涌起点点泡沫.

  fled

  pt, pp of flee.

  fledged

  / fledVd; flZdVd/ adj (of birds) having fully developed wing feathers for flying; able to fly (指鸟)羽翼丰满的, 会飞的.

  fledgeling (also fledgling)

  / 5fledVlIN; `flZdVlIN/ n 1 young bird that is just able to fly (刚会飞的)幼鸟. 2 inexperienced person 无经验的人.

  flee

  / fli:; fli/ v (pt, pp fled / fled; flZd/) 1 (a) [I, Ipr] ~ (from sb/sth) run or hurry away; escape (esp from danger, threat, etc) 逃跑; 逃避; 避开; (尤指遇到危险、 威胁等)逃离: The customers fled (from the bank) when the alarm sounded. 警铃响起, 顾客纷纷(从银行)逃走. (b) [Tn] run away from (sb/sth) 逃避, 逃离(某人[某事物]): During the civil war thousands of people fled the country. 在内战期间成千上万的人逃离了这个国家. 2 [I] (fml 文) pass away quickly; vanish 迅速消散; 消失: All hope had fled. 一切希望都破灭了.

  fleece

  / fli:s; flis/ n 1 [C] (a) woolly hair of a sheep or similar animal 绵羊之类动物的毛: These sheep have fine thick fleeces. 这些绵羊的毛又细又厚. =>illus at sheep 见sheep插图. (b) amount of wool cut from a single sheep at one time 从一只羊身上一次剪得的全部羊毛. 2 [U] type of fabric with a texture like fleece 像羊毛的纤维: My warmest coat is lined with fleece. 我那件最暖的大衣衬有绒毛里子.

  fleece

  v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb (of sth) (infml 口) take (a lot of money) from sb, esp by overcharging or tricking him 诈取某人(巨款); (尤指)敲竹杠: Some local shops are really fleecing the holiday-makers (of their money). 本地的一些商店简直是敲诈来度假的人(的钱). 2 [Tn] cut or shear the fleece from (a sheep) 剪羊毛.

  fleecy

  adj (-ier, -iest) (appearing) woolly and fluffy (像)羊毛的: fleecy clouds 羊毛状的云彩.

  fleet

  / fli:t; flit/ n 1 (a) [C] group of warships, submarines, etc under one commander 舰队. (b) group of ships fishing together 捕鱼船队. (c) [CGp] (usu 通常作 the fleet) all the warships, submarines, etc of a country; navy 一国的全部战舰、 潜水艇等; 海军. 2 [C] group of aircraft, buses, taxis, etc owned and operated by one organization or travelling together (同一机构的或同时运行的)机群、 公共汽车队、 计程车队等: the company's new fleet of vans 公司的新客货车队.

  fleet admiral

  officer in the US navy of the highest rank (美国)海军五星上将. =>App 9 见附录9.

  fleet

  / fli:t; flit/ adj (dated 旧) fast; light and quick in running 快速的; 脚步轻而跑得快的: fleet of foot 脚步快的 * fleet-footed 脚步快的.

  fleetness

  n [U].

  Fleet Street

  / 5fli:t stri:t; `flit9strit/ 1 street in central London where several major newspapers have their offices 弗利特街(伦敦中心的街道, 为几家大报馆所在地, 旧译舰队街). 2 the press in general; London journalism 新闻界; 伦敦报界: Fleet Street loves a good scandal. 新闻界热衷於轰动性的丑闻.

  fleeting

  / 5fli:tIN; `flitIN/ adj passing quickly; lasting only a short time 飞逝的; 短暂的: For a fleeting moment I thought the car was going to crash. 刹那间我想到汽车要碰撞. * We paid her a fleeting visit before leaving the country. 我们出国前匆匆探望了她一次.

  fleetingly

  adv.

  flesh

  / fleF; flZF/ n 1 [U] (a) soft substance between the skin and bones of animal bodies, consisting of muscle and fat 肉: The trap had cut deeply into the rabbit's flesh. 捕兽夹子紧紧夹住兔子的皮肉. (b) this as food (食用的)肉: Tigers are flesh-eating animals. 虎是肉食动物. 2 [U] soft pulpy part of fruits and vegetables, the part that is usu eaten 果肉; 蔬菜的可食部分. 3 the flesh [sing] the (human) body contrasted with the mind or the soul (人的)肉体(与精神或灵魂相对): (saying 谚) The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak, ie Although sb may want to do sth, he is too lazy, tired, weak, etc actually to do it. 心有余而力不足. 4 the flesh [sing] bodily or physical desire 肉欲; 情欲: the pleasures/sins of the flesh 满足肉欲的快感[放纵情欲的罪]. 5 (idm 习语) ,flesh and `blood the human body or human nature with its emotions, weaknesses, etc 血肉之躯; 人性: It was more than flesh and blood could bear. 这是血肉之躯无法忍受的. go the way of all flesh => way1. in the `flesh in physical bodily form; in person 活生生的; 亲自; 本人: His appearance in the flesh ended the rumours about his death. 他亲自露面使传说他死亡的谣言不攻自灭. * I've got all her records but I've never seen her in the flesh. 我有她的所有唱片, 却从未见过她本人. make one's/sb's `flesh crawl/creep make one/sb feel nervous, frightened or filled with loathing 使自己[某人]感觉紧张、 害怕或厌恶: The mere sight of snakes makes my flesh creep. 我一看见蛇就心惊肉跳. neither fish, flesh nor good red herring => fish1. one's ,own ,flesh and `blood close relatives in one's family 亲人; 近亲; 关系密切的亲属: I'll have to go to my aunt's funeral she was my own flesh and blood after all. 我得参加我姑姑的葬礼--她是我的亲人哪. one's pound of flesh => pound1. a thorn in sb's flesh/side => thorn. the world, the flesh and the devil => world.

  flesh

  v (phr v) flesh sth out add more details or information to sth 充实(某事物); 增加细节或详情: Your summary will need fleshing out before you present it. 你的总结需要增加一些具体材料再交出.

  fleshly

  adj (fml 文) of the body; sensual or sexual 肉体的; 肉欲的: fleshly lusts 肉欲.

  fleshy

  adj 1 of or like flesh; rather plump (似)肉的; 多肉的; 肥胖的: fleshy arms 胖胳膊 * a fleshy body 肥胖的身体. 2 soft and pulpy 肉质的: fleshy peaches 肉质多的桃.

  flesh-pots

  n [pl] (a) (places supplying) good food, wine, etc; luxurious living 美食、 美酒等或供应此类食物的处所; 豪华的生活. (b) places, such as brothels, where sexual desires are satisfied 满足性欲的处所(如妓院).

  flesh-wound

  n wound that breaks the skin but does not reach the bones or internal organs of the body 皮肉之伤; 轻伤.

  fleur-de-lis (also fleur-de-lys)

  / 9fl\: dE 5li:; 9fl[ dE`li/ n (pl fleurs-de-lis / flE: dE 5li:; 9fl[ dE `li/) design representing a lily flower as used in heraldry, formerly the royal coat of arms of France 百合花形纹章; (旧时)法国王室纹章.

  flew

  pt of fly.

  flex

  / fleks; flZks/ n (esp Brit) (US cord) [C, U] (length of) flexible insulated wire used for carrying an electric current to an appliance 花线; 皮线.

  flex

  / fleks; flZks/ v 1 [Tn] bend or move (a limb, joint or muscle), esp in order to exercise one's body before an activity 弯曲或活动(四肢、 关节或肌肉)(尤指准备活动): flex one's knee, toes, muscles, etc 曲膝、 活动脚趾、 活动肌肉. 2 (idm 习语) flex one's `muscles show one's strength and power, esp as a warning or to display pride in oneself 显示力量(尤指表示警告或自豪).

  flexible

  / 5fleksEbl; `flZksEbl/ adj 1 that can bend easily without breaking 易弯曲的; 柔韧的; 有弹性的: flexible plastic tubing 弹性塑料管. 2 (a) easily changed to suit new conditions 易适应新情况的; 可变通的; 灵活的: Our plans are quite flexible. 我们的计画十分灵活. (b) (of people) willing and able to change according to different circumstances; adaptable (指人)能随机应变的, 随遇而安的.

  flexibility

  / 9fleksE5bIlEtI; 9flZksE`bIlEtI/ n [U].

  flexibly

  / 5fleksEblI; `flZksEblI/ adv.

  flexitime

  / 5fleksItaIm; `flZksE9taIm/ n [U] system in which employees can start and finish work at different times each day, provided that each of them works a certain number of hours in a week or month 弹性工作时间制.

  flibbertigibbet

  / 9flIbEtI9dVIbIt; `flIbLtI9dVIbIt/ n irresponsible, silly and gossipy person 信口雌黄、 愚蠢而饶舌的人.

  flick

  / flIk; flIk/ n 1 [C] quick light blow, eg with a whip or the tip of a finger 快速轻击(尤指用鞭或指尖). 2 [C] quick sharp movement; jerk 快而突然的动作: He turned the pancake over with a strong flick of his wrist. 他一抖腕子就把饼翻过来了. 3 (a) [C] (dated infml 旧, 口) cinema film 电影. (b) the flicks [pl] (dated infml 旧, 口) the cinema 电影院: What's on at the flicks? 电影院放映什麽电影?

  flick

  v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ A (with B); ~ B (at A) strike (sb/sth) with a flick; give a flick with (sth) (用某物)轻打(某人[某物]): He flicked the horse with his whip/flicked his whip at the horse. 他用鞭子轻轻抽马. 2 [Tn, Tn.p, Cn.a] ~ sth (off, on, etc) moves sth with a flick (用快而轻的动作)移动某物: flick the light switch (on), ie turn on the light 轻按电灯开关(开灯) * He flicked the knife open. 他轻触一下把刀刃弹出. 3 [Ipr, Ip] move quickly and lightly 快而轻地移动: The cow's tail flicked from side to side. 牛尾巴轻轻地左右摇摆. 4 (phr v) flick sth away; flick sth from/off sth remove sth with a flick 轻轻地拂去某物; 弹掉; 抖掉: The waiter flicked the crumbs off the table. 服务员轻轻抖掉桌上的面包屑. flick through (sth) turn over the pages (of a book, etc) quickly, looking briefly at the contents 快速翻阅(书等); 浏览: Sam flicked through a magazine while he waited. 萨姆一边等著一边翻阅杂志.

  flick-knife

  n (pl flick-knives) (US switch-blade) knife with a blade inside the handle that springs out quickly when a button is pressed 弹簧刀.

  flick

  / flIk; flIk/ n 1 [C] quick light blow, eg with a whip or the tip of a finger 快速轻击(尤指用鞭或指尖). 2 [C] quick sharp movement; jerk 快而突然的动作: He turned the pancake over with a strong flick of his wrist. 他一抖腕子就把饼翻过来了. 3 (a) [C] (dated infml 旧, 口) cinema film 电影. (b) the flicks [pl] (dated infml 旧, 口) the cinema 电影院: What's on at the flicks? 电影院放映什麽电影?

  flick

  v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ A (with B); ~ B (at A) strike (sb/sth) with a flick; give a flick with (sth) (用某物)轻打(某人[某物]): He flicked the horse with his whip/flicked his whip at the horse. 他用鞭子轻轻抽马. 2 [Tn, Tn.p, Cn.a] ~ sth (off, on, etc) moves sth with a flick (用快而轻的动作)移动某物: flick the light switch (on), ie turn on the light 轻按电灯开关(开灯) * He flicked the knife open. 他轻触一下把刀刃弹出. 3 [Ipr, Ip] move quickly and lightly 快而轻地移动: The cow's tail flicked from side to side. 牛尾巴轻轻地左右摇摆. 4 (phr v) flick sth away; flick sth from/off sth remove sth with a flick 轻轻地拂去某物; 弹掉; 抖掉: The waiter flicked the crumbs off the table. 服务员轻轻抖掉桌上的面包屑. flick through (sth) turn over the pages (of a book, etc) quickly, looking briefly at the contents 快速翻阅(书等); 浏览: Sam flicked through a magazine while he waited. 萨姆一边等著一边翻阅杂志.

  flicker

  / 5flIkE(r); `flIkL/ v 1 (a) [I] (of a light or flame) burn or shine unsteadily (指灯光或火焰)闪烁, 摇曳: All the lights flickered for a moment. 所有的灯都闪了一会儿. (b) [Ipr] (fig 比喻) (of an emotion) be felt or seen briefly (指情感)稍纵即逝: A slender hope still flickered within him. 他心中仍闪出一线希望. * A faint smile flickered across her face. 她脸上闪过一丝微笑. 2 [I, Ipr] move back and forth lightly and quickly 轻而快地来回移动; 闪动: flickering eyelids 眨著的眼睛 * The leaves flickered gently in the breeze. 树叶在微风中摇曳.

  flicker

  n (usu sing 通常作单数) (a) flickering movement or light 闪动; 闪烁; 摇曳: the flicker of pictures on the cinema screen 银幕上闪动的画面. (b) (fig 比喻) faint and brief experience, esp of an emotion 微弱短暂的体验(尤指情感): a flicker of hope, despair, interest, etc 一线希望、 一丝绝望情绪、 微弱的兴趣.

  flier (also flyer)

  / flaIE(r); `flaIL/ n 1 pilot of an aircraft; airman 飞行器驾驶员; 飞行员. 2 person, animal, vehicle, etc that moves very quickly 动作敏捷的人或动物; 速度很快的车辆. 3 small advertising leaflet that is widely distributed 小张广告传单. 4 = high-flyer (high).

  flies

  / flaIz; flaIz/ n the flies [pl] space above the stage of a theatre, used for lights and storing scenery 舞台上方安装灯具及存放布景之处.

  fly

  / flaI; flaI/ n 1 type of insect with two wings, esp the house-fly 苍蝇; (尤指)家蝇. 2 (usu in compounds 通常用以构成复合词) any of several types of flying insect (会飞的)昆虫: `dragonfly * `butterfly * `tsetse-fly. 3 natural or artificial fly used as bait in fishing (用作钓饵的真的或假的)苍蝇. 4 (idm 习语) die/fall/drop like `flies die or collapse in very large numbers 大批地死亡或倒下: Men were dropping like flies in the intense heat. 人们抵受不住酷热而纷纷倒下. a/the `fly in the ointment person or thing that spoils an otherwise satisfactory situation or occasion 扫兴的人或事物. a `fly on the wall hidden or unnoticed observer 隐蔽的或不引人注意的观察者: I wish I could be a fly on the wall when they discuss my future. 在他们讨论我的前途时, 我恨不得能偷偷旁观. (there are) no flies on sb (infml 口) sb is clever and not easily tricked 某人很机灵, 不易上当. not harm/hurt a `fly be kind and gentle and unwilling to cause unhappiness 心地善良、 文质彬彬、 不愿引起不愉快: Our dog may look fierce but he wouldn't hurt a fly. 我们的狗别看样子凶, 其实很温顺.

  fly-blown

  adj 1 (of meat, etc) bad or unfit to eat, because contaminated by flies' eggs (指肉等)(因有蝇卵)腐败的, 不宜食用的. 2 (fig 比喻) in a bad condition; dirty or spoiled 破烂的; 肮脏的; 损坏的.

  flycatcher

  n type of bird that catches insects in the air 翔食雀.

  fly-fish

  v [I] fish using artificial flies as bait 以假蝇作饵钓鱼.

  fly-fishing

  n [U].

  fly-paper

  n [U, C] strip of sticky paper for catching flies 粘蝇纸.

  fly-spray

  n poisonous liquid sprayed from a container to kill flies 灭蝇喷雾剂.

  flyweight

  n 1 boxer of the lightest class, weighing between 48 and 51 kg 特轻量级拳击手(体重在48至51公斤者). 2 wrestler weighing between 48 and 51 kg 最 轻量级摔交选手(体重在48至51公斤者).

  fly

  / flaI; flaI/ v (pt flew / flu:; flu/, pp flown / flEUn; flon/) 1 [I, Ipr, Ip] (of a bird or an insect) move through the air, using wings (指鸟或昆虫)飞, 飞翔: watch the birds learn to fly 看鸟学飞 * A large bird flew past us. 一只大鸟从我们这儿飞过. 2 [I, Ipr, Ip] (a) (of an aircraft or a spacecraft) move through air or space (指飞行器)飞行, 航行: I can hear a plane flying overhead. 我听到一架飞机正从上空飞过. (b) travel in an aircraft or a spacecraft 乘飞行器: I'm flying (out) to Hong Kong tomorrow. 明天我要乘飞机去香港. =>Usage at travel 用法见travel. 3 (a) [Tn] direct or control the flight of (an aircraft, etc) 驾驶或操纵(飞行器等): Only experienced pilots fly large passenger aircraft. 只有有经验的飞行员才能驾驶大型客机. (b) [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] transport (goods or passengers) in an aircraft 用飞行器运送(货物或旅客): Five thousand people were flown to Paris during the Easter weekend. 在复活节的周末有五千人乘飞机去巴黎. * He had flowers specially flown in forthe ceremony. 他特地为这一典礼空运来了鲜花. (c) [Tn]travel over (an ocean or area of land) in an aircraft 乘飞行器飞越(海洋或陆地): fly the Atlantic 飞越大西洋. 4 (a) [I, Ipr, Ip] go or move quickly; rush along 疾行; 快速地动; 急速前进: The children flew to meet their mother. 孩子们飞跑过去迎接妈妈. * It's late I must fly. 太晚了--我得赶快走. * The train flew by. 列车飞驰而过. * The dog flew down the road after the cat. 狗在马路上飞跑著追赶猫. (b) [La, Ipr, Ip] move suddenly and with force 猛然移动: A large stone came flying through the window. 从窗外扔进来一块大石头. * David gave the door a kick and it flew open. 大卫一脚向门踹去, 那门猛地开了. (c) [I, Ip] (of time) pass very quickly (指时间)飞逝: Doesn't time fly? 时间过得真快呀! * Summer has just flown (by). 夏天一晃就过去了. 5 (a) [Tn] make (a kite) rise and stay high in the air 放(风筝). (b) [Tn] raise (a flag) so that it waves in the air 升(旗): fly the Union Jack 升起英国国旗. (c) [Ipr, Ip] move about freely; be carried about in the air 自由地移动; 在空中飘动: Her hair was flying about (in the wind). 她的头发随风飘动. 6 [I, Tn] (rhet 修辞) flee from (sb/sth) 从(某人[某物])之处逃走: The robbers have flown (the country). 抢劫犯逃到国外去了. 7 (idm 习语) as the crow flies => crow1. the bird has flown => bird. fly/show/wave the flag => flag1. fly `high be ambitious 胸怀大志. fly in the face of sth be contrary to sth; oppose sth 与某事物相悖; 反对某事物: His version of events flies in the face of all the evidence. 他对事件的说法与所有证据都不相符. fly into a `passion, `rage, `temper, etc become suddenly very angry 勃然大怒. fly a kite (Brit infml 口) do or say sth in order to see how people will react, express their opinions, etc 试探舆论. (go) fly a/one's kite (US infml 口) (esp imperative 尤用於祈使句) go away and stop interfering or annoying sb 走开, 不再打扰某人. fly/go off at a tangent => tangent. fly off the `handle (infml 口) become wildly angry 狂怒. fly/go out of the window => window. keep the flag flying => flag1. let fly (at sb/sth) (with sth) (a) shoot or throw sth (at sb/sth) violently (向某人[某物])猛烈射击, 猛掷某物: He aimed carefully and then let fly, ie fired. 他仔细瞄准之後便开了枪. (b) reproach or criticize (sb) angrily 愤怒地责备或批评(某人): Furious at his deceit, she let fly at him with a stream of abuse. 他欺骗人, 气得她把他大骂了一顿. make the `fur/`sparks fly cause quarrelling or fighting 引起争吵或打斗: The promotion of Russell instead of Sarah really made the sparks fly. 因为提升了拉塞尔没提升萨拉, 这件事竟惹起了轩然大波. pigs might fly => pig. send sb/sth flying => send. send things flying => send. 8 (phr v) fly at sb rush to attack sb 冲上去攻击某人.

  fly-away

  / 5flaIEweI; `flaI E9we/ adj 1 (esp of hair) loose and wispy; difficult to control (尤指毛发)松散而纤细的, 难以梳理的. 2 (fig 比喻) not sensible; frivolous or flighty 不合情理的; 轻率的; 轻浮的.

  fly-by

  / 5flaIbaI; `flaI 9baI/ n (pl `fly-bys) flight, esp by a spacecraft, past a point or target 经某点或某目标的飞行(尤指宇宙飞行器): a fly-by of Jupiter 经过木星的飞行.

  fly-by-night

  / 5flaIbaInaIt; `flaI baI 9naIt/ n (pl fly-by-nights) person who evades financial responsibility, esp debts, by (secretly) leaving; unreliable person 为躲债(偷偷)离去的人; 不可靠的人. adj unreliable or dishonest, esp in financial and business matters 不可靠的; 不诚实的(尤指在财务及商业事务上): a fly-by-night company 无信誉的公司.

  fly-half

  n (pl fly-halves) = stand-off half (stand).

  fly-past

  / -pB:st; ?@ -pst; -9pAst/ n (Brit) (US `flyover) ceremonial flight of aircraft, usu at low altitude, as part of a military display (阅兵式的)飞机编队飞行(通常为低空飞行).

  fly

  / flaI; flaI/ n 1 [C esp pl 尤作复数] (piece of material on a garment that contains or covers a) zip or buttoned opening, eg down the front of a pair of trousers 服装上盖住拉锁或钮扣的遮盖; 有拉锁或钮扣的开口(如裤子前面的): John, your flies are/fly is undone! 约翰, 你的拉锁开了! 2 [C] flap of material, eg canvas, at the entrance to a tent 帐篷的门帘(如帆布制的).

  flight

  / flaIt; flaIt/ n 1 [U] (a) action or process of flying through the air; ability to fly 飞行; 飞翔; 飞行的能力: the age of supersonic flight 超音速飞行的时代 * The bird had been shot down in flight, ie while flying. 这只鸟是在飞行中打下来的. (b) movement or path of a thing through the air (物体在空中的)飞行或路线: the flight of an arrow, a dart, a missile, etc 箭、 标枪、 导弹等的飞行. 2 [C] (a) journey made by air, esp in an aircraft on a particular route 空中的航行; (尤指飞机等的)航班: a smooth, comfortable, bumpy, etc flight 平稳的、 舒服的、 颠簸的空中航行 * All flights have been cancelled because of fog. 因为有雾所有航班都已取消. (b) aircraft making such a journey 班机: We travelled aboard the same flight. 我们搭乘同一班机. * Flight number BA 4793 will arrive in London at 16.50. 英国航空公司4793号班机於16时50分抵达伦敦. 3 [U, C] passage or journey through space 航天飞行; 宇宙飞行: the history of manned space flight 载人航天史. 4 [C] group of aeroplanes working as a unit 飞行队: an aircraft of the Queen's flight 女王专用机队的一架飞机. 5 [C] ~ (of sth) number of birds, insects, etc flying together or of arrows released together (鸟、 昆虫等的)群飞; (箭的)齐发: a flight of geese 一队飞雁 * a flight of arrows 齐发的箭. 6 [C] series of stairs between two floors or landings 一段楼梯或阶梯: There was no lift and we had to climb six flights of stairs. 没有电梯, 我们得爬六段楼梯. 7 [U] swift passage, esp of time 飞逝(尤指时间). 8 [C] ~ of sth instance of sth very imaginative but usu not practical (想像力的)奔放: wild flights of imagination 想像联翩. 9 (idm 习语) a flight of `fancy unrealistic idea, etc that exists only in sb's mind 悬想; 异想天开: Her latest flight of fancy is to go camping in the Sahara desert! 她最近心血来潮想到撒哈拉沙漠去野营! ?Bin the first/top flight taking a leading place; excellent of his/its kind 占先; 名列前茅; 同行[同类]中的优秀者: She's in the top flight of journalists. 她是出类拔萃的新闻工作者.

  flight

  v [Tn] (in cricket) give (the ball) a certain path through the air when bowling so as to deceive the batsman (板球中)使(球)沿某路线飞行(以迷惑击球员): a well-flighted delivery 漂亮的投球.

  flightless

  adj (of birds) not able to fly (指鸟)不会飞的.

  flight-deck

  n 1 (on a ship that carries aircraft) deck for the take-off and landing of aircraft (运载飞机的船舰上的)飞行甲板. 2 control room of a large aircraft, from which the pilot and crew fly the plane (大型飞行器的)驾驶舱.

  flight lieutenant

  officer in the Royal Air Force between the ranks of flying officer and squadron leader 皇家空军上尉. =>App 9 见附录9.

  flight path

  direction or course of an aircraft through the air (飞行器的)飞行方向或路线: The flight paths of the aeroplanes crossed, with fatal results. 飞机的航线互相交错铸成人命惨祸.

  flight-recorder

  n (also black box) electronic device in an aeroplane that records details of the flight 飞行记录仪; 黑盒.

  flight sergeant

  non-commissioned officer in the Royal Air Force next above sergeant 皇家空军上士. =>App 9 见附录9.

  flight simulator

  device on the ground for training pilots by reproducing accurately all the conditions of flying 飞行模拟装置.

  flight

  / flaIt; flaIt/ n 1 [C, U] act or instance of fleeing or running away 逃; 逃避; 逃跑: Many soldiers fell wounded in their flight from the defeat. 许多士兵在溃逃中受伤. * (fig 比喻) the flight of capital, ie the sending of money out of a country during a financial crisis 资金外流(在财政危机时将资金转到国外). 2 (idm 习语) put sb to `flight force sb to flee 迫使某人逃走: The enemy was put to flight by the advancing army. 部队向前进, 赶跑了敌人. take (to) `flight flee; run away 逃走; 逃跑: The gang took (to) flight when they heard the police car. 那伙歹徒听到警车声便逃跑了.

  flighty

  / 5flaItI; `flaItI/ adj (-ier, -iest) (esp of a woman or her behaviour) changeable and unreliable; not serious (尤指女子或其行为)反覆无常的, 轻浮的.

  flimsy

  / 5flImzI; `flImzI/ adj (-ier, -iest) 1 (a) (of cloth or material) light and thin (指布或材料)轻而薄的: a flimsy dress 薄的连衣裙. (b) not strong or solid enough for the purpose for which it is used 不结实的; 易损坏的: a flimsy cardboard box 不结实的纸箱. 2 (fig 比喻) weak or feeble; unconvincing 软弱无力的; 不足信的: a flimsy excuse 站不住脚的藉口 * The evidence against him is rather flimsy. 对他不利的证据不足凭信.

  flimsily

  / -IlI; -IlI/ adv.

  flimsiness

  n.

  flimsy

  n [C, U] (sheet of) very thin paper on which a copy of the typing is produced when it is put under carbon paper 打字纸.

  flinch

  / flIntF; flIntF/ v 1 [I] move or draw back suddenly, from shock, fear or pain (因吃惊、 害怕或疼痛)畏缩或退缩: He listened to the jeers of the crowd without flinching. 他毫不畏惧地听著群众的嘲笑. 2 [Ipr] ~ from sth/from doing sth avoid thinking about or doing sth unpleasant 不想或不做某种不愉快的事: We shall never flinch from (the task of) telling the people the whole truth. 我们要把全部真相告诉人民, 决不推卸这种责任.

  fling

  / flIN; flIN/ v (pt, pp flung / flQN; flQN/) 1 [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] throw (sth) violently, angrily or hurriedly (猛力地、 愤怒地或匆忙地)扔, 抛, 掷(某物): fling a stone (at a window) (朝窗户)扔石头 * He flung the paper away in disgust. 他厌恶地把报纸扔了. 2 [Tn.pr, Tn.p, Cn.a] put or push (sb/sth) somewhere quickly or roughly and forcefully (急速地或粗暴而猛烈地)将(某人[某物])放到或推向某处: She flung the papers on the desk and left angrily. 她把文件往桌子上一摔便气冲冲地走了. * He flung her to the ground. 他把她推倒在地上. * He was flung into prison, ie put into prison roughly and perhaps without trial. 他被投入监狱. * He flung open the door. 他猛然推开了门. 3 [Tn.pr, Tn.p] move (oneself or part of one's body) suddenly or forcefully 突然或猛然移动(身体或身体的一部分): She flung herself in front of a car. 她猛然冲到汽车前面. * He flung his arm out just in time to stop her falling. 他急忙伸出手臂把她扶住, 她才没有跌倒. 4 [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] ~ sth (at sb) say or express sth (to sb) in a violent way 激昂地(对某人)说或表达某事物: You must be certain of your facts before you start flinging accusations (around) (at people). 必须对实情胸有成竹才能理直气壮地(到处)指责(别人). 5 (phr v) fling oneself at sb = throw oneself at sb (throw). fling oneself into sth start or do sth with a lot of energy and enthusiasm (尽力而积极地)开始或做某事: She flung herself into her new job. 她全力投入新的工作. fling off, out, etc move angrily or violently in the specified direction 愤怒地或激烈地沿某方向冲去: He flung out of the room. 他愤怒地冲出房间. fling sth on get dressed hurriedly and carelessly 匆忙地穿上衣服: She flung on her coat and ran to the bus-stop. 她匆匆穿上大衣就向公共汽车站跑去.

  fling

  n 1 act or movement of flinging; throw 扔; 抛; 掷. 2 (infml 口) short period of enjoyment in some(often irresponsible) activity (used esp in the expressionsshown) 一时的(常为放纵的)行乐(尤用於以下示例): a last/final fling 最後的行乐 * have a/one's fling 恣意行乐 * I had a few flings (ie casual love affairs) in my younger days. 我年轻时有些风流韵事. 3 type of energetic (esp Scottish) dance 充满活力的(尤指苏格兰的)舞蹈: the Highland fling 高地弗林格.

  flint

  / flInt; flInt/ n 1 [U] very hard grey stone that can produce sparks when struck against steel 燧石; 火石: This layer of rock contains a lot of flint. 这一岩层中有大量燧石. * [attrib 作定语] flint axes 燧石斧 * (fig 比喻) He has a heart like flint, ie He is unfeeling and stubborn. 他铁石心肠. 2 [C] piece of this or of hard alloy used to produce sparks, eg in a cigarette lighter 打火石.

  flinty

  adj (-ier, -iest) 1 made of flint; very hard, like flint 燧石的; 燧石般坚硬的. 2 cruel; unyielding 冷酷的; 坚定不移的: a flinty heart 铁石心肠.

  flintlock

  n old-fashioned gun, in which the gunpowder is lit by a spark struck from a flint 火石簧扳枪.

  flip

  / flIp; flIp/ v (-pp-) 1 [Tn, Tn.pr] toss (sth) with a sharp movement of the thumb and forefinger so that it turns over in the air (用拇指和食指)捻(某物)(使之在空中翻转): flip a coin (in the air) 捻硬币(抛向空中). 2 [Tn, Tn.p] ~ sth (over) turn sth over quickly 快速地翻转某物: flip the pages over 很快地翻著书页. 3 [Tn, Tn.p] move (sth) with a quick sharp movement; flick (2) 快速猛然移动(某物): He flipped the light on. 他猛然开了灯. 4 [I] (sl 俚) become very angry, excited or enthusiastic 变得非常气愤、 激动或热情: My mother really flipped when I told her I was getting married. 我把要结婚的消息告诉了母亲, 母亲非常激动. 5 (idm 习语) ,flip one's `lid (infml 口) lose one's self-control; go crazy 失去自制力; 发疯. 6 (phr v) flip through sth = flick through sth (flick).

  flip

  n quick light blow or movement, esp one that tosses sth 快而轻的打击或动作(尤指将某物抛出): give a coin a flip 把一枚硬币抛向空中.

  flip

  adj (infml 口) glib; flippant 草率的; 轻率的: a flip comment 轻率的评论.

  flip

  interj (expressing annoyance or great surprise 表示厌烦或惊讶).

  flipping

  adj, adv (Brit) (used as a mild alternative to a swear-word 用作语气较轻的咒骂语): I hate this flipping hotel! 我讨厌这该死的旅馆! * What flipping awful weather! 多讨厌的天气!

  flip-flop

  (US thong) n type of open sandal with a strap that goes between the big toe and the next toe 夹趾拖鞋; 人字拖鞋: a pair of flip-flops 一双夹趾拖鞋. =>illus at sandal 见 sandal 插图.

  flip side

  reverse side of a gramophone record, esp the side that does not have the main song or piece of music on it 唱片的反面(尤指没有主要歌曲或乐曲的一面).

  flippant

  / 5flIpEnt; `flIpEnt/ adj not showing sufficient respect or seriousness 轻浮的; 轻率的: a flippant answer, remark, attitude, etc 漫不经心的回答、 言语、 态度等.

  flippancy

  / -EnsI; -EnsI/ n [U] (quality of) being flippant 轻浮; 轻率: His flippancy makes it difficult to have a decent conversation with him. 他玩世不恭, 很难正经地和他交谈.

  flippantly

  adv.

  flipper

  / 5flIpE(r); `flIpL/ n 1 broad flat limb of certain sea animals (not fish) used for swimming (非鱼类海生动物的)鳍状肢: Seals, turtles and penguins have flippers. 海豹、 海龟、 企鹅均有鳍状肢. 2 either of a pair of flat rubber attachments worn on the feet and used to help in underwater diving and swimming (用於潜水和游泳的)橡胶蹼, 鸭脚板.

  flirt

  / fl\:t; fl[t/ v [I, Ipr] ~ (with sb) 1 behave (towards sb) in a romantic or suggestive way but without serious intentions 调情: It's embarrassing when they flirt like that in public, ie with each other. 他们在大庭广众之中那样调情, 真让人难堪. * He enjoys flirting (with the girls in the office). 他爱(与办公室的女职员)调情. 2 ~ with sth (a) pretend to be interested in sth; think about sth but not seriously 假装对某事物感兴趣; 对某事物想想而已: I'm flirting with the idea of getting a job in China. 我胡思乱想著要到中国去工作. (b) behave so casually that one's life is put in danger 举动轻率(罔顾自己的性命): flirt with danger/death 把危险[死亡]当儿戏.

  flirt

  n person who flirts with many people 与许多人调情的人: They say he's a terrible flirt. 据说他是调情色鬼.

  flirtation

  / fl\:5teIFn; fl[`teFEn/ n 1 [U] flirting 调情. 2 [C] (a) ~ with sb brief and frivolous romantic involvement 短暂的风流韵事: carry on/have a flirtation with sb 与某人一时风流. (b) ~ with sth superficial interest in sth 对某事物的淡薄的兴趣: a brief flirtation with the idea of starting his own business 想自己开业的短暂的念头.

  flirtatious

  / fl\:5teIFEs; fl[`teFEs/ adj (a) fond of flirting 爱调情的: an attractive flirtatious young woman 爱卖弄风情的年轻貌美的女子. (b) of or related to flirting 调情的; 与调情有关的: flirtatious behaviour 调情的举动.

  flit

  / flIt; flIt/ v (-tt-) 1 [Ipr, Ip] fly or move lightly and quickly from one place to another 轻快地从一处飞到另一处; 掠过: bees flitting (about) from flower to flower 在花丛中飞来飞去的蜜蜂 * He flits from one thing to another, ie does not deal with anything seriously. 他做事总是三心二意. * (fig 比喻) A thought flitted through my mind, ie came suddenly but then quickly disappeared. 在我头脑中有一闪念. 2 [I] (Brit infml 口) move about from one house to another; move from one's home secretly ,esp in order to avoid paying debts, etc 频繁搬迁; 秘密离家(尤指为躲债等).

  flit

  n (Brit infml 口) act of flitting (flit 2) (used esp in the expression shown) (为躲债等)搬家, 离家(尤用於以下示例): do a (moonlight) flit (在夜半)秘密搬家.

  float

  / flEUt; flot/ v 1 (a) [I, Ipr] stay on or at the surface of a liquid and not sink; be held up in air or gas 漂浮; 飘: Wood floats (in water). 木头能漂浮(於水面). * Try and float on your back. 试试仰浮. (b) [Ipr] move without resistance in air, water or gas; drift slowly 漂流; 飘动: A balloon floated across the sky. 有个气球从空中飘过. * The raft was floating gently down the river. 筏子顺河水缓缓漂流. * (fig 比喻) Thoughts of lazy summer afternoons floated through his mind. 夏日懒洋洋的下午种种思绪在他脑海里浮想联翩. 2 [Tn, Tn.pr] bring (sth) to the surface of a liquid; cause (sth) to move on liquid or in air 使(某物)漂浮; 使(某物)漂流或飘动: There wasn't enough water to float the ship. 水不够深, 船浮不起来. * float a raft of logs down the river 使圆木筏顺河漂下 * We waited for the tide to float the boat off the sandbank. 我们等待涨潮, 让潮水把船浮起离开沙滩. 3 [Tn] suggest (a plan or project); present for acceptance or rejection 提出(计画、 方案等); 交出(以供取舍): Let me float a couple of ideas. 让我来谈两三点意见仅供参考. 4 [I, Ipr, Ip] ~ (about/around (sth)) (infml 口) (of a person) move vaguely or aimlessly from place to place; do nothing in particular (指人)游荡, 无所事事: My weekend was boring I just floated about (the house) or watched TV. 我的周末过得很无聊--只是在屋子里 转转或者看看电视. 5 [Tn] start (a new business company) by selling shares in it to the public (以公开发行股票方式)开办(新公司). 6 (a) [Tn] allow the foreign exchange values of (a currency) to vary freely according to the value of other international currencies 使(某货币)的对外汇率浮动: float the pound, dollar, yen, etc 使英镑、 美元、 日元等的对外汇率浮动. (b) [I] (of a currency) find its own value in this way (指货币)随汇率浮动. 7 (phr v) float about/around (esp in the continuous tenses 尤用於进行时态) (a) (of a rumour) be heard or talked about a lot (指传闻)广为流传: There's a rumour floating around of a new job in the unit. 这个部门盛传有个新工作要聘人. (b) (of an object) be in an unspecified place (指物品)在未指出的某处: Have you seen my keys floating about (anywhere)? 你在什麽地方见到我的钥匙了吗?

  floating

  adj [usu attrib 通常作定语] 1 not fixed, determined or committed 不固定的; 未决定的; 未承诺的: a floating voter, ie a person who is not committed to always voting for the same political party 浮动选民(未必总投同一政党选票者) * floating population, ie one in which people are constantly moving from one place to another 流动人口. 2 (medical 医) out of its normal position 游离的: a floating kidney 游离肾. ,floating `capital money that is not invested or otherwise committed 流动资本. ,floating `dock large box-like structure that can be put under the water to allow a ship to enter it, and then floated to lift the ship out of water 浮船坞. `floating rib (anatomy 解) rib that is not joined to the breastbone 浮肋.

  float

  / flEUt; flot/ n 1 (a) light object made of cork, etc that stays on the surface of a liquid, esp one attached to a fishing-line (to indicate when the bait has been taken) or to a net (to support it in water) 漂浮物; (尤指)鱼漂, 浮子. (b) light buoyant object that non-swimmers can hold on to while learning to swim 浮板(学游泳用的). 2 floating hollow ball or other air-filled container, used to control the flow of water, petrol, etc into a tank 浮球(用以控制水、 汽油等流量的). 3 structure that enables an aircraft to float on water 浮筒(使飞行器浮於水面的装置). 4 (a) lorry, cart or low platform on wheels, used for showing things in a procession (游行时载展品等的)卡车、 大车或装有轮子的展台; 花车: The club display was mounted on a huge float and paraded through the main street. 俱乐部的展品装在大型花车上在大街上通过. (b) vehicle with a low flat base, used for transporting the thing specified 低矮的平板车: a milk float 运牛奶的平板车. 5 sum of money used for everyday business expenses or for giving change (企业的)日常零钱.

  flock

  / flCk; flBk/ n [CGp] 1 ~ (of sth) group of sheep, goats or birds of the same kind, either kept together or feeding and travelling together (同一种的羊或鸟的)一群: a flock of wild geese 一群雁 * flocks (of sheep) and herds (of cattle) 羊群和牛群. 2 large crowd of people 人群; 群众: People came in flocks to see the royal procession. 人们蜂拥而至瞻望皇室人员外出时的仪仗队. 3 number of people in sb's care, esp Christian churchgoers under a priest (由某人照管的)一群人; (尤指同一牧师辖下的)全体教徒: a priest and his flock 牧师和他的教友.

  flock

  v [Ipr, Ip] gather, move, come or go together in great numbers 群集; 成群结队: In the summer, tourists flock to the museums and art galleries. 夏季游人成群结队到博物馆和艺术馆参观. * Huge numbers of birds had flocked together by the lake. 成群的鸟聚集在湖畔.

  flock

  / flCk; flBk/ n 1 [C usu pl 通常作复数] tuft of wool, cotton, hair, etc (羊毛、 棉花、 毛发等的)一束. 2 [U] soft material for stuffing cushions, mattresses, etc (填充靠垫、 床垫等的)软质材料: [attrib 作定语] a flock mattress 软床垫 * flock(ed) wallpaper, ie with a raised pattern made of short tufts of material 植绒壁纸.

  floe

  / flEU; flo/ n sheet of floating ice, usu on the sea 成片的浮冰(通常浮於海上的): Ice-floes are a threat to shipping in the area. 浮冰对这一带的航运是一种威胁.

  flog

  / flCg; flB^/ v (-gg-) 1 [Tn] beat (sb) severely, esp with a rod or whip, as a punishment 重重责打(某人)(尤指用棍棒或鞭子): The boy was cruelly flogged for stealing. 那男孩偷东西挨了一顿毒打. 2 [Tn, Dn.n, Dn.pr] ~ sth (to sb) (Brit infml 口) sell sth (to sb) 卖(给某人)某物: We should be able to flog the car (to someone) for a good price. 我们应该能把这辆汽车高价卖出. =>Usage at sell 用法见sell. 3 (idm 习语) ,flog a dead `horse waste one's efforts on an activity or a belief that is already widely rejected or has long been accepted 鞭打死马(对已摒弃或认可的活动或信念徒费精力). ,flog sth to `death (infml 口) be so persistent or repetitive about sth that people lose interest in it 坚持或重复某事物而使人失去与趣: I hope he won't tell that joke again; he's flogged it to death already. 但愿他别再讲那个笑话了, 已经老掉牙了.

  flogging

  n [C, U] (instance of) beating or whipping 打; 鞭笞.

  flood

  / flQd; flQd/ v 1 (a) [I, Tn] (cause a place that is usu dry to) be filled or overflow with water; inundate (使通常乾燥的地方)灌满水; 淹没; 泛滥: The cellar floods whenever it rains heavily. 一下大雨地窖里就灌满了水. * The river had burst its banks and flooded the valley. 河水冲破堤岸, 淹没了山谷. (b) [Tn] (of rain) fill (a river, etc) so that it overflows (指雨水)使(河流等)泛滥: streams flooded by violent storms 因暴风雨而泛滥的河流. 2 [Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr] ~ (sth) (with sth) cover or fill (sth) completely; spread into (sth) 铺满或充满(某物); 扩展到(某物): A powerful light flooded (into) the grounds. 有一道强光照进了庭院. * The place was flooded with light. 那地方十分光亮. 3 [Tn, Tn.pr]~ sth (with sth) fill (the carburettor of a motor engine) with too much petrol so that the engine will not start 使(汽车发动机的汽化器)溢流. 4 [Ipr, Ip, Tn] (fig 比喻) (of a thought or feeling) flow powerfully over (sb); surge over (sb) (指思想或感情)充溢, 涌现: A great sense of relief flooded over him. 他深感宽慰. * Memories of his childhood came flooding back. 他童年的往事涌上心头. 5 (idm 习语) ,flood the `market (cause sth to) be offered for sale in large quantities, often at a low price (使某物)充斥(常指廉价): Japanese cars have flooded the American market. 日本汽车已充斥美国市场. 6 (phr v) flood in; flood into sth come to or arrive at (a place) in great quantities or numbers 大量涌入(某处): Applications flooded into the office. 申请书像潮水般涌进办公室. flood sb out force sb to leave home because of a flood 大水迫使某人离家: Half the village were flooded out by a burst water main. 由於总水管破裂, 半数村民被迫离开了家. flood sb/sth with sth arrive in great quantities for sb/at sth 给某人大量的某事物; 大量的某事物涌向某处: The office was flooded with complaints. 办事处收到如洪水般涌至的投诉信件.

  flooding

  n [U] covering of an area of land that is usu dry with a lot of water, eg when a river overflows 泛滥: Widespread flooding is affecting large areas of Devon. 洪水泛滥, 淹没了德文郡的广大地区.

  flood

  / flQd; flQd/ n 1 (a) (coming of a) great quantity of water, esp over a place that is usu dry 大量的水; 洪水; 水灾: The heavy rain caused floods in the houses by the river. 这场大雨下得河边的房子里都进了水. * There's a flood in the next valley. 旁边的山谷被水淹了. (b) the Flood (Bible 《圣经》) the one that was sent by God to punish mankind, as described in the Old Testament book of Genesis (《旧约·创世记》中所记载上帝藉以惩罚人类的)洪水. 2 ~ (of sth) great quantity or volume 多; 大批; 大量; 大: a flood of anger, abuse, indignation, etc 大发雷霆、 大骂、 满腔义愤 * a flood of letters, refugees 大量涌来的信件、 难民 * The child was in floods of tears, ie was crying uncontrollably. 那孩子哭成了泪人儿. 3 flowing in of the tide from the sea to the land; rising tide 涨潮: The tide is at the flood. 正在涨潮. Cf 参看 ebbn 1. 4 (idm 习语) in `flood (of a river) overflowing (指河流)泛滥: We can't cross the meadow there because the river is in flood. 我们不能从那里穿过草地, 因为河水泛滥了.

  floodgate

  n 1 gate that can be opened or closed to control the flow of water (水闸的)闸门. 2 (idm 习语) open the floodgates => open2.

  flood-tide

  n rising tide 涨潮.

  floodlight

  / 5flQdlaIt; `flQd9laIt/ n (esp pl 尤作复数) large powerful light that produces a wide beam, used to light sports grounds, theatre stages, etc (运动场、 舞台 等的)泛光灯, 强力照明灯: a match played under floodlights在泛光灯下进行的比赛. =>illus at Association football 见Association football插图.

  floodlight

  v (pt, pp floodlighted or floodlit / -lIt; -lIt/) [Tn usu passive 通常用於被动语态] light (sth) using floodlights 用泛光灯照亮(某物): The Acropolis is floodlit in the evenings. 夜晚泛光灯把卫城照得通亮.

  floor

  / flR:(r); flRr/ n 1 [C usu sing 通常作单数] surface of a room on which one stands, walks, etc (室内的)地面, 地板: There weren't enough chairs so I had to sit on the floor. 房间里的椅子不够, 我只好坐在地上. * The bare concrete floor was cold on my feet. 水泥地没铺地毯, 我的脚感到很凉. * [attrib 作定语] 5000 square metres of floor space 5000平方米的房屋面积. 2 [C usu sing 通常作单数] bottom of the sea or ground surface of a cave, etc (海洋或洞穴等的)底: the ocean, forest, valley, cave floor 海洋的底、 森林的地面、 谷底、 洞底. =>Usage at earth 用法见earth. 3 [C] all the rooms, etc on the same level in a building; level of storey of a building 同一层楼的所有房间等; 楼层: Her office is on the second floor. 她的办公室在三楼. =>Usage 见所附用法. 4 the floor [sing] (a) part of an assembly hall where members sit, eg in the Houses of Parliament, US Congress, etc 议员席(如英国议会两院、 美国国会等的): speak from the floor 在议员席上发言. (b) right to speak in such an assembly or meeting (在此种会议上的)发言权: The floor is yours you may present your argument. 现在请您发言--尽请发表意见. 5 [C usu sing 通常作单数] area where a particular activity is undertaken 进行某种活动的场地: the dance floor, ie part of the floor of a night-club, etc where guests dance (夜总会等的)舞池 * the factory/shop floor, ie part of a factory where the ordinary workers (ie not the managers) work 车间. 6 [C] minimum level for wages or prices (工资或物价的)最低水平. 7 (idm 习语) be/get in on the ground floor => ground floor (ground1). ,hold the `floor speak to an audience, esp at great length or with determination, so that no one else has a chance to say anything 演说; (尤指)长篇演讲或慷慨陈辞(使他人无从插嘴): She held the floor for over an hour. 她发言占了一个多小时. ,take the `floor (a) get up to speak or address an audience 起立发言或演讲: I now invite the President to take the floor. 现在请总统讲话. (b) get up and start to dance 起来跳舞: She took the floor with her husband. 她站起来和丈夫跳舞. wipe the floor with sb => wipe.

  flooring

  n [U] material, eg boards or tiles, used for making floors 铺地面的材料(如木板或瓷砖).

  floor-board

  n any of the long (wooden) planks or boards laid down to make a floor (铺地面的)木板.

  floor show

  series of performances, eg of singing and dancing, presented in a night-club, bar, etc 一系列的表演(如夜总会、 酒吧间等的唱歌、 跳舞).

  floor

  NOTE ON USAGE 用法: In British English the floor of a building at street level is the ground floor and the floor above that is the first floor. 在英式英语中, 楼房地面与街道相平的楼层叫ground floor, ground floor上面的一层叫first floor. *In US English the street-level floor is the first floor and the one above is the second floor. 在美式英语中, 与街道相平的楼层叫first floor, 其上面的一层叫second floor.

  floozie (also floosie)

  / 5flu:zI; `fluzI/ n (infml derog 口, 贬) woman of low morals; prostitute 荡妇; 妓女.

  flop

  / flCp; flBp/ v (-pp-) 1 [Ipr, Ip] move or fall clumsily, helplessly or loosely (笨拙地、 不由自主地或松弛地)移动或落下: The pile of books flopped noisily onto the floor. 那摞书劈里啪啦地散落到地上. * The fish we'd caught flopped around in the bottom of the boat. 我们捕到的鱼在船底乱蹦. 2 [I, Ipr, Ip] hang or sway heavily and loosely (沉重地而不受束缚地)悬挂或摆动: flopping stirrups 垂著的马镫 * Her hair flopped (about) over her shoulders. 她的头发披散在肩上. 3 [I, Ipr, Ip] sit or lie down heavily and clumsily, because of tiredness (因疲劳)重重地、 笨拙地坐下或躺下: I'm ready to flop. 我要累倒了. * Exhausted, he flopped (down) into the nearest chair. 他累得一下子坐到离他最近的小沙发上. 4 [I] (infml 口) (of a book, play, etc) fail totally; be unsuccessful (指书、 戏剧等)彻底失败, 不成功.

  flop

  n 1 (usu sing 通常作单数) flopping movement or sound 笨拙的移动或凌乱的落下或这种声音. 2 (infml 口) total failure (of a book, play, etc) (书、 戏剧等的)彻底失败: Despite all the publicity, her latest novel was a complete flop. 她的最新小说尽管广为宣传, 结果还是彻底失败.

  flop

  adv with a flop 扑通一声: fall flop into the water 扑通一声掉进水里.

  floppy

  adj (-ier, -iest) tending to flop; soft and flexible; falling loosely (笨拙地、 不由自主地或松弛地)移动或落下的; 松软的; 松弛下垂的: a floppy hat 松软的帽子. n (infml 口) = floppy disk. floppy disk (also floppy, diskette) (computing 计) flexible disk for recording and storing data in a form that a computer can read 软磁盘. =>illus at computer 见computer插图. Cf 参看 hard disk (hard1).

  flop-house

  / 5flCphaUs; `flBp9haJs/ n (US infml 口) cheap lodging house or hotel; doss-house 廉价的寄宿处、 旅馆或客栈.

  flora

  / 5flR:rE; `flRrEl/ n [pl] all the plants of a particular area or period of time (某地区或时代的)一切植物, 植物区系: the flora of the Himalayas, the Palaeozoic era 喜马拉雅山的、 古生代的植物系. Cf 参看 fauna.

  floral

  / 5flR:rEl; `flRrEl/ adj [usu attrib 通常作定语] (a) made of flowers 用花做的: floral arrangements, tributes 插花、 敬献的鲜花. (b) decorated with flowers 用花装饰的: floral wallpaper 有花卉图案的壁纸.

  florid

  / 5flCrId; ?@ 5flR:r-; `flRrId/ adj 1 (usu derog 通常作贬义) elaborate and ornate; excessively decorated or colourful 华丽的; 过分装饰的; 过分艳丽的: florid music, poetry, art, etc 矫揉造作的音乐、 诗、 艺术等 * a florid room, painting 过分装饰的房间、 过分艳丽的画. 2 (of a person's face) red in colour; ruddy (指人的面孔)红润的: a florid complexion 红润的面色.

  florin

  / 5flCrIn; ?@ 5flR:rIn; `flRrIn/ n former British coin worth two shillings or one tenth of 1 (now ten pence) 英国旧币制中的硬币, 值二先令或十分之一镑(现值10便士).

  florist

  / 5flCrIst; ?@ 5flR:r-; `flRrIst/ n person who has a shop that sells flowers 花商: order a wreath from the florist 从花店订购花圈 * buy a bouquet at the florist's, ie shop where flowers are sold 在花店买一束花.

  floss

  / flCs; ?@ flR:s; flRs/ n [U] 1 rough silk threads from the outside of a silkworm's cocoon (蚕茧外层的)粗丝. 2 (also 'floss silk) spun (but not twisted) silk thread used for embroidery 刺绣用的丝线.

  flotation

  / flEU5teIFn; flo`teFEn/ n [C, U] starting of a new company by selling shares in it to the public (公开发行股票)开办新公司.

  flotilla

  / flE5tIlE; flo`tIlE/ n (a) fleet of boats or small ships 船队; 小型舰队. (b) small fleet of warships 小舰队: a destroyer flotilla 驱逐舰的舰队.

  flotsam

  / 5flCtsEm; `flBtsEm/ n [U] 1 parts of a wrecked ship or its cargo found floating in the sea (在海上漂浮的)遇难船只的残骸或货物. Cf 参看 jetsam. 2 (idm 习语) ,flotsam and `jetsam (a) people without homes or work or those who have had to leave their houses; vagrants and tramps or refugees 流离失所的人; 无业游民; 流浪者; 难民. (b) various unimportant objects; bits and pieces; odds and ends 无价值的东西; 零碎物品.

  flounce

  / flaUns; flaJns/ v [Ipr, Ip] move about in an exaggerated, and usu impatient and angry manner 大动作地走动(通常为不耐烦而愤怒地): She flounced out of the room, swearing loudly. 她大声地骂著离开了房间. * children flouncing around in their party clothes 穿著参加聚会的衣服到处乱跑的孩子们.

  flounce

  n (usu sing 通常作单数) sudden impatient movement of the body; jerk (身体突然发出的)不耐烦的动作, 猛然的动作: with a flounce of the head 脑袋猛地一动.

  flounce

  / flaUns; flaJns/ n wide strip of cloth or lace sewn by its upper edge to a garment, eg a skirt 荷叶边(如裙子上的).

  flounced

  adj trimmed or decorated with flounces 镶荷叶边的: a flounced frock 镶荷叶边的连衣裙.

  flounder

  / 5flaUndE(r); `flaJndL/ v [I, Ipr, Ip] 1 move or struggle helplessly or clumsily; move with difficulty, as through mud or deep snow 笨拙地移动或挣扎; 艰难地移动(如在泥中或深雪中): Anna couldn't swim and was left floundering (about/around) in the deep end of the swimming-pool. 安娜不会游泳, 在游泳池的深水区里挣扎著. 2 hesitate or make mistakes when talking or when coming to a decision (说话或做决定时)犹豫或出错误: I wasn't expecting the interviewer to ask about my private life and was left floundering for a while. 我没想到主持面试的人问我私生活的事, 就犹豫了一下. * flounder (on) through a badly prepared speech 由於准备不充分而讲得错误百出.

  flour

  / 5flaUE(r); flaJr/ n [U] fine powder obtained by grinding grain, esp wheat or rye, and used for making bread, cakes, etc 谷物磨成的粉; (尤指)(小麦的)面粉, 黑麦粉.

  flour

  v [Tn] cover or sprinkle (sth) with flour 在(某物)上覆上或撒上面粉: flour the pastry board 在做点心的案板上撒上面粉.

  floury

  / 5flaUErI; `flaJrI/ adj of or like flour; covered with flour (似)面粉的; 覆有面粉的: floury potatoes, ie ones that are soft and fluffy 很面的土豆(柔软不脆的) * She wiped her floury hands with a damp cloth. 她用湿布擦去手上的面粉.

  self-raising flour

  / 9self reIzIN 5flaUE(r); 9sZlf9rezIN `flaJr/ (US self-rising flour / -5raIzIN; -9raIzIN/) flour containinga substance which makes dough rise during baking without needing baking-powder 自发面粉(已含酵母的). Cf 参看 plain flour (plain1).

  flourish

  / 5flQrIF; `flQrIF/ v 1 [I] be successful, very active, or widespread; prosper 昌盛; 旺盛; 兴旺; 繁荣: No new business can flourish in the present economic climate. 在目前的经济气候中, 任何新生意都兴旺不起来. * a flourishing squash club 兴旺的壁球俱乐部. 2 [I] grow healthily; be well and active 健康成长; 茂盛; 健壮而活跃: This species of flower flourishes in a warm climate. 这种花在温暖的气候中长得茂盛. * All the family are flourishing. 全家人身体都很好. 3 [I, Ipr] (of ideas or people) be very active and influential (during the specified period) (指思想或人)(在某时期)活跃而有影响力: In Germany the baroque style of art flourished in the 17th and 18th centuries. 在德国, 巴罗克艺术风格在17和18世纪非常盛行. 4 [Tn] wave sth about in order to attract attention to it 挥舞某物(以引起注意): He stormed into the office, flourishing a letter of complaint. 他挥舞著一封投诉信冲进了办公室.

  flourish

  n (usu sing 通常作单数) 1 bold sweeping movement or gesture, used esp to attract attention 明显的大动作或手势(尤用以引起注意的): He opened the door for her with a flourish. 他潇洒地为她打开了门. 2 flowing curve, esp in handwriting or decoration 流畅的曲线(尤指书法或装饰方面的). 3 loud and elaborate piece of music; fanfare 响亮而细腻的乐曲; 小号曲: A flourish of trumpets marked the Queen's arrival. 小号奏出嘹亮的乐曲欢迎女王驾到.

  flout

  / flaUt; flaJt/ v [Tn] disobey (sb/sth) openly and scornfully 公然藐视(某人[某事物]): flout the law, (a) convention, the rules 藐视法律、 传统、 规则等 * flout sb's advice 轻视某人的劝告.

  flow

  / flEU; flo/ v (pt, pp -ed) 1 [I, Ipr, Ip] (a) (of a liquid) move freely and continuously (指液体)流动: Her tears flowed freely (down her cheeks). 她眼泪止不住地(顺著面颊)往下流. * Most rivers flow into the sea. 江河大多流入海洋. * Blood suddenly started flowing out. 突然流出血来. (b) move freely and continuously, esp within a closed system; circulate 畅通无阻(尤指在封闭系统内); 流通; 流传: Keep the traffic flowing. 保持交通畅通无阻. * Electricity is flowing (in the circuit/wires). 电在(电路[导线]中)流动. * Blood flows round the body. 血液在体内循环. * In convection, hot currents flow upwards. 在对流中热气流向上运动. 2 [I] (of speech or writing) proceed evenly and continuously (指讲话或写作)流畅: Conversation flowed freely when the speaker invited discussion. 演讲人请大家讨论, 於是人人畅所欲言. 3 [I, Ipr, Ip] fall or hang (down) loosely and freely 松散而无束缚地落下或垂下: long flowing robes 飘洒的长袍 * Her hair flowed (down) over her shoulders. 她长发垂肩. 4 [I, Ipr] ~ (with sth) be available plentifully; be distributed freely 有的是; 大量供应; 取之不尽: The party became lively when the drink began to flow. 饮料开始大量供应, 聚会的气氛就活跃起来了. * a land flowing with milk and honey, ie place with rich natural resources 自然资源丰富的地方. 5 [I] (of the sea tide) come in; rise (指海潮)涨, 涨潮: The tide began to flow and our footprints were covered. 开始涨潮了, 潮水遮住了我们的脚印. Cf 参看 ebb 1. 6 (phr v) flow in/into sth arrive in a steady stream 不断涌入: The election results flowed in throughout the night. 通夜不断传来各项选举结果. * Offers of help flowed into the office. 人们接连不断地向办事处表示愿意提供帮助. flow from sth come or derive from sth; result from sth 源於某事物;为某事物的结果: Many benefits will flow from this discovery. 这项发现将带来许多好处. flow out (of sth) leave in a steady stream 外流: Profits are flowing out of the country. 利润源源不断地流向国外. flow over sb take place without affecting sb (某事)发生而不影响某人: Office politics just seem to flow over him. 同事之间互相倾轧、 勾心斗角的事似乎并未波及到他.

  flow

  n (usu sing 通常作单数) 1 ~ (of sth/sb) (rate of a) flowing movement of sth/sb (某事物[某人]的)流动(量); 流量: a steady flow of traffic 川流不息的来往车辆 * The government is trying to stop the increasing flow of refugees entering the country. 政府正在设法阻止越来越多的难民流入本国. 2 ~ (of sth) (rate of a) continuous stream or supply of sth 某事物的持续或连续供应(量): cut off the flow of oil 切断石油输送 * the constant flow of information 源源不断的信息. 3 even and continuous outpouring of words 口若悬河; 滔滔不绝: I interrupted him while he was in full flow, ie talking away strongly. 他正在高谈阔论, 我打断了他的话. 4 incoming tide 涨潮: the ebb and flow of the sea 海潮的涨落. 5 (idm 习语) the ebb and flow (of sth) => ebb n.

  flow chart (also flow diagram)

  diagram showing the development of sth through the different stages or processes in a series 流程图.

  flower

  / 5flaUE(r); `flaJL/ n 1 part of a plant from which the seed or fruit develops, often brightly coloured and lasting only a short time 花; 花朵: The plant has a brilliant purple flower. 那棵植物开著一朵鲜艳的紫花. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page ii. 2 plant grown for the beauty of its flowers; flower and its stem (供观赏的)开花植物; (带梗的)花: arrange some flowers in a vase 往花瓶里插花. 3 [sing] the ~ of sth (rhet 修辞) finest or best part of sth; prime or peak of sth 精华; 精粹; 精英; 鼎盛阶段: the flower of the nation's youth 该国青年的精英 * in the flower of one's maturity/strength/youth 正当成熟[身强力壮/年轻]的时候. 4 (idm 习语) in/into `flower in/into the state of having the flowers open 处於[进入]开花期: The roses have been in flower for a week. 这些玫瑰花已经开了一星期了. * The crocuses are late coming into flower. 藏红花开花晚.

  flower

  v 1 [I] produce flowers; bloom 开花: These plants will flower in the spring. 这些植物到了春天就开花. * a late-flowering chrysanthemum 迟开的菊花. 2 [I] develop fully; mature or blossom 充分发展; 成熟; 繁荣: Their friendship flowered while they were at college. 他们的友谊在求学时已根深蒂固.

  flowered

  / 5flaUEd; `flaJLd/ adj [usu attrib 通常作定语] decorated with patterns of flowers 用花卉图案装饰的: flowered wallpaper, cloth, curtains, etc 有花卉图案的壁纸、 布、 帘等.

  flowering

  / 5flaUErIN; `flaJErIN/ n (usu sing 通常作单数) ~ (of sth) full development of (an idea, literary or political movement, etc) (思想、 文学或政治运动等的)成熟发展: the gradual flowering of modern democracy 现代民主的日臻成熟.

  flowery

  / 5flaUErI; `flaJErI/ adj (-ier, -iest) 1 covered with or having a lot of flowers 有很多花的: flowery fields 有很多花的田野. 2 (of language, gestures or decoration) too elaborate or ornate (指语言、 手势或装饰)矫揉造作的, 过分修饰的, 过於华丽的: a flowery speech 辞藻过分华丽的讲话.

  flowerless

  adj not having or not producing flowers 无花的; 不开花的: flowerless plants 不开花的植物.

  flower-bed

  n piece of ground in a garden or park, specially prepared for growing flowers (花园或公园里的)花畦, 花坛.

  flower children (also flower people)

  (esp in the 1960s) (usu young) people supporting universal love and peace, and carrying flowers as a symbol of their beliefs (尤指20世纪60年代的)(通常为年轻的)戴花嬉皮士(主张博爱与和平, 以花象徵其信仰的人).

  flower-girl

  n girl or woman who sells flowers in a market, etc 卖花女.

  flowerpot

  n container of plastic or earthenware, in which a plant is grown 花盆. =>illus at pot 见pot插图.

  flower power

  beliefs or cult of the flower children 戴花嬉皮士的信仰或崇拜.

  flower-show

  n exhibition at which flowers are displayed 花展.

  flown

  pp of fly2.

  Flt Lt

  abbr 缩写 = Flight Lieutenant: Flt Lt (Robert) Bell (罗伯特·)贝尔空军上尉.

  flu

  / flu:; flu/ n (infml 口) = influenza.

  fluctuate

  / 5flQktFUeIt; `flQktFJ9et/ v [I, Ipr] ~ (between A and B) 1 (of a price, number, rate, etc) rise and fall; change irregularly (指价格、 数量、 比率、 费用等)涨落, 波动: The price fluctuates between 5 and 6. 价格在5英镑与6英镑之间波动. 2 (of an attitude or a state) change continually and irregularly; waver (指态度或状态)变化不定, 动摇: fluctuating opinions 变化不定的意见.

  fluctuation

  / 9flQktFU5eIFn; 9flQktFJ`eFEn/ n [C, U] ~ (of/in sth): wide fluctuations of temperature 温度的巨大变化 * fluctuations in the state of his health 他健康状况时好时坏的变化.

  flue

  / flu:; flu/ n channel, pipe, etc through which smoke, fumes or hot air pass from a boiler or oven, usu to a chimney 烟道; 管道.

  fluent

  / 5flu:Ent; `fluEnt/ adj 1 (of a person) able to speak or write a language or perform an action smoothly, accurately and with ease (指人)语言流利的, 文字流畅的, 动作准确、 轻松的: a fluent speaker (of Spanish) (西班牙语)说得流利的人 * be fluent in speech 讲话流利. 2 (of speech, a language or an action) expressed in a smooth and accurate way (指言语、 语言)流利而通顺的; (指动作)灵活而准确的: speak/write fluent Russian 说[写]流利的俄语 * fluent movements, ie ones that are flowing and graceful 协调优美的动作.

  fluency

  / 5flu:EnsI; `fluEnsI/ n [U] quality or condition of being fluent 流利; 通顺; 灵活而准确: She speaks Swahili with great fluency. 她说的斯瓦希里语非常流利.

  fluently

  adv.

  fluff

  / flQf; flQf/ n 1 [U] (a) soft feathery pieces of material shed by blankets, etc (毛毯等落下的)绒毛: My best sweater is covered with fluff. 我那件最好的毛衣上满是绒毛. (b) soft fur or down of animals or birds (禽兽的)绒毛. 2 [C] (infml 口) unsuccessful attempt at sth; mistake or blunder 未成功的尝试; 错误; 失误. 3 (idm 习语) a bit of fluff => bit1.

  fluff

  v 1 [Tn, Tn.p] ~ sth (out/up) shake sth into a soft full mass; puff or spread sth out lightly 抖开某物; 抖松某物: fluff up the pillows 抖松枕头 * The bird fluffed (out) its feathers. 那鸟抖抖身子蓬开羽毛. 2 [Tn] (infml 口) be unsuccessful at doing (sth); perform (sth) badly; bungle 未做成(某事物); 将(某事)搞坏; 出错: fluff a stroke, eg in golf 击球失误(如高尔夫球) * fluff one's lines in a play 说错剧中台词 * He really fluffed his exams. 他的确考糟了.

  fluffy

  adj (-ier, -iest) 1 like fluff; covered with fluff 似绒毛的; 有绒毛的: Most animals are soft and fluffy when first born. 大多数动物刚出生时都很软, 身上有绒毛. 2 soft, light and airy 蓬松的; 松软的: light and fluffy mashed potatoes 松软的土豆泥.

  fluffiness

  n [U].

  fluid

  / 5flu:Id; `fluId/ adj 1 able to flow freely, as gases and liquids do; not solid or rigid 流动的; 流体的; 不坚硬的: a fluid substance 流体. 2 not fixed; able to be changed 不固定的; 可改变的: fluid arrangements, ideas, opinions 可改变的安排、 思想、 意见 * The situation is still fluid. 局势尚不稳定. 3 smooth and graceful in movement 动作灵活而优美的.

  fluid

  n [C, U] 1 any liquid substance 液体: Drink plenty of fluids 多喝流质. * There's some sort of sticky fluid on the kitchen floor. 厨房的地上有一种发黏的液体. 2 (chemistry 化) fluid substance 流体; 液.

  fluidity

  / flu:5IdEtI; flu`IdEtI/ n [U] quality or state of being fluid 流动性; 流动状态.

  fluid ounce (abbr 缩写 fl oz)

  liquid measure equal to one twentieth of an Imperial pint or one sixteenth of an American pint 液量盎司(英制等於十二分之一品脱, 美制等於十六分之一品脱). =>App 4, 5 见附录4、 5.

  fluke

  / flu:k; fluk/ n (usu sing 通常作单数) (infml 口) thing that is accidentally successful; lucky stroke in a game 侥幸的成功; (在比赛中)侥幸击中: Passing the exam was a real fluke he didn't work for it at all. 他考试及格实在是侥幸, 因为他根本没下过功夫. * That shot was a sheer fluke. 那完全是靠侥幸击中的.

  fluky (also flukey)

  adj.

  fluke

  / flu:k; fluk/ n 1 either of the two flat triangular ends of an anchor 锚爪; 锚钩. 2 either of the two lobes of a whale's tail 鲸的尾鳍.

  fluke

  / flu:k; fluk/ n 1 flat-fish or flounder 比目鱼; 鲆, 鳎, 鲽. 2 parasitic worm found in the liver of a sheep (羊肝中的)肝蛭.

  flummox

  / 5flQmEks; `flQmEks/ v [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] (infml 口) bewilder, confuse or disconcert (sb) 使(某人)迷惑、 糊涂或仓皇失措: The politician was completely flummoxed by the questions put to her. 那位女政治家被问得十分狼狈.

  flung

  pt, pp of fling.

  flunk

  / flQNk; flQNk/ v (infml 口 esp US) 1 [I, Tn] fail (an examination, academic course, etc) 使(考试、 某学科的成绩等)不及格: flunk biology 生物学不及格. 2 [Tn] give a failing mark to (sb) 评定(某人)不及格: be flunked in chemistry 化学不及格. 3 (phr v) flunk out be dismissed from a school or college for failure 因成绩不及格而被学校除名.

  flunkey (also flunky)

  / 5flQNkI; `flQNkI/ n (pl ~s or -kies) (infml derog 口, 贬) 1 servant in uniform (著制服的)男仆. 2 (esp US) person who does small unimportant tasks 打杂的人.

  fluorescence

  / flR:5resns; ?@ flUE5r-; 9flJE`rZsns/ n [U] property that a substance has of emitting light while being exposed to light or some other radiation of a shorter wavelength 荧光. Cf 参看 phosphorescence.

  fluoresce

  v [I] send out light in this manner 放射荧光.

  fluorescent

  / -snt; -snt/ adj 1 of, having or showing fluorescence 荧光的; 有荧光的; 显出荧光的: fluorescent lighting 荧光灯. 2 having a very bright glowing appearance because of fluorescence (因有荧光)发亮的: wearing orange fluorescent clothing 穿著橙色荧光服装.

  fluorescent lamp

  electric light, usu in the form of a long strip, that gives off a fluorescent light 荧光灯; 日光灯.

  fluoride

  / 5flR:raId; ?@ 5flUEr-; `flJE9raId/ n chemical compound of fluorine 氟化物.

  fluoridate

  / 5flR:rIdeIt; ?@ 5flUEr-; `flJErE9det/ v [Tn] add traces of fluoride to (the water supply), esp to prevent tooth decay 在(食水)中加氟(尤指为预防生龋齿).

  fluoridation

  / 9flR:rI5deIFn; ?@ 9flUEr-; 9flJErE`deFEn/ n [U].

  fluoridize, fluridise

  / 5flR:rIdaIz; ?@ 5flUEr-; `flJErE9daIz/ v [Tn] = fluoridate.

  fluoridization, fluoridisation

  / 9flR:rIdEI5zeIFn; US 9flUErIdI5z-; 9flJErEdI`zeFEn/ n [U] = fluoridation.

  fluorine

  / 5flR:ri:n; ?@ 5flUEr-; `flJE9rin/ n [U] (chemistry 化) element, a pale yellow gas that is both poisonous and corrosive 氟. =>App 10 见附录10.

  flurry

  / 5flQrI; `flQrI/ n 1 short sudden rush of wind or fall of rain, snow, etc 一阵风、 雨、 雪等: light snow flurries/flurries of snow 阵阵小雪. 2 ~ (of sth) sudden burst of intense activity; commotion (激烈活动的)爆发, 骚动: a flurry of activity/excitement 一阵活动[激动] * I'm always in a flurry (ie confused and disorganized) as deadlines get nearer. 一接近最後期限我就忙乱不堪.

  flurry

  v (pt, pp flurried) [Tn usu passive 通常用於被动语态] confuse and disturb; fluster 使迷乱; 使慌张: Keep calm! Don't get flurried. 镇静! 不要慌.

  flush

  / flQF; flQF/ n 1 [C usu sing 通常作单数] (a) flow of blood to the face that causes a red colouring; blush 脸红. (b) sudden rush of emotions, excitement, etc 感情、 激情等的突发; 激动; 兴奋: a flush of enthusiasm, anger, joy, etc 一阵热情、 怒火、 喜悦等. 2 [sing] rush of water, esp for cleaning a toilet 冲水(尤指冲马桶): Give the toilet a flush. 冲一冲马桶. 3 [C] new fresh growth, esp of plants 新的成长; (尤指)萌发. 4 (idm 习语) (in) the first/full flush of `youth, etc (in) the freshness orvigour of youth, etc; at its beginning/most fully developed stage 青春的初期[年轻力壮]; (在)初发[旺盛]阶段: the first flush of manhood 男子成年初期的精力 * In the full flush of success, nothing was an obstacle. 在成就如日中天时, 其势锐不可当.

  flush

  / flQF; flQF/ v 1 (a) [La, I] (of a person's face) become red because of a rush of blood to the skin; blush (指人的面部)变红, 发红: Mary flushed crimson with embarrassment. 玛丽羞得脸红了. (b) [Tn] (of illness, feelings, etc) cause (the face) to become red (指疾病、 情感等)使(面部)变红: Fever flushed his cheeks. 他发烧满脸通红. 2 (a) [Tn] clean (esp a toilet or drain) with a rush of water (用水)冲洗(尤指马桶或下水道): Please flush the toilet after you've used it. 便後请冲水. (b) [I] (of a toilet) be cleaned in this way (指马桶)被冲洗: The toilet won't flush properly, ie it is blocked. 马桶冲不下去了(堵塞了). 3 (phr v) flush sth away, down, through, etc dispose of sth with a rush of water 用水将某物冲掉: flush waste down a sink 把残渣从洗涤槽冲走.

  flushed

  adj ~ (with sth) very excited (by sth); filled with emotion (因某事物)非常激动的; 充满感情的: flushed with success, pride, joy, etc 因成功、 得意、 喜悦等而激动.

  flush

  / flQF; flQF/ v 1 (a) [Tn, Tn.pr] cause (birds) to fly suddenly, esp from undergrowth 使(鸟)突然飞起(尤指从矮树丛中): flush a pheasant (from cover) 惊起(躲藏著的)野鸡. (b) [I] (of birds) fly suddenly, esp from undergrowth (指鸟)突然飞起(尤指从矮树丛中). 2 (phr v) flush sb out (of sth) force sb to leave a hiding-place; drive sb out 迫使某人离开藏身处; 将某人赶出: flush out spies, criminals, snipers, etc 迫使间谍、 罪犯、 狙击手等离开藏身处.

  flush

  / flQF; flQF/ n (in card-games) set of cards held by a player, all of which belong to the same suit (纸牌戏)同花的一手牌, 清一色: She won with a royal flush, ie the five highest cards of a suit. 她以同花大顺(最大的同花顺次五张)获胜.

  flush

  / flQF; flQF/ adj ~ (with sth) 1 completely level or even with another surface (与另一个面)完全齐平的: flush fittings 装置在同一平面上的组件 * The door should be flush with the wall. 门应该与墙在同一平面上. 2 [pred 作表语] (infml 口) having a lot of sth, esp money; well supplied 很多(尤指金钱); 充裕: flush with funds 金钱充足.

  fluster

  / 5flQstE(r); `flQstL/ v [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] make (sb) nervous and confused 使(某人)慌张: Don't get flustered! 不要慌张!

  fluster

  n [sing] nervous agitated state 紧张; 焦虑: all in a fluster 心慌意乱.

  flute

  / flu:t; flut/ n wind instrument in the form of a pipe, with holes stopped by fingers or keys and a mouth-hole at the side 长笛: [attrib 作定语] a flute solo 长笛独奏. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page x.

  flutist

  / 5flu:tIst; `flutIst/ n (US) = flautist.

  flutter

  / 5flQtE(r); `flQtL/ v 1 (a) [I, Ipr] (of the wings of birds, butterflies, etc) move lightly and quickly (指鸟、 蝴蝶等的翅膀)轻而快地抖动, 拍翅: The wings of the bird still fluttered after it had been shot down. 那鸟击落後翅膀仍在抖动. (b) [Tn] move (the wings) in this way 鼓(翼); 拍(翅膀): The bird fluttered its wings in the cage. 鸟在笼中拍著翅膀. 2 (a) [I, Ipr] move about in a quick irregular way 迅速而无规则地乱动; 飘动: a flag fluttering from the mast-head 在旗杆顶上飘扬著的旗帜 * curtains fluttering in the breeze 在微风中飘动的窗帘. (b) [Tn] move (sth) in this way 使(某物)迅速而无规则地动: She fluttered her eyelashes (at me). 她(朝我)眨眼睛. 3 [I] (of the heart) beat weakly and irregularly, esp because of nervous excitement (指心脏)微弱而无规律地跳动(尤指因紧张激动所致). 4 (idm 习语) ,flutter the `dovecotes astonish, upset or alarm people who are used to a calm or conventional life 惊扰过惯平静或平凡生活的人们. 5 (phr v) flutter about, around, across, etc (a) fly in the specified direction with quick light movements of the wings 拍动翅膀飞(向某方向): The wounded bird fluttered to the ground. 那受伤的鸟拍著翅膀落到地上. * A moth was fluttering round the lamp. 有一只蛾子扑打著翅膀绕著灯飞. (b) move in the specified direction in a quick irregular way 迅速而无规则地(向某方向)运动: autumn leaves fluttering to the ground 飘摇落地的秋叶 * She fluttered nervously about, going from room to room. 她紧张不安地从这房间到那房间四处走动.

  flutter

  n 1 (usu sing 通常作单数) quick irregular movement 迅速而无规则的运动: the flutter of wings 翅膀的拍动 * with a flutter of her long dark eyelashes 她那长著又长又黑睫毛的眼睛一眨. 2 [sing] state of nervous or confused excitement 紧张; 慌乱: in a flutter 心绪不宁 * all of a flutter 突然一阵慌乱 * The arrival of the first customer caused a flutter (of activity) in the shop. 第一位顾客登门, 引起店中一阵慌乱. 3 [U] (a) dangerous vibration in part of an aircraft, esp the wings (飞行器的一部分, 尤指机翼的)危险的颤振. (b) rapid variation in the pitch or loudness of recorded sound 录音中的音高或音量的迅速变化. Cf 参看 wow2. 4 [C] (Brit infml 口) ~ (on sth) small bet or gamble 小赌; 小赌注: have a flutter (on a horse) at the races 在赛马中(在一匹马上)下小赌注.

  fluvial

  / 5flu:vIEl; `fluvIEl/ adj of or found in rivers 河流的; 河中的: fluvial deposits of mud 河中的淤泥.

  flux

  / flQks; flQks/ n 1 [U] continuous change or succession of changes; unsettled state 连续的改变; 接连不断的变化; 不稳定的状态: Organization of the company was then in a state of flux. 当时公司的编制正处於不稳定状态. 2 [sing] ~ (of sth) (rate of) flow or flowing (out); discharge 流(量); 流动(量); 流出(量): a flux of neutrons 中子通量 * magnetic flux 磁通量. 3 [C, U] substance used to help metals fuse together 焊剂; 助熔剂.

  fly

  / flaI; flaI/ n 1 type of insect with two wings, esp the house-fly 苍蝇; (尤指)家蝇. 2 (usu in compounds 通常用以构成复合词) any of several types of flying insect (会飞的)昆虫: `dragonfly * `butterfly * `tsetse-fly. 3 natural or artificial fly used as bait in fishing (用作钓饵的真的或假的)苍蝇. 4 (idm 习语) die/fall/drop like `flies die or collapse in very large numbers 大批地死亡或倒下: Men were dropping like flies in the intense heat. 人们抵受不住酷热而纷纷倒下. a/the `fly in the ointment person or thing that spoils an otherwise satisfactory situation or occasion 扫兴的人或事物. a `fly on the wall hidden or unnoticed observer 隐蔽的或不引人注意的观察者: I wish I could be a fly on the wall when they discuss my future. 在他们讨论我的前途时, 我恨不得能偷偷旁观. (there are) no flies on sb (infml 口) sb is clever and not easily tricked 某人很机灵, 不易上当. not harm/hurt a `fly be kind and gentle and unwilling to cause unhappiness 心地善良、 文质彬彬、 不愿引起不愉快: Our dog may look fierce but he wouldn't hurt a fly. 我们的狗别看样子凶, 其实很温顺.

  fly-blown

  adj 1 (of meat, etc) bad or unfit to eat, because contaminated by flies' eggs (指肉等)(因有蝇卵)腐败的, 不宜食用的. 2 (fig 比喻) in a bad condition; dirty or spoiled 破烂的; 肮脏的; 损坏的.

  flycatcher

  n type of bird that catches insects in the air 翔食雀.

  fly-fish

  v [I] fish using artificial flies as bait 以假蝇作饵钓鱼.

  fly-fishing

  n [U].

  fly-paper

  n [U, C] strip of sticky paper for catching flies 粘蝇纸.

  fly-spray

  n poisonous liquid sprayed from a container to kill flies 灭蝇喷雾剂.

  flyweight

  n 1 boxer of the lightest class, weighing between 48 and 51 kg 特轻量级拳击手(体重在48至51公斤者). 2 wrestler weighing between 48 and 51 kg 最 轻量级摔交选手(体重在48至51公斤者).

  fly

  / flaI; flaI/ v (pt flew / flu:; flu/, pp flown / flEUn; flon/) 1 [I, Ipr, Ip] (of a bird or an insect) move through the air, using wings (指鸟或昆虫)飞, 飞翔: watch the birds learn to fly 看鸟学飞 * A large bird flew past us. 一只大鸟从我们这儿飞过. 2 [I, Ipr, Ip] (a) (of an aircraft or a spacecraft) move through air or space (指飞行器)飞行, 航行: I can hear a plane flying overhead. 我听到一架飞机正从上空飞过. (b) travel in an aircraft or a spacecraft 乘飞行器: I'm flying (out) to Hong Kong tomorrow. 明天我要乘飞机去香港. =>Usage at travel 用法见travel. 3 (a) [Tn] direct or control the flight of (an aircraft, etc) 驾驶或操纵(飞行器等): Only experienced pilots fly large passenger aircraft. 只有有经验的飞行员才能驾驶大型客机. (b) [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] transport (goods or passengers) in an aircraft 用飞行器运送(货物或旅客): Five thousand people were flown to Paris during the Easter weekend. 在复活节的周末有五千人乘飞机去巴黎. * He had flowers specially flown in forthe ceremony. 他特地为这一典礼空运来了鲜花. (c) [Tn]travel over (an ocean or area of land) in an aircraft 乘飞行器飞越(海洋或陆地): fly the Atlantic 飞越大西洋. 4 (a) [I, Ipr, Ip] go or move quickly; rush along 疾行; 快速地动; 急速前进: The children flew to meet their mother. 孩子们飞跑过去迎接妈妈. * It's late I must fly. 太晚了--我得赶快走. * The train flew by. 列车飞驰而过. * The dog flew down the road after the cat. 狗在马路上飞跑著追赶猫. (b) [La, Ipr, Ip] move suddenly and with force 猛然移动: A large stone came flying through the window. 从窗外扔进来一块大石头. * David gave the door a kick and it flew open. 大卫一脚向门踹去, 那门猛地开了. (c) [I, Ip] (of time) pass very quickly (指时间)飞逝: Doesn't time fly? 时间过得真快呀! * Summer has just flown (by). 夏天一晃就过去了. 5 (a) [Tn] make (a kite) rise and stay high in the air 放(风筝). (b) [Tn] raise (a flag) so that it waves in the air 升(旗): fly the Union Jack 升起英国国旗. (c) [Ipr, Ip] move about freely; be carried about in the air 自由地移动; 在空中飘动: Her hair was flying about (in the wind). 她的头发随风飘动. 6 [I, Tn] (rhet 修辞) flee from (sb/sth) 从(某人[某物])之处逃走: The robbers have flown (the country). 抢劫犯逃到国外去了. 7 (idm 习语) as the crow flies => crow1. the bird has flown => bird. fly/show/wave the flag => flag1. fly `high be ambitious 胸怀大志. fly in the face of sth be contrary to sth; oppose sth 与某事物相悖; 反对某事物: His version of events flies in the face of all the evidence. 他对事件的说法与所有证据都不相符. fly into a `passion, `rage, `temper, etc become suddenly very angry 勃然大怒. fly a kite (Brit infml 口) do or say sth in order to see how people will react, express their opinions, etc 试探舆论. (go) fly a/one's kite (US infml 口) (esp imperative 尤用於祈使句) go away and stop interfering or annoying sb 走开, 不再打扰某人. fly/go off at a tangent => tangent. fly off the `handle (infml 口) become wildly angry 狂怒. fly/go out of the window => window. keep the flag flying => flag1. let fly (at sb/sth) (with sth) (a) shoot or throw sth (at sb/sth) violently (向某人[某物])猛烈射击, 猛掷某物: He aimed carefully and then let fly, ie fired. 他仔细瞄准之後便开了枪. (b) reproach or criticize (sb) angrily 愤怒地责备或批评(某人): Furious at his deceit, she let fly at him with a stream of abuse. 他欺骗人, 气得她把他大骂了一顿. make the `fur/`sparks fly cause quarrelling or fighting 引起争吵或打斗: The promotion of Russell instead of Sarah really made the sparks fly. 因为提升了拉塞尔没提升萨拉, 这件事竟惹起了轩然大波. pigs might fly => pig. send sb/sth flying => send. send things flying => send. 8 (phr v) fly at sb rush to attack sb 冲上去攻击某人.

  fly-away

  / 5flaIEweI; `flaI E9we/ adj 1 (esp of hair) loose and wispy; difficult to control (尤指毛发)松散而纤细的, 难以梳理的. 2 (fig 比喻) not sensible; frivolous or flighty 不合情理的; 轻率的; 轻浮的.

  fly-by

  / 5flaIbaI; `flaI 9baI/ n (pl `fly-bys) flight, esp by a spacecraft, past a point or target 经某点或某目标的飞行(尤指宇宙飞行器): a fly-by of Jupiter 经过木星的飞行.

  fly-by-night

  / 5flaIbaInaIt; `flaI baI 9naIt/ n (pl fly-by-nights) person who evades financial responsibility, esp debts, by (secretly) leaving; unreliable person 为躲债(偷偷)离去的人; 不可靠的人. adj unreliable or dishonest, esp in financial and business matters 不可靠的; 不诚实的(尤指在财务及商业事务上): a fly-by-night company 无信誉的公司.

  fly-half

  n (pl fly-halves) = stand-off half (stand).

  fly-past

  / -pB:st; ?@ -pst; -9pAst/ n (Brit) (US `flyover) ceremonial flight of aircraft, usu at low altitude, as part of a military display (阅兵式的)飞机编队飞行(通常为低空飞行).

  fly

  / flaI; flaI/ n 1 [C esp pl 尤作复数] (piece of material on a garment that contains or covers a) zip or buttoned opening, eg down the front of a pair of trousers 服装上盖住拉锁或钮扣的遮盖; 有拉锁或钮扣的开口(如裤子前面的): John, your flies are/fly is undone! 约翰, 你的拉锁开了! 2 [C] flap of material, eg canvas, at the entrance to a tent 帐篷的门帘(如帆布制的).

  fly

  / flaI; flaI/ adj (infml 口 esp Brit) not easily deceived; clever and sly 不易上当的; 机灵的; 精明的: He's a very fly character. 他是个很精明的人.

  flyer

  = flier.

  flying

  / 5flaIIN; `flaIIN/ adj moving by flight; able to fly 飞行的; 会飞的: flying insects 会飞的昆虫.

  flying

  n [U] going in an aircraft for travel or sport 乘坐飞行器(旅行或运动): I'm terrified of flying I'd rather go by sea. 我害怕坐飞机--我宁愿坐船.

  flying buttress

  (architecture 建) arched structure that supports the outside wall of a large building, esp a church 拱扶垛. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page viii.

  flying colours

  1 flags on display as a sign of victory or during a ceremony (象徵胜利的或用於庆典的)旗帜. 2 (idm 习语) with flying colours with great and obvious success 大获全胜地: She came through/passed her exams with flying colours. 她考试成绩优异.

  flying column

  troops able to move rapidly and act independently 快速突击部队; 别动队.

  flying doctor

  (esp in Australia) doctor who travels in an aircraft to visit patients who live in distant or isolated places (尤指澳大利亚的)飞行医生(乘飞机到偏远地区出诊的).

  flying fish

  type of tropical fish that can rise and move forward above the surface of the water using its wing-like fins 飞鱼.

  flying fox

  type of large fruit-eating bat 狐蝠; 果蝠.

  flying jump (also flying leap)

  forward jump/leap made while running quickly 助跑起跳.

  flying officer

  officer in the Royal Air Force between the ranks of pilot officer and flight lieutenant (英国皇家)空军中尉. =>App 9 见附录9.

  flying picket

  worker or group of workers on strike who are ready to travel quickly to different factories, etc to persuade other workers to join the strike 串联纠察员(可迅速到各工厂等动员一道罢工的工人).

  flying saucer (also unidentified flying object)

  spacecraft, shaped like a saucer or disc, that some people claim to have seen and that is believed to have come from another planet 飞碟; 不明飞行物.

  flying squad

  group of police officers who are always ready to move quickly, eg when a crime has occurred 机动警察队.

  flying start

  1 start to a race in which the competitors are already running as they cross the starting line 行进间起跑(跑著通过起跑线). 2 (idm 习语) get off to a flying start begin sth well; have an initial advantage 开端很好; 一开始就占优势: Our holiday got off to a flying start because the weather was good and the trains were on time. 我们度假一开始就大吉大利, 天气很好, 火车也都准点.

  flying tackle

  (in Rugby football, etc) tackle made while running or jumping (在橄榄球等运动中)凌空抢球.

  flying visit

  very brief or hasty visit 短暂或匆忙的访问.

  flyleaf

  / 5flaIli:f; `flaI9lif/ n (pl -leaves / -li:vz; -9livz/) blank page at the beginning or end of a book (书刊前或後的)空白页.

  flyover

  / 5flaIEUvE(r); `flaI9ovL/ n 1 (Brit) (US overpass) bridge which carries one road or railway above another 立交桥. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page xiii. 2 (US) = fly-past (fly2).

  flysheet

  / 5flaIFi:t; `flaI9Fit/ n 1 additional outer cover for a tent to give protection from rain (盖在帐篷外面的)防雨布. 2 small pamphlet of two or four pages (两页或四页的)小册子.

  flywheel

  / 5flaIwi:l; ?@ -hwi:l; `flaI9hwil/ n heavy wheel revolving on a shaft to keep a machine operating at an even speed 飞轮; 惯性轮.

  FM

  abbr 缩写 = 1 Field Marshal. 2/ 9ef 5em; 9Zf `Zm/ (radio 无) frequency modulation. Cf 参看 AM 1.

  fm

  abbr 缩写 = fathom(s).

  FO

  / 9ef 5EU; 9Zf `o/ abbr 缩写 = (Brit) (formerly 旧时) Foreign Office 外交部: He used to work at the FO. 他过去在外交部工作. Cf 参看 FCO.

  focsle

  = forecastle.

  foal

  / fEUl; fol/ n 1 young of a horse or of a related animal, eg a donkey 驹子(如驴驹). 2 (idm 习语) in/with foal (of a female horse, etc) pregnant (指母马等)怀驹.

  foal

  v [I] give birth to a foal 产驹.

  foam

  / fEUm; fom/ n [U] 1 (a) mass of small, usu white, air bubbles formed in or on a liquid 泡沫: The breaking waves left the beach covered with foam. 浪花弄得海滩都是泡沫. (b) frothy bubbles of saliva or perspiration 唾沫; 汗珠. 2 any of various chemical substances forming a thick bubbly mass and used for different purposes (化学物质的)厚层泡沫: `shaving foam 剃须泡沫膏. 3 rubber or plastic in a spongy form, used to fill seats, cushions, etc 泡沫橡胶; 泡沫塑料: [attrib 作定语],foam `rubber 泡沫橡胶.

  foam

  v [I, Ipr] form or send out foam; froth 起泡沫; 发出泡沫: a glass of foaming beer 一杯起泡沫的啤酒 * The sick dog foamed at the mouth. 那只病狗口吐白沫. * (fig 比喻) After having to wait an hour the customer was foaming (at the mouth) with rage, ie obviously very angry. 那顾客等了一小时後气得七窍生烟.

  foamy

  adj full of or like foam 多泡沫的; 似泡沫的.

  fob

  / fCb; fBb/ n 1 chain or ribbon to which a pocket-watch is attached (怀表的)链或带. 2 ornament, esp a watch, hung from such a chain 怀表链上的饰物(尤指表). 3 ornament attached to a key-ring 钥匙环上的饰物.

  fob

  / fCb; fBb/ v (-bb-) (phr v) fob sb off (with sth) trick sb into being satisfied (with sth inferior, an excuse, etc) (用低劣的东西、 用藉口等)哄骗或搪塞某人: I won't be fobbed off this time I'm determined to say what I think. 这次我可不上当了--我一定要把想法说出来. * You can't fob an expert off with cheap imitations. 用廉价的仿制品骗不了行家. fob sth off on/onto sb trick or deceive sb into buying or accepting sth inferior 哄骗某人购买或接受低劣的东西: Don't try fobbing off last year's goods on me! 别想拿去年的陈货来骗我!

  fob

  / 9ef EU 5bi:; 9Zf o `bi/ abbr 缩写 = (commerce 商) (of cargo) free on board (ie transported to the ship and loaded without the buyer paying extra) (指货物)船上交货价, 离岸价格.

  focal

  / 5fEUkl; `fokl/ adj [attrib 作定语] of or at a focus 焦点的; 在焦点上的.

  focal length (also focal distance)

  distance between the centre of a mirror or a lens and its focus 焦距.

  focal point

  something that is the centre of interest oractivity 感兴趣的或活动的中心: Reducing unemploymentis the focal point of the government's plans. 减少失业人数是政府计画的重点.

  focus

  / 5fEUkEs; `fokEs/ n (pl ~es or foci / 5fEUsaI;`fosaI/) =>Usage at data 用法见data. 1 [C] point at which rays (of light, sound, etc) meet or from which they appear to come (光、 声等的)中心点, 源. 2 [C] point or distance at which (the outline of) an object is most clearly seen by the eye or through a lens 焦点; 焦距. 3 [C] adjustment or device on a lens to produce a clear image 聚焦; 调焦; 聚焦或调焦的装置: The focus on my camera isn't working properly. 我的照相机上的调焦装置有毛病. 4 [C usu sing 通常作单数] centre of activity, interest, etc 活动的中心; 使人感兴趣的所在: Her beauty makes her the focus of attention. 她长得漂亮, 很惹人注目. * In tonight's programme our focus is on Germany. 在今天晚上的节目中我们重点介绍德国. 5 (idm 习语) be in `focus; bring sth/come into focus (cause sth to) be or become clearly seen or sharply defined (使某事物)清晰、 明确或在焦点上: Bring the object into focus if you want a sharp photograph. 要照出清晰的照片, 就要把焦点对准物体. be/go out of `focus not be or no longer be clearly seen, etc 模糊、 不清楚或不在焦点上: The children's faces were badly out of focus (ie were very blurred) in the photograph. 照片上孩子们的面部非常模糊.

  focus

  v (-s- or -ss-) 1 (a) [I] become able to see clearly 能够看清楚: His eyes focused slowly in the dark room. 他在那间黑屋子里眼睛慢慢地看清了东西. (b)[Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (on sth) cause sth to be concentrated(at a point) 使某事物集中(於一点): If you focus the sun's rays through a magnifying glass on a dry leaf, it will start to burn. 用放大镜把阳光聚到乾叶子上, 叶子就能燃烧. (c) [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (on sth) adjust the focus(2) of (a lens or the eye) 调整(透镜或眼睛)的焦点或焦距: Focus your camera (on those trees). 把照相机的焦距调准(把焦点集中在树上). 2 (a) [I, Ipr] ~ (on sth) concentrate (on sth) 集中(於某事物): I'm so tired I can't focus (on anything) today. 今天我太累了, 精神集中不起来. (b) [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (on sth) concentrate (one's attention, etc) on (sth) 将(注意力等)集中於(某事物): Please focus your minds on the following problem. 请集中考虑以下问题.

  fodder

  / 5fCdE(r); `fBdL/ n [U] dried food, hay, etc forhorses and farm animals (马及其他牲畜的)饲料, 草料, 秣.

  foe

  / fEU; fo/ n (fml or dated 文或旧) enemy 敌人.

  foetus (US fetus)

  / 5fi:tEs; `fitEs/ n young human, animal, bird, etc that has developed within the womb or egg but has not yet been born or hatched 胎儿; 胚胎. Cf 参看 embryo 1.

  foetal (US fetal)

  / 5fi:tl; `fitl/ adj of or like a foetus (似)胚胎的: She curled up her legs and arms into a foetal position, ie like that of a foetus in the womb. 她像胎儿一样蜷曲起四肢.

  fog

  / fCg; ?@ fR:g; fR^/ n 1 (a) [U] thick cloud of tiny drops of water close to or just above land or sea; thick mist 雾: Dense fog is covering roads in the north and visibility is very poor. 浓雾笼罩了北部的公路, 能见度很低. * Patches of fog will clear by mid-morning. 早晨一过局部地区的雾气就能消散. (b) [C] instance or period of this 雾; 有雾时: We get heavy fogs on this coast in winter. 这里的海边冬季有浓雾. =>Usage 见所附用法. 2 [C, U] (area of) cloudiness on a photographic negative, etc, making the image unclear (摄影底片等上的)灰雾. 3 (idm 习语) in a fog puzzled and confused 困惑; 迷惑: I'm in a complete fog about computer technology I don't understand it at all. 我对计算机技术如堕五里雾中--完全不懂.

  fog

  v (-gg-) 1 [I, Ip, Tn, Tn.p] cover (sth) or become covered with fog 雾气笼罩(某物); 有雾气: The windscreen has fogged (over/up). 挡风玻璃让雾气遮住了. * Steam has fogged the bathroom mirror. 水蒸气把浴室里的镜子遮住了. 2 (a) [Tn] cause cloudiness on (a photographic negative, etc) 使(摄影底片等上)产生灰雾: Shut the door or the light will fog the film. 把门关上, 不然亮光能使底片发灰. (b) [I] (of a photographic negative, etc) become cloudy (指摄影底片等)变灰.3 [Tn] puzzle or confuse (sb) 使(某人)迷惑或困惑:I'm a bit fogged by these instructions. 这些说明把我搞得有些糊涂了. 4 [Tn] obscure or confuse (sth being discussed) 使(正在讨论的事物)变模糊或混淆不清: complicated language that just fogs the real issues 把实质问题弄得模糊不清的复杂的语言.

  foggy

  adj (-ier, -iest) 1 not clear because of fog; very misty 有雾的; 雾气蒙蒙的: foggy weather 有雾的天气 * a foggy day 雾天. 2 obscure; confused; vague 模糊的; 混乱的; 朦胧的: His ideas on this subject are a bit foggy. 他对这个问题的看法有些模糊. 3 (idm 习语) not have the faintest/foggiest => tfaint1.

  fog-bank

  n mass of dense fog on the sea 平流雾(海面上的浓雾); 雾堤.

  fog-bound

  adj unable to travel or operate normally because of fog; trapped by fog 因雾而不能正常行进或运行的; 被雾困住的: fog-bound planes, passengers 因雾停飞的飞机、 因雾滞留的旅客 * a fog-bound airport, harbour 因雾而关闭的机场、 港口.

  fog-horn

  n instrument that makes a loud blaring noise to warn ships of danger when it is foggy 雾角; 雾号; 雾笛: (joc or derog 谑或贬) He's got a voice like a fog-horn, ie a loud, harsh voice. 他的嗓音像雾角(大而刺耳).

  fog-lamp

  n powerful light on the front of a car, etc for use in fog 雾灯(汽车等在雾天使用的前部强光灯).

  fog

  NOTE ON USAGE 用法: Fog, mist and haze are all clouds of water vapour at ground level and above. *fog、 mist、 haze均为地面及地面以上的水蒸气. They indicate different degrees of thickness 这几个词表示的浓度有所不同: fog is the thickest and haze the least thick. *fog最浓, haze最薄. Haze also occurs when it is very hot *haze在天气炎热时也会出现: a heat-haze 热天的薄雾. Smog is an unhealthy mixture of smoke and fog in the air of some industrial cities. *smog是在一些工业城市的空气中烟与雾的混合物, 是有害於健康的.

  fogy (also fogey)

  / 5fEUgI; `fo^I/ n (pl -ies or ~s) person with old-fashioned ideas which he is unwilling to change 老顽固: Come to the disco and stop being such an old fogey! 来参加迪斯科舞会吧! 别再当老顽固了!

  foible

  / 5fRIbl; `fRIbl/ n small, usu harmless, peculiarity or weakness in a person's character (性格上的)小缺点, 怪癖(通常为无伤大雅的): We all have our little foibles. 我们人人都有些小缺点.

  foil

  / fRIl; fRIl/ n 1 [U] metal rolled or hammered into a very thin flexible sheet 箔: tin, aluminium foil, ie such as is wrapped round bars of chocolate 锡纸、 铝箔(如包装巧克力的). 2 [C] person or thing that contrasts with, and so emphasizes, the qualities of another 陪衬; 衬托: Her sparkling jewellery served as the perfect foil for her fine complexion. 她戴著闪闪生辉的首饰, 更显得容貌姣好.

  foil

  / fRIl; fRIl/ v [Tn] prevent (sb) from carrying out a plan; prevent (a plan, etc) from succeeding; thwart; frustrate 阻止(某人)执行计画; 阻挠(计画等); 挫败: He was foiled in his attempt to deceive us/His attempt to deceive us was foiled. 他企图欺骗我们, 但没有得逞.

  foil

  / fRIl; fRIl/ n long thin light sword with a protective button on the point, used in fencing (fence2) (击剑运动的)钝头剑. =>illus at fencing (fence) 见fencing插图. Cf 参看 epee, sabre.

  foist

  / fRIst; fRIst/ v (phr v) foist sth on sb force sb into accepting sth not wanted 迫使某人接受不想要的事物: He's religious but he doesn't try to foist his beliefs on everyone. 他是教徒, 但他不想把自己的信仰强加於人.

  fold

  / fEUld; fold/ v 1 (a) [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] ~ sth (up) bend or turn sth so that one part of it lies on another; close or flatten sth by pressing two parts of it together 摺叠; 摺叠收拢: fold clothes (up) neatly 把衣服叠整齐 * a folded newspaper 摺叠起来的报纸 * The bird folded its wings. 那鸟收起了翅膀. * Fold the letter (in two) before putting it in the envelope. 把信(对)摺起来再装入信封. (b) [I, Ip] ~ (up) be able to be bent for storage, easy carrying, etc 能够摺叠(以便储存、 携带等): This garden table folds (up) flat. 这张庭园茶点桌可以摺叠成平的. * a folding chair, bed, bicycle, etc 能摺叠的椅子、 床、 自行车等. =>illus 见插图. 2 [Tn.pr] ~ A in B/~ B around A cover or wrap sth in sth 将某物用另物遮住或包住: Fold this glass bowl in newspaper/Fold newspaper round this glass bowl. 把这个玻璃盆用报纸包好. 3 [I, Ip] ~ (up) (infml 口) (a) cease to function; stop trading 停止运行; 停业: The company folded (up) last week. 那家公司上星期倒闭了. (b) cease to be performed 停止上演: The play folded within a fortnight. 那话剧演了两个星期就停演了. 4 (idm 习语) fold one's `arms bring one's arms together and cross them over one's chest 双臂在胸前合抱. fold sb/sth in one's arms hold sb/sth closely 抱住某人[某物]: Father folded the tiny child in his arms. 父亲把小孩儿抱在怀里. fold one's `hands bring or clasp one's hands together, eg when praying 十指交叉合掌(如祈祷时). 5 (phr v) fold (sth) away (cause sth to) become more compact for storage by folding (使某物)摺叠收拢(以便存放): The bed folds away (into the wall). 那张床可以摺叠收拢(到墙里面去). fold sth in; fold sth into sth (in cooking) mix one ingredient gently with another, usu with a spoon (烹饪)轻轻搅拌(通常用勺): Fold in the beaten whites of two eggs. 加进两个打散的蛋清後搅匀. fold up collapse because of pain or great laughter (因痛苦或大笑)倒下: The boxer folded up in agony. 那拳击手痛苦地倒下了. * The comedian had the audience folding up. 那个喜剧演员逗得观众笑得前仰後合.

  fold

  n 1 part of sth, esp fabric, that is folded or hangs as if folded 摺叠的部分; (尤指)褶: a dress hanging in loose folds 有宽松褶的连衣裙. 2 mark or line made by folding; crease 摺痕; 摺线. 3 hollow among hills or mountains 山坳; 山谷; 山窝. 4 (geology 地质) bend in the line of rocks below the earth's surface that has been caused by movements in the earth's crust 褶皱.

  foldaway

  adj that can be folded up or away for storage; collapsible 可摺叠的: a foldaway bed 摺叠床.

  fold

  / fEUld; fold/ n 1 [C] area in a field surrounded by a fence or wall where sheep are kept for safety 羊栏. 2 the fold [sing] group of people with the same (usu religious) beliefs 具有同一信仰(通常为宗教信仰)的人们. 3 (idm 习语) return to the fold => return1.

  -fold

  suff 後缀 (with numbers forming adjs and advs 与数字结合构成形容词及副词) multiplied by; having the specified number of parts ...倍; 有...部分: tenfold * twofold.

  folder

  / 5fEUldE(r); `foldL/ n cover for holding loose papers, etc, made of stiff material, esp cardboard, folded together 文件夹; 纸夹.

  foliage

  / 5fEUlIIdV; `folIIdV/ n [U] (all the) leaves of a tree or plant; leaves with their stems and branches 植物的叶子(总称); 叶子及梗和枝: a mass of green foliage 茂密的绿叶 * My flower arrangement needs more foliage. 我的插花作品还得多要些枝叶.

  folio

  / 5fEUlIEU; `folI9o/ n (pl ~s) 1 (a) [C] large sheet of paper folded once, making two leaves or four pages of a book 对摺纸; 对开纸. (b) [C] book made of sheets folded in this way 对开本的书: We have several early folios for sale. 我们有几本早期的对开本书出售. (c) [U] largest size and format for a book 书的最大开本: drawings published in folio 以对开纸出版的画 * [attrib 作定语] a folio volume 一册对开本的书. 2 [C] (a) sheet of paper numbered on one side only 只在一面有页码的纸. (b) page number of a book 书的页码.

  folk

  / fEUk; fok/ n 1 (also esp US folks) [pl v] (a) people in general 人们: Some old folk(s) have peculiar tastes. 有些老人有特殊的爱好. * (sometimes used when talking to people in a friendly way 有时用於对人亲切谈话中) Well, folks, what are we going to do today? 喂, 各位, 今天咱们干什麽? (b) people from a particular (part of a) country, or associated with a particular way of life 某一国家(的地区)的人们; 与某种生活方式有关的人们: country folk 乡下人 * townsfolk 城里人 * farming folk 从事农业劳动的人. 2 folks [pl] (infml 口) (a) members of one's own family; relatives 家属; 亲戚: How are your folks? 你家里人好吗? (b) (esp US) parents 父母: Have you ever met my folks? 你见过我父母吗? 3 [attrib 作定语] = folk-music: a folk concert 民间音乐会.

  folk-dance

  n (music for a) traditional dance of a community or country 民间舞(曲); 土风舞(曲).

  folklore

  n [U] (study of the) traditions, stories, customs, etc of a community 民间传统; 民间故事; 民俗; 民俗学.

  folklorist

  / 5fEUklR:rIst; `fok9lRrIst/ n person who studies folklore, esp as an academic subject 民俗学研究者.

  folk-music (also folk), folk-song

  ns music or song in the traditional style of a country 民间音乐; 民谣; 民歌.

  folk-tale

  n popular story passed on in spoken form from one generation to the next 民间故事; 民间传说.

  folksy

  / 5fEUksI; `foksI/ adj (infml 口) simple in manners and customs; friendly and sociable; typical of ordinary people 朴实的; 亲切热情的; 平凡的.

  foll

  abbr 缩写 = following.

  follow

  / 5fClEU; `fBlo/ v 1 (a) [I, Ip, Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (by/with sth) (cause sth to) come, go or take place after (sb/sth else) (in space, time or order) (使某事物)(在空间、 时间或顺序上)在(他人[他事物])之後, 来、 去或发生; 跟随; 跟著: The duckling followed its mother everywhere. 小鸭子跟著鸭妈妈到处走. * You go first and I'll follow (on) later. 你先走, 我随後就到. * Monday follows Sunday. 星期一在星期日之後. * One misfortune followed another. 不幸的事情一件接著一件. * The lightning was quickly followed by/with heavy thunder.闪电过後紧接著是响雷. * You should follow your treatment with plenty of rest in bed. 你应该在治疗之後好好卧床休息. (b) [Tn] go after (sb) in order to catch him; chase 追捕(某人); 追逐: The police were following him. 警察正在追捕他. 2 [Tn] go along (a road, path, etc) 沿著(道路等)而行: Follow this road until you get to the corner, then turn left. 沿著这条路走到拐角处, 然後向左转. 3 [Tn] (a) act according to (sth) 按照(某事物)去做; 听从; 采用: follow the instructions 按指示办事 * follow sb's advice 听从某人的劝告. (b) accept (sb/sth) as a guide, leader or example; copy 把(某人[某事物])当作指导、 领导、 榜样; 仿效: follow the latest fashions 赶时髦 * follow the teachings of Muhammad 遵照穆罕默德的教诲. 4 [Tn] carry on (sth) as one's particular job or trade; pursue 经营(某事物); 从事: follow a legalcareer 从事法律工作. 5 [I, Tn] understand (the explanation or meaning of sth); understand (the plot of a story) 明白(对某事物的解释或意思); 明白(故事的情节): I don't follow. 我不明白. * I couldn't follow his argument at all. 我根本不明白他的论点. 6 [Tn] pay close attention to (sth); watch or listen very closely 密切注意(某事物); 注视; 倾听: The President's wife follows his every word. 总统夫人总是注意听他说的话. * The cat followed the mouse's movements carefully. 那只猫紧盯著老鼠的动向. 7 [Tn] take an active interest in (sth) 对(某事物)产生浓厚的兴趣: Have you been following the basketball tournament? 你一直都在看篮球锦标赛吗? * Millions of fans follow the TV soap operas devotedly. 千百万观众非常著迷地收看这部电视连续剧. 8 [Tn] read (a text) while listening to the same text being spoken by sb else; read (a musical score) while listening to the music being performed 边听别人朗读边跟著阅读(文字); 边听正在演奏的乐曲边跟著读(乐谱): Follow the text while I read it out to you. 看著课文, 听我给你朗读. 9 (a) [I, Ipr, Ip, Tn] ~ (on) (from sth) result from sth; happen as a consequence 由某事物引起; 随之发生: Inevitably, a quarrel followed between the two sides. 双方随後不可避免地争吵起来. * Disease often follows (on from) starvation because the body is weakened. 疾病的产生往往是由於饥饿的缘故, 这是因身体虚弱所致. (b) [I, Ipr] ~ (from sth) happen as a necessary and logical consequence 必然发生: I don't see how that follows (from what you've said). (从你的话来看), 我不明白怎麽会产生这样的结果. * If a = b and b = c it follows that a = c. 设a = b, b = c, 则a = c. * She's not in the office but it doesn't necessarily follow that she's ill. 她不在办公室, 并不见得就是病了. 10 [Tn] develop or happen in (a particular way) 按(某一方式)发展或发生: His speech followed the usual pattern. 他按照通常的方式讲话. 11 (idm 习语) as follows (used to introduce a list) 用以列举事项: The main events were as follows: first, the president's speech, secondly the secretary's reply and thirdly, the chairman's summing-up. 主要活动如下: 第一项, 总裁讲话; 第二项, 秘书做解答; 第三项, 主席做总结. follow one's (own) `bent do what one is interested in and enjoys doing 做自己感兴趣的事; 随心所欲. follow the `crowd be content to do what most people do 随大溜: Not wanting to make my controversial views known yet, I preferred to follow the crowd for a while. 我还不想公开我那些会引起争论的观点, 宁可暂且随大溜. follow sb's example/lead do as sb else has done; accept and follow sb else's decision 仿效他人的做法[按照他人的决定行事]: I don't want you to follow my example and rush into marriage. 我不希望你效法我,也仓促结婚. follow (the) hounds hunt foxes with a pack of hounds 带著一群猎犬去猎狐. follow in sb's`footsteps do as sb else does; follow a similar occupation or life-style as sb else 效法他人; 从事与他人同样的职业或采取相同的生活方式: She works in theatre, following in her father's footsteps. 她继承父业, 也从事戏剧工作. follow one's (own) `nose (a) go straight forward 一直往前走: The police station is a mile ahead up the hill just follow your nose. 警察局在前面一英里处的山坡上--一直往前走就行了. (b) act instinctively凭本能或直觉行事; 凭直觉行事: Since you don't know the language I can only suggest that you follow your nose. 你既然不会这门语言, 我只能建议你见机行事. follow `suit act or behave in the way that sb else has just done 照别人的方式去做; 学样: One of the major banks has lowered its interest rates and the other banks are expected to follow suit. 有一家大银行已降低了利率, 其他银行也准会照样做的. to follow (in a restaurant, etc) as the next course of a meal (在餐馆等)作为下一道菜: To follow, we'll have peaches and cream, please. 下一道, 请来个奶油蜜桃. 12 (phr v) follow on (of a side in cricket) bat again immediately after failing to get the necessary number of runs in the first innings (板球的一方)在第一局中得分不足後立即继续击球. follow through (in tennis, golf, etc) complete a stroke by continuing to move the racket, club, etc after hitting the ball (网球、 高尔夫球等)击球後使球拍、 球棒等完成顺势动作. follow sth through carry out or continue sth to the end; complete sth 将某事物进行到底; 完成某事物: Starting projects is one thing, following them through is another. 著手进行某项目是一回事, 而将之进行到底则是另一回事. follow sth up (a) take further action on sth; develop or exploit sth 对某事物采取进一步行动; 发展或利用某事物: You should follow up your letter with a phone call. 你应该写完信以後再跟著打个电话. (b) investigate sth closely 深入调查某事物: follow up a lead, clue, rumour 顺著头绪、 线索、 谣传进行调查.

  follower

  n person who follows; supporter of a particular person, cause or belief 追随者; 拥护者; 信徒: He's a follower, not a leader. 他是追随者, 不是领导者. * the followers of Mahatma Gandhi 圣雄甘地的拥护者.

  follow-on

  n (in cricket) second innings of a team immediately following its first innings (板球中)一队於第一局结束後紧接著举行的第二局.

  follow-through

  n (in tennis, golf, etc) final part of a stroke after the ball has been hit (网球、 高尔夫球等)击球後的顺势动作.

  follow-up

  n something done to continue or exploit what has already been started or done (对已开始或已完成的事物所做的)後续工作: As a follow-up to the television series the BBC is publishing a book. 英国广播公司在播放那部电视连续剧以後, 即将出版一部有关的书.

  following

  / 5fClEUIN; `fBloIN/ adj 1 next in time 接著的: It rained on the day we arrived, but the following day was sunny. 我们到达的那天正下雨, 但次日天气晴朗. 2 about to be mentioned 下述的: Answer the following question(s). 回答下列问题.

  following

  n 1 [sing] group of supporters 一批支持者或拥护者: Our party has a large following in the south. 我党在南方有一大批拥护者. 2 the following [sing or pl v] what follows or comes next 下列; 如下: The following is of the greatest importance. 下面一点最为重要. * The following are extracts from the original article. 下面是原文的节选.

  following

  prep after (sth); as a result of 在(某事物)之後; 由於: demonstrations following the murder of the union leader 继工会领袖遭谋杀後引发的示威游行.

  folly

  / 5fClI; `fBlI/ n 1 [U] ~ (to do sth) foolishness; lack of wisdom 愚蠢; 愚笨: an act of folly 愚蠢之举 * It's utter folly to go swimming in this cold weather. 这麽冷的天气还去游泳, 真是蠢透了. 2 [C] foolish or unwise act, idea or practice 愚蠢的行为、 思想或做法: You'll pay later for your follies. 你以後要为你的愚蠢行动付出 代价的. 3 [C] very expensive ornamental building that serves no practical purpose 华而不实的建筑.

  foment

  / fEU5ment; fo`mZnt/ v [Tn] 1 arouse or increase (trouble or discontent) 引起或增加(麻烦或不满): foment discord, ill feeling, civil disorder, etc 引起不和、 恶感、 内乱等. 2 apply warmth and moisture to (a part of the body) to lessen pain or discomfort 热敷, 热罨(身体某部).

  fomentation

  / 9fEUmen5teIFn; 9fomZn`teFEn/ n 1 [U] act of fomenting 热敷. 2 [C] thing used for fomenting 热敷物; 热罨剂.

  au fond

  / 9EU 5fCn; 9o`fR/ adv (French 法) basically 基本上; 根本地: The problem is that, au fond, he's very lazy. 问题是他根本就很懒.

  fond

  / fCnd; fBnd/ adj (-er, -est) 1 [attrib 作定语] (a) kind and loving; affectionate 慈爱的; 深情的: a fond look, gesture, embrace, etc 充满深情的目光、 手势、 拥抱等 * fond eyes 慈爱的目光. (b) foolishly loving; indulgent or doting 痴爱的; 溺爱的: spoilt by fond parents 被父母溺爱而惯坏的. 2 [pred 作表语] ~ of sb/(doing) sth having a great liking for sb/(doing) sth 喜爱某人[(做)某事物]: I've always been very fond of you. 我一向非常喜欢你. * fond of music, cooking, going to parties 喜爱音乐、 烹调、 参加聚会 * John's extremely fond of pointing out other people's mistakes, ie He enjoys doing this constantly. 约翰特别喜欢挑剔别人的毛病. 3 [attrib 作定语] (of wishes or ambitions) hoped for, but not likely to be met or to come true; foolishly held (指愿望或抱负)不大可能实现的, 想入非非的: fond hopes of success 对於成功的美梦.

  fondly

  adv 1 lovingly; gently 亲爱地; 温柔地: He held her hand fondly. 他温柔地握著她的手. 2 in a foolishly optimistic way; navely 盲目乐观地; 天真地: I fondly imagined that you cared. 我天真地以为你很在乎呢.

  fondness

  n [U] ~ (for sb/sth) liking and affection 喜爱; 深情: his fondness for his eldest grandchild 他对长孙的锺爱.

  fondant

  / 5fCndEnt; `fBndEnt/ n [U, C] soft sweet made of flavoured sugar that melts in the mouth 一种软糖.

  fondle

  / 5fCndl; `fBndl/ v [Tn] touch or stroke (sb/sth) gently and lovingly; caress 爱抚, 抚弄(某人[某事物]); 抚摸: fondle a baby, doll, kitten 抚弄婴儿、 娃娃、 小猫.

  fondue

  / 5fCndju:; `fBndu/ n [C, U] 1 dish of melted cheese, mixed with wine and flavourings, into which pieces of bread are dipped (蘸面包片用的)融化的乾酪(混以酒和调料). 2 dish of hot oil or sauce into which pieces of meat, seafood, etc are dipped (蘸肉、 海鲜等用的)热油或沙司: fish fondue 蘸鱼用的汁.

  font

  / fCnt; fBnt/ n 1 basin or vessel in a church, usu carved from stone, to hold water for baptisms; basin for holy water (教堂用的)洗礼盆, 圣水盆(通常为石雕的). 2 = fount.

  food

  / fu:d; fud/ n 1 (a) [U] any substance that people or animals eat or drink or plants take in to maintain life and growth (人或动物所需的)食物, 饮料; (植物所需的)养料: a shortage of food in some countries 有些国家的食物短缺. (b) [U] solid substance of this sort 固体食物: We cannot survive for long without food and drink. 我们没有食物和饮料就活不了多久. 2 [C] specific kind of food 食品: breakfast food 早餐食品 * baby, health foods 婴儿、 保健食品 * frozen, processed foods 冷冻的、 加工的食品. 3 (idm 习语) food for `thought something to think about seriously 需要认真考虑的事.

  food-chain

  n series of living beings arranged so that each being feeds on the one below it in the series 食物链.

  food poisoning (also dated 旧作 ptomaine poisoning)

  illness of the stomach caused by eating food that contains harmful bacteria 食物中毒.

  food processor

  electrical appliance that mixes, slices or chops food 食品加工器.

  foodstuff

  n any substance used as food 食物; 食品: essential foodstuffs 基本食物.

  food value

  nutritional power of food, usu measured in vitamins, minerals, etc 食物营养价值(通常以含有的维生素、 矿物质等来衡量): Most sweet things don't have much food value. 大多数甜食都没有什麽营养价值.

  fool

  / fu:l; ful/ n 1 (derog 贬) person who acts unwisely; person lacking in good sense or judgement; idiot 蠢人; 傻瓜; 白痴: What fools we were not to see the trap! 我们没有看出那是个陷阱, 多麽傻呀! * And I was fool enough (ie so stupid as) to believe him. 而我却相信他, 真够傻的了. 2 (formerly) man employed by a king, noble, etc to amuse others with jokes and tricks; clown or jester (旧时)(国王或贵族豢养的)小丑, 弄臣. 3 (idm 习语) act/play the fool behave irresponsibly or so as to amuse (and perhaps annoy) others 瞎胡闹; 逗乐; (有时指)把人惹恼. be a fool for one's `pains do sth for which one gets no reward or thanks 做费力不讨好的事. be ,no `fool; be ,nobody's `fool be a wise and clever person; not be easily deceived 为人精明; 不易上当. a ,fool and his ,money are ,soon `parted (saying 谚) a foolish person spends, or can be tricked into spending, all his money 傻瓜存不住钱. (be sent/go on) a `fool's errand (be sent/go on) a senseless or an unprofitable mission (被派去干[干])徒劳无功的或白费力气的差事. (be/live in) a fool's `paradise (be/live in) a state of (false) happiness that cannot last (处於[生活在]不能持久的)(虚幻的)乐境. make a `fool of oneself/sb behave foolishly/trick sb into behaving foolishly 使(自己[某人])出丑. (the) ,more fool `sb (used as an exclamation 用作感叹语) the person specified is especially unwise for behaving in the way he does 蠢极了. (there is) ,no fool like an `old fool (saying 谚) the foolish behaviour of an older person seems even more foolish because he is expected to act more sensibly than a younger person 最傻的是老傻瓜. not/never suffer fools gladly => suffer.

  fool

  v 1 (a) [I, Ip] ~ (about/around) behave stupidly or foolishly 干蠢事: Stop fooling about with that knife or someone will get hurt. 不要摆弄那把刀, 会伤人的. (b) [I] tease or joke; pretend 逗弄; 开玩笑: I was only fooling when I said I'd lost your keys. 我说把你的钥匙丢了, 只是逗你玩的. 2 [Tn] trick or deceive (sb) 哄骗, 欺骗(某人): You can't/don't fool me! 你休想[别]骗我! 3 (phr v) fool about/around waste time; be idle 虚度光阴; 胡混: I was meant to be working on Sunday, but I just fooled around all day. 星期日我本应工作的, 但却闲混了一整天.

  April Fool

  person tricked on April Fool's Day (在愚人节)受愚弄的人.

  April Fool's Day

  1 April 愚人节(4月1日).

  fool

  / fu:l; ful/ n [C, U] (usu in compounds 通常用以构成复合词) cold light pudding of crushed cooked fruit mixed with cream or custard 一种用奶油或蛋奶沙司拌熟水果泥制成的凉布丁: rhubarb fool 大黄茎凉点心.

  foolery

  / 5fu:lErI; `fulErI/ n [U, C] foolish behaviour 愚蠢的行为.

  foolhardy

  / 5fu:lhB:dI; `ful9hBrdI/ adj (-ier, -iest) foolishly bold or rash; reckless 胆大妄为的; 有勇无谋的; 鲁莽的: It was foolhardy (of him) to go swimming alone. (他)独自一人去游泳真是鲁莽.

  foolhardiness

  n [U].

  foolish

  / 5fu:lIF; `fulIF/ adj 1 (a) (of people) lacking good sense or judgement; silly 愚蠢的; 傻的: She's a foolish interfering old woman! 她是个瞎管闲事的老太太! * And I was foolish enough to believe him! 我真傻, 竟相信了他! * It would be foolish (of us) to pretend that the accident never happened. 要是装成没发生事故的样子, 那(我们)就太愚蠢了. (b) (of actions, statements, etc) showing a lack of good sense or judgement; unwise or stupid (指行为、 言论等)缺乏头脑的, 欠妥的, 不明智的, 愚蠢的: a foolish decision, comment, reply, etc 不明智的决定、议论、 答覆等. 2 [usu pred 通常作表语] made to feel or look ridiculous and embarrassed; stupid 感到或显得荒唐而难堪; 愚蠢: I felt very foolish having to stand up and give a speech. 我必须站起来讲话, 感到很难为情. * He's afraid of looking foolish in front of all his friends.他怕在所有朋友面前出洋相. 3 (idm 习语) penny wise pound foolish => penny.

  foolishly

  adv.

  foolishness

  n [U].

  foolproof

  / 5fu:lpru:f; `ful`pruf/ adj 1 not capable of going wrong or of being misunderstood; very plain and simple 不会错的; 不会引起误解的; 非常简单明了的: a foolproof method, plan, scheme, etc 万无一失的方法、 计画、 方案等. 2 not capable of going wrong or of being used wrongly; reliable and easy to operate 不会做错的; 不会用错的; 可靠而操作简便的: a foolproof security system 可靠的安全系统.

  foolscap

  / 5fu:lskp; `ful9skAp/ n [U] large size of writing or printing paper, about 330 200 (or 400) mm 大页纸(约为330 200或400mm大小).

  foot

  / fUt; fJt/ n (pl feet / fi:t; fit/) 1 [C] lowest part of the leg, below the ankle, on which a person or animal stands 脚; 足: He rose to his feet, ie stood up. 他站起身来. * walking round the house in bare feet, ie not wearing socks, shoes, etc 光脚围著房子走 * [attrib 作定语] a foot switch, brake, pump, etc, ie operated by one's foot, not one's hand 脚踏开关、 脚煞车、 脚踏泵. =>illus 见插图. 2 [C usu sing 通常作单数] part of a sock, stocking, etc that covers the foot (袜子等的)足部. 3 [C] (pl feet or, in informal use and attributively, 用於口语或作定语时, 亦作 foot) (abbr 缩写 ft) measure of length: 12 inches (长度单位)英尺(12英寸): We're flying at 35000 feet. 我们飞行的高度是35000英尺. * `How tall are you?'`Five foot nine', ie five feet and nine inches. `你身高多少?'`五英尺九英寸.' * [attrib 作定语] a 6-foot high wall 6英尺高的墙. =>App 4,5 见附录4、 5. 4 [sing] the ~ of sth (a) the lowest part of sth; base or bottom of sth (某物的)最下部, 底部: at the foot of the stairs 在楼梯底部 * They camped at the foot of the mountain. 他们在山脚下露营. * at the foot of the page 在该页的下端. (b) the lower end of a bed or grave 床或坟墓的尾端: Spare blankets lay at the foot of each bed. 每张床的尾端放有备用毛毯. 5 [U] (arch 古) manner of walking or moving 步态: light/swift/fleet of foot 步履轻盈[敏捷/如飞]. 6 [C] unit of rhythm in a line of poetry containing one stressed syllable and one or more unstressed syllables, as in the four divisions of For `men/ may `come/ and `men/ may `go 音步(诗行中的节奏单位, 一个音步包括一个重读音节和一个或几个非重读音节, 如以下为四个音步: For `men/ may `come/ and `men/ may `go. 7 (idm 习语) be on one's `feet be standing 站著: I've been on my feet all day. 我站了一整天. bind/tie sb hand and foot => hand1. the boot is on the other foot => boot. catch sb on the wrong foot => catch1. cut the ground from under sb's feet => ground1. drag one's feet/heels => drag2. fall/land on one's `feet make a quick recovery after an illness, a business failure, etc, esp through good luck (病後、 事业失败後等)迅速恢复(尤指侥幸). find one's feet => find. from head to foot/toe => head1. get/have a foot in the door gain/have a first introduction to a profession, an organization, etc 初入一行业、 机构等: It's difficult to get a foot in the door of publishing. 加入出版界是很难的. get/have cold feet => cold1. have feet of `clay have some basic weakness or fault 有某种根本的弱点或错误. have the ball at one's feet => ball1. have, etc one's/both feet on the `ground be sensible, realistic and practical 脚踏实地; 实事求是. have a foot in both `camps have an interest in two different parties or sides, without a commitment to either 脚踩两只船. have one foot in the grave be so old or ill that one is not likely to live much longer 一只脚已踏进坟墓; 行将就木; 死期不远. have two left feet => left2. in one's stocking feet => stocking. itchy feet => itchy (itch). keep one's `feet keep one's balance, esp on a slippery surface; not fall 站稳脚跟(尤指在很滑的表面上); 不跌倒. let the grass grow under one's feet => grass1. my `foot! (used to express scornful rejection of what sb has just said 用於对某人刚说过的话表示轻蔑的驳斥) nonsense! rubbish!胡说八道! 没这回事! on one's `feet completely recovered from an illness or a set-back (患病或遭受挫折後)完全复原: After his wife's death it took him two years to get back on his feet. 他妻子死後两年, 他才振作起来. * Only our party's policies will put the country on its feet again. 只有我们党的政策才会使国家恢复元气. on foot walking, rather than using any form of transport 步行: We're going on foot, not by car. 我们走著去, 不坐汽车. the patter of tiny feet => patter2. pull the carpet/rug from under sb's feet => pull2. put one's best foot forward => best1. put one's `feet up rest or relax in a chair or on a bed (esp, though not necessarily, with one's feet supported) 在椅子上或床上休息(尤指脚部垫起). put one's `foot down be very firm in opposing sth which sb wishes to do 坚决反对某人想做的事: Mother let us go to the party, but when it came to staying overnight, she put her foot down firmly. 母亲允许我们去参加晚会, 但要说到过夜, 她可决不答应. put one's `foot in it say or do sth that upsets, offends or embarrasses sb 说的话或做的事使人烦恼、 得罪人或令人难堪. put a foot wrong (esp in negative sentences 尤用於否定句) make a mistake 做错事; 出错; 犯错: I've never known him to put a foot wrong, no matter how delicate the issue. 不论问题多麽棘手, 我从没见他出过错. rush/run sb (clean) off his `feet make sb work very hard or move about a lot, so making him exhausted 把某人累坏了; 使某人疲於奔命: Before Christmas the shop assistants are rushed off their feet. 圣诞节前店员忙得不可开交. set foot in/on sth enter or visit (a place); arrive 进入或参观(某地); 到达: the first man to set foot on the moon 第一个登上月球的人 * Don't ever set foot in this house again! 永远别再进这个门! set sb/sth on his/its `feet make sb/sth independent 使某人[某事物]独立. shake the dust off one's feet => shake1. sit at sb's feet => sit. stand on one's own (two) feet be independent and able to take care of oneself 独立自主; 自立: Now that you're growing up you must learn to stand on your own two feet. 你既然已经长大成人, 就得学会独立生活. start off on the right/wrong foot => rtstart2. sweep sb off his feet => sweep1. take the weight off one's feet => weight. ten feet tall pleased with and proud of oneself 沾沾自喜; 自鸣得意: be/feel/look/seem ten feet tall 表现出[感到/显得/似乎]得意扬扬. under one's `feet disturbing one and being a nuisance 碍手碍脚; 讨厌: The children are under my feet all day. 孩子们整天烦我. wait on sb hand and foot => wait1. walk sb off his feet => walk1.

  -footer

  / fUtE(r); `fJtL/ (forming compounds 用以构成复合词) person or thing of the specified length, height or width 某一长度、 高度、 宽度的人或物: a six-footer, ie a person who is six feet tall or thing that is six feet wide or long.

  foot-and-mouth

  (disease) n [U] disease of cattle, etc which causes blisters on the mouth and feet (牛、 羊等的)口蹄疫.

  football

  n (a) [C] large round or oval inflated ball, usu of leather 足球; 橄榄球. (b) [U] any of several outdoor games between two teams, played with such a ball 足球运动; 橄榄球运动. (c) [U] (Brit) = association football (association). =>App 4 见附录4. footballer n person who plays football, esp as a profession 足球运动员(尤指职业的). `football pools (also the pools) form of gambling in which sb tries to forecast the results of football matches 足球赛赌博.

  foot-bridge

  n narrow bridge for the use of people who are walking 步行桥; 人行桥.

  footfall

  n sound of sb walking; sound of a footstep 脚步声.

  foot-fault

  n (in tennis) act of breaking the rules by placing one's feet inside the back line when serving (网球)脚部违例, 脚部犯规(发球踏线犯规).

  foothill

  n [C usu pl 通常作复数] hill or low mountain at the base of a higher mountain or range of mountains 山麓小丘.

  foothold

  n 1 place where one's foot can be supported securely when climbing 立足处(攀登时脚踩的地方). 2 secure position in a business, profession, etc from which further progress may be made (在事业等方面可以进一步发展的)稳固地位: gain a firm foothold in the industry 在这一企业中取得稳固地位.

  footlights

  n [pl] row of lights along the front of the stage in a theatre 脚灯(舞台前面的一排灯). =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page ix.

  footloose

  adj (idm 习语) footloose and fancy-free without personal responsibilities or commitments; free to act as one pleases 无拘无束的; 自由自在的.

  footman

  / -mEn; -mEn/ n (pl -men) male servant, usu in uniform, who admits visitors, serves food at table, etc (负责迎客、 上菜等的)男仆(通常穿制服).

  footmark

  n = footprint.

  footnote

  n additional piece of information at the bottom of a page in a book 脚注(列在一页末了的附注). =>App 3 见附录3.

  footpath

  n = path 1.

  footplate

  n metal platform on which the driver and fireman stand in a locomotive (机车上供司机和司炉站立的金属制的)平台.

  footprint

  n [C usu pl 通常作复数] impression of a human or an animal foot on a surface; mark left by a foot 脚印; 足迹: leave footprints in the snow 在雪地上留下足迹 * muddy footprints on the kitchen floor 厨房地板上的泥脚印.

  foot-slog

  v (-gg-) [I] (infml 口) walk for a long distance and so become very tired 因长途跋涉而步履维艰.

  footsore

  adj having sore or tired feet, esp from walking a long way 脚疼的, 脚酸的(尤指因走长路而引起的): footsore travellers 走疼了脚的旅行者.

  footstep

  n [C] 1 (a) (usu pl 通常作复数) sound or mark of a step taken when walking 脚步声; 足迹: I heard his footsteps in the hall 我听见大厅里有他的脚步声. (b) (distance covered by a) step taken when walking 脚步; 一步的距离. 2 (idm 习语) follow in one's/sb's footsteps => follow.

  footstool (also stool)

  n low stool for resting the feet on when sitting in a chair 脚凳(坐时垫脚的矮凳).

  footway

  n = footpath.

  footwear

  n [U] anything worn on the feet, eg shoes and boots 鞋类(如鞋、 靴).

  footwork

  n [U] (a) manner of moving or using the feet in sports such as boxing or dancing (拳击或舞蹈的)步法. (b) (fig 比喻) ability to react quickly to sudden danger, new opportunities, etc 应变能力(对突发的危险、 新机遇等做出敏捷反应的能力): Thanks to agile footwork he always managed to escape his pursuers. 他善於随机应变, 总能摆脱追踪他的人.

  foot

  / fUt; fJt/ v (idm 习语) foot the `bill (for sth) be responsible for paying the cost of sth 负责缴付费用; 付帐: Who's going to foot the bill for all the repairs? 谁来付所有的修理费? `foot it (infml 口) walk; not travel by bus, etc 步行.

  -footed

  (forming compound adjs 用以构成复合形容词) having feet of the specified kind or number 有所述类型或数量的脚的: bare-footed * flat-footed * four-footed.

  footage

  / 5fUtIdV; `fJtIdV/ n [U] 1 length or distance measured in feet 以英尺量度的长度或距离. 2 length of film made for the cinema or TV (电影或电视的)片段: The film contained some old newsreel footage. 这部影片中有些旧新闻片的镜头.

  footing

  / 5fUtIN; `fJtIN/ n [sing] 1 secure grip with the feet; balance 站稳; 平衡: He lost his footing on the wet floor and fell. 他在潮湿的地板上失去平衡而跌倒了. 2 basis on which sth is established 基础: This enterprise is now on a firm footing and should soon show profits. 现在这家企业基础稳固, 很快就会赢利. * The army were put on a war footing, ie were prepared for war. 这支军队是战时的编制(为战争作好准备). 3 position or status of sb/sth in relation to others; relationship 某人[某事物]与他人或其他事物相关的地位; 关系: The workers want to be on an equal footing with/on the same footing as the managers. 工人要求与经理地位平等.

  footle

  / 5fu:tl; `futl/ v [I, Ip] ~ (about/around) (infml 口) spend time aimlessly; do nothing in particular 虚度光阴; 闲混: footle about all day 整天瞎混.

  footling

  / 5fu:tlIN; `fJtlIN/ adj unimportant; trivial 无足轻重的; 琐碎的: footling little jobs 鸡毛蒜皮的活儿.

  footsie

  / 5fUtsI; `fJtsI/ n (idm 习语) play footsie with sb (infml 口) touch sb's feet lightly with one's own feet, esp under a table, as a playful expression of affection or to arouse sexual interest 用脚轻碰某人的脚(尤指在桌下以示喜爱或用以调情).

  fop

  / fCp; fBp/ n (derog 贬) man who is too concerned with his clothes and appearance; dandy 过於注意衣著与外表的男子.

  foppish

  adj of or like a fop (似)纨绔子弟的.

  for

  / fE(r); fL; strong form 强读式 fR:(r); fRr/ prep 1 (indicating the person intended to receive or benefit from sth 表示接受某事物或从某事物中受益的人): a letter for you 给你的信 * Are all these presents for me? 这些礼物都是给我的吗? * Save a piece for Mary. 给玛丽留一块吧. * Have you made a cup of tea for Mrs Watson? 你给华生太太沏茶了吗? 2 (indicating purpose or function 表示目的或功能): go for a walk 去散步 * It's a machine for slicing bread. 这是切面包片的机器. * Are you learning English for pleasure or for your work? 你学英语是出於兴趣还是为了工作? * (infml 口) What did you shout at him for? ie Why did you shout at him? 你为什麽朝他大声喊叫? * For sales to (ie In order that sales may) increase, we must lower our prices. 我们为了增加销售量, 必须把价格降低. 3 (indicating destination, aim or reason 表示目的地、 目标或原因): depart for home 动身回家 * head for the shore 向岸边行进 * Is this the train for Glasgow? 这是开往格拉斯哥的火车吗? * Passengers for Oxford must change at Didcot. 前往牛津的旅客必须在迪德考特换车. * She knew she was destined for a great future. 她知道自己前程远大. * It's a book for (ie intended to be read by or to) children. 这是一本儿童读物. * a chair for visitors 来宾用的座椅 * bicycles for sale or for hire 供出售或出租的自行车. 4 in order to help or benefit (sb/sth) 有助於或有益於(某人[某事物]): Would you please translate this letter for me? 你给我翻译这封信行吗? * What can I do for you? 您想要什麽? * fighting for their country 为其国家而战 * Take some aspirin for (ie to lessen the pain caused by) your headache. 你头痛吃点阿司匹林吧. * The deputy manager ran the firm for (ie instead of) him while he was ill. 在他生病期间, 副经理代他主持公司事务. 5 as the price, reward or penalty of sth 作为对某事物的代价、 报酬或惩罚: I bought a book for £3. 我花3英镑买了一本书. * She gave me their old TV for nothing. 她把他们的旧电视机送给我了. * He got a medal for bravery. 他因勇敢而获得一枚奖章. * You can go to prison for dangerous driving. 鲁莽驾驶可导致入狱. 6 as the replacement of (sth else) 以取代(他事物): exchange one's car for a new one 用自己的汽车换一辆新的 * Don't translate word for word. 不要逐字硬译. 7 in defence or support of (sb/sth) 保卫、 支持或拥护(某人[某事物]): Are you for or against the new road scheme? 你对修建新道路的计画是赞成还是反对? * Three cheers for the winner! 为获胜者三呼喝采! * We're petitioning for our right to keep a school in our village. 我们为在村中保留一所学校这一权利进行请愿. * I'm all for pubs being open all day. 我完全赞成酒馆整日营业. 8 (a) as a representative of (sb/sth) 代表(某人[某事物]): I am speaking for all the workers in this firm.我代表公司全体工作人员讲话. * Who's the MP for Bradford? 谁是代表布拉德福德的下院议员? (b) meaning (sth) 意为(某事物): What's the `S' for in A S Hornby? 在A S Hornby中的S代表哪个字? * Shaking your head for `No' is not universal. 世界上并非所有的人都用摇头来表示`不'. 9 (after a v 用於动词後) in order to obtain (sth) 为得到(某事物): search for treasure 寻宝 * hope for a settlement 希望得到和解 * pray for peace 为和平祈祷 * fish for trout 钓鳟鱼 * ask the policeman for directions 向警察问路 * go to a friend for advice 向朋友请教 * There were 50 applicants for the post. 有50人申请这个职位. 10 (after an adj 用於形容词後) considering what can be expected from (sb/sth) 就(某人[某事物])而言: It's quite warm for January. 就一月份来说, 天气相当暖和了. * She's tall for her age. 从她的年龄来看, 她个子算是高的. * He's not bad for a beginner. 就新手而论, 他已经很不错了. 11 (after a comparative adj 用於比较级的形容词之後) following (sth) 随(某事物)而来: You'll feel all the better for a good night's sleep. 你好好睡上一夜, 心情就好多了. * This room would look all the better for a spot of paint. 上一点油漆能让这房间增色不少. 12 as the equivalent of (sth); in return for (sth) 与(某事物)相对应; 作为对(某事物)的回报: There's one bad apple for every three good ones. 每四个苹果里就有一个坏的. * You get a coupon for every 3 gallons of petrol. 每买三加仑的汽油就可获得一张优惠券. 13 with regard to (sb/sth); concerning (sb/sth) 对於, 至於, 关於(某人[某事物]): anxious for sb's safety 为某人的安全担忧 * ready for a holiday 准备好去度假 * eager for them to start 急著要他们开始 * Fortunately for us, the weather changed. 我们真好运气, 天气变了. 14 because of (sth); on account of (sth) 因为, 由於(某事物): famous for its cathedral 以大教堂而闻名 * for the following reasons 由於以下的原因 * Please take care of her for my sake. 请为了我好好照顾她. * I couldn't speak for laughing. 我笑得说不出话来. * He didn't answer for fear of hurting her. 他没回答是怕伤她的感情. * He gave me roses for my birthday. 他送我玫瑰花来庆贺我的生日. 15 (a) (indicating a length of time 表示一段时间): I'm going away for a few days. 我要离开几天. * He was in prison for twenty years. 他在监狱中蹲了二十年. * You said you would love me for ever. 你说过你永远爱我. (b) (indicating that sth is intended to happen at the specified time 表示某事物在所述时间要发生): a reservation for the first week in June 六月第一周的预订 * The appointment is for 12 May. 约会定在5月12日. * We're invited for 7.30. 我们接到邀请, 时间为7点30分. (c) (indicating the occasion when sth happens 表示某事物发生的场合或时机): I'm warning you for the last time stop talking! 我最後一次警告你--不要再说话了! * I'm meeting him for the first time today. 今天我要与他初次见面. 16 (indicating a distance 表示距离): He crawled on his hands and knees for 100 metres. 他爬行了100米. * The road went on for miles and miles. 这条路很长很长. 17 (a) (used after an adj and before an/pron + infinitive 用於形容词之後和名词[代词]之前+不定式): It's impossible for me to leave my family. 我是不可能离开家的. * It's useless for us to continue. 我们继续下去是徒劳的. * (fml 文) For her to have survived such an ordeal was remarkable. 她居然能经得起这种磨难, 真了不起. * It's customary for the women to sit apart. 按习俗, 妇女要分开坐. * His greatest wish was for his daughter to take over the business. 他最大的心愿是让女儿接管公司. (b) (used after a n and before a n/pron + infinitive 用於名词之後和名词[代词]之前+不定式): no need for you to go 不需要你去 * time for us to leave 我们该动身的时间 * a rush for them to finish 他们需仓促完成. (c) (used after too + adj or adj + enough 用於too+形容词之後或形容词+enough之後): The box is too heavy for me to lift. 这个箱子太重了, 我提不动. * Is it clear enough for you to read? 这个清楚不清楚? 你能念吗? * The coffee was too hot for her (to drink). 咖啡太烫, 她没法喝. (d) (used before a n/pron + infinitive to show purpose or design 用於名词[代词]+不定式之前, 表示目的或意图): letters for the manager to sign 需要经理签字的信件 * money for you to invest wisely 你要看准机会投资的钱 * I would give anything for this not to have happened. 我宁愿付出任何代价, 也不愿出了这件事. * It's not for me (ie It is not my responsibility) to say 这不是由我来说的话. (e) (used after more with than 用於more与than结构之後): Nothing could be more desirable than for them both to get jobs in Leeds. 要是他俩都能在利兹找到工作, 那就再好不过了. * Nothing would please me more than for her to win the next election. 她若能在下次竞选中获胜, 我就再高兴不过了. 18 (idm 习语) be `for it (infml 口) expect to be punished or to get into trouble 会受惩罚或惹出麻烦: The headmaster saw me draw the picture on the blackboard I'm for it now. 校长看见我在黑板上画画, 这下子我可惹出麻烦了. for `all despite; in spite of 尽管; 虽然: For all his talk about sports cars and swimming-pools he's just an ordinary bank-clerk. 别看他大谈昂贵的汽车跑车和私人游泳池, 其实他只不过是个银行的普通职员. * For all you say, I think she's the best teacher we've got. 不管你怎麽说, 我仍然认为她是我们最好的老师. * For all his wealth and fame, he's a very lonely man. 他虽然又有钱又有名, 但很孤独. * He has great power and wealth, but is still unhappy for all that. 他有钱有势, 可尽管如此却并不快乐.

  for

  / fE(r); fL; rare strong form 罕, 强读式 fR:(r); fRr/ conj (dated or fml 旧或文) (not used at the beginning of a sentence 不用於句首) because 因为; 由於: We listened eagerly, for he brought news of our families. 他给我们带来了家里的消息, 我们都迫不及待地听著. * Prepare to alight, for we are almost there. 我们马上就要到了, 准备下车吧.

  for

  / 9ef EU 5B:(r); 9Zf o `Br/ abbr 缩写 = (commerce 商) (of freight) free on rail (ie transported to the train and loaded without the buyer paying extra) (指运费)火车上交货价.

  forage

  / 5fCrIdV; ?@ 5fR:r-; `fRrIdV/ n 1 [U] food for horses and cattle (牛马的)饲料. 2 [C usu sing 通常作单数] a search or hunt, esp for food 搜寻, 寻找(尤指寻找食物).

  forage

  v [I, Ipr, Ip] ~ (for sth); ~ (about) search or hunt for sth, esp food and supplies 搜寻或寻找某物(尤指食物及供应物): One group left the camp to forage for firewood. 一些人离开营地去寻找木柴. * She foraged (ie rummaged) about in her handbag, but couldn't find her keys. 她翻遍了手提包, 就是找不到钥匙.

  forage crops

  crops grown as food for horses and cattle (牛马的)饲料作物.

  forasmuch as

  / 9fR:rEz5mQtF Ez; 9fRrEz`mQtF Ez/ conj (arch or law 古或律) because; since; seeing that 因为; 由於; 鉴於.

  foray

  / 5fCreI; ?@ 5fR:reI; `fRre/ n 1 sudden attack, esp to obtain sth; raid 袭击(尤指为获得某物); 突袭: go on/make a foray into enemy territory 袭击敌占区. 2 brief but vigorous attempt to be involved in a different activity, profession, etc (对一新的活动、 行业等)短暂而积极的改换尝试: the company's first foray into the computer market 该公司打入计算机市场的首次尝试.

  foray

  v [I] make a foray 袭击; 突袭.

  forbade (also forbad)

  pt of forbid.

  forbear

  / fR:5beE(r); fRr`bZr/ v (pt forbore/ fR:5bR:(r); fRr`bRr/, pp forborne/ fR:5bR:n; fRr`bRrn/) [I, Ipr, Tt, Tg] ~ (from sth/doing sth) (fml 文) refrain from doing or saying sth in a patient or self-controlled way克制, 自制(不做或不说某事物): her mother's gentle and forbearing character 她母亲那温柔而宽容的性格 * He could not forbear from expressing his disagreement.他忍不住要表达不同意见. * He forbore to mention/mentioning the matter again. 他克制住自己, 不再提及此事.

  forbearance

  / fR:5beErEns; fRr`bZrEns/ n [U](fml 文) patient self-control; tolerance 自制; 耐性: show forbearance towards sb 对某人有耐性 * exercise forbearance in dealing with people 宽以待人.

  forbear

  = forebear.

  forbid

  / fE5bId; fL`bId/ v (pt forbade / fE5bd; ?@ fE5beId; fL`bed/ or forbad / fE5bd; fL`bAd/, pp forbidden / fE5bIdn; fL`bIdn/) 1 (a) [Tsg, Dn.n, Dn.t] order (sb) not to do sth 禁止, 不准, 不许(某人)做某事: I can't forbid you/your seeing that man again. 我无法禁止你再和那个男人来往. * She was forbidden access to the club. 人家不允许她到那个俱乐部去. * If you want to go, Ican't forbid you. 你想去, 我也拦不住你. * He was forbidden to talk to her. 不准他同她交谈. * It is forbidden (for anyone) to smoke in this room. 禁止(任何人)在本室吸烟. (b) [Tn, Tg] order that (sth) shall not be done; not allow 禁止(某事物); 不允许: Her father forbade their marriage. 她父亲不允许他们俩结婚. * Photography is strictly forbidden in the cathedral. 教堂内严禁摄影. * forbidden subjects such as sex and politics 禁止谈论的题目, 如性和政治 * The law forbids building on this land. 法律规定禁止在此处进行修建. 2 [Tn] make (sth) difficult or impossible; prevent or not allow 妨碍(某事); 阻止或不准: Lack of space forbids further treatment of the topic here. 因篇幅所限, 此处不便对本题作进一步阐述. 3 (idm 习语) for,bidden `fruit thing that is desired because it is disapproved of or not allowed 禁果(因受禁止而更想得到的东西). for,bidden `ground (a) area that one is not allowed to enter 禁区. (b) subject, activity, etc that is not allowed or approved of 不准涉及的或不认可的内容或活动等. God/Heaven for`bid (that...) (expressing a wish that sth may not happen 表示愿某事不要发生): Heaven forbid that anything awful should have happened to her. 但愿她不会出了大事.

  forbidding

  adj looking unfriendly; stern; threatening 样子冷淡的; 严峻的; 令人生畏的: a forbidding appearance, look, manner, etc 冷酷的样子、 神情、 态度等 * a forbidding coastline, ie one that looks dangerous险恶的海岸地形.

  forbiddingly

  adv.

  forbore

  pt of forbear1.

  forborne

  pp of forbear1.

  force

  / fR:s; fRrs/ n 1 [U] (a) physical strength or power 力; 力量: the force of the blow, explosion, collision, etc 打击力、 爆炸力、 碰撞力 * They used brute force to break open the door. 他们靠蛮劲把门撞开了. (b) violent physical action 暴力; 武力: The soldiers took the prisoners away by force. 士兵们强行把犯人带走了. * renounce the use of force 放弃使用武力. 2 (a) [U] (intensity of) strength or power; influence 力量(的强度); 影响力: the full force of her argument 她的论据的全部力量 * He overcame his bad habits by sheer force of will. 他全凭毅力改掉了坏习惯. * Through force of circumstances the plans had to be changed. 情况所迫, 只得修改计画. (b) [C] person, thing, belief, etc with such strength or power; influence 具有此种力量的人、 事物、 信仰等; 影响: She's a force to be reckoned with, ie someone to be treated seriously. 她是不可忽视的力量. * the two main political forces of left and right 左派和右派两股主要的政治力量 * powerful economic forces 强大的经济实力 * Is religion a force for good? 宗教是诱导人们积德行善的力量吗? * the forces of evil still at work today 至今仍在作祟的邪恶势力. 3 [C, U] (in scientific use) measurable influence or intensity tending to cause movement (科技用语)力: The force of gravity pulls things towards the earth's centre. 地心吸力把物体吸向地心. 4 [C] (power of the) wind, rain or another of the natural elements 风、 雨或其他自然现象(的力量): fighting against the forces of nature 与大自然作斗争. =>Usage at strength 用法见strength. 5 [C usu sing 通常作单数] measure of wind strength 风力: a force 9 gale 9级风. 6 [CGp] group of people organized for a specified purpose 为某目的而组织起来的人: a sales/labour force 推销人员[劳动群众] * Our work-force are completely dependable. 我们的工作人员的能力完全可靠. 7 [CGp] organized body of armed and specially trained people 武装力量; 部队: the police force 警察部队 * peace-keeping forces 维持和平部队 * the armed forces of a country, ie the army, navy and air force 国家的武装力量(陆、 海、 空三军). 8 [U] (legal) authority (法律的)权威, 威力: This decree has the force of law behind it. 这一裁决有法律的力量作後盾. 9 (idm 习语) break the force of sth reduce or weaken the impact of sth such as a fall or blow 降低或减弱某事物(如下落或打击)的冲撞力: The force of his fall was broken by the straw mats. 草垫的缓冲作用减弱了他下跌的力量. bring sth/come into `force (cause a law, rule, etc to) become effective or come into operation (使法律、 规则等)生效, 开始执行: When do the new safety rules come into force? 新的安全规则何时生效? (from/out of) force of `habit (because of) the tendency to do (some) things in a certain way from always having done so in the past (出於)习惯势力: It's force of habit that gets me out of bed at 7.15 each morning. 我每天早晨7点15分就起床, 这已成了习惯. in `force (a) (of people) in large numbers (指人)大量的, 大批的: The police were present at the demonstration in (full) force. 警方派出大队人马在示威游行的现场戒备. (b) (of a law, rule, etc) effective or in operation (指法律、 规则等)有效的, 现行的: The new safety regulations are now in force. 新的安全规则现已生效. join forces => join.

  force

  / fR:s; fRrs/ v 1 [Tn.pr, Cn.t] make (sb/oneself) do sth he/one does not want to do; compel; oblige 使(某人[自己])做不愿做的事; 强迫; 逼迫; 迫使: force a confession out of sb 逼某人招供 * The thief forced her to hand over the money. 强盗逼她把钱交出来. * He forced himself to speak to her. 他硬著头皮和她搭话. * The president was forced into resigning/to resign. 会长被迫辞职. 2 [Tn.pr, Tn.p] use physical strength to move (oneself) against resistance; use physical strength to move (sth) 靠体力使(自己)逆阻力而动; 用力使(某物)移动: force one's way through a crowd 挤过人群 * force a way in/out/through 挤入[出/过] * (fig 比喻) The government forced the bill through Parliament. 政府迫使议会通过该法案. * force clothes into a bag 硬把衣服塞进包里. 3 [Tn, Cn.a] break (sth) open using physical strength 用力打开(某物): force (open) a door, lock, window, safe 强行打开门、 锁、 窗户、 保险柜. 4 [Tn] cause or produce (sth) by effort, esp when under stress 勉强促成或产生(某事物)(尤指迫於压力): a forced smile/laugh, ie not the natural result of amusement 强作笑脸[强装欢笑]. 5 [Tn] cause (fruit, plants, etc) to reach maturity earlier than is normal by keeping them under special conditions 使(果实、 植物等)早熟. 6 (idm 习语) force sb's `hand make sb do sth unwillingly or sooner than he intended 迫使某人勉强或提前做某事. `force the issue act so as to make an immediate decision necessary 为迫使立即做出必要的决定而采取行动. force the `pace go very fast in a race, etc in order to tire the other competitors (在比赛等活动中为使对手疲劳)加快速度. 7 (phr v) force sth back try very hard not to show (an emotion) 极力不流露出(某种感情): force back one's tears 强忍著眼泪. force sth down (a) compel sb/oneself to swallow (food and drink) when he/one does not want to 强迫某人[自己]咽下(食物和饮料): After being ill I didn't feel like eating but I managed to force something down. 我病後不想吃东西, 不过还是勉强咽了一点. (b) compel (an aircraft) to land, eg because a bomb is found on board 迫使(飞机等)降落(如因发现机上有炸弹). force sth on sb make sb accept sth against his will 勉强某人接受某事物: force one's ideas, company, attention on sb 把自己的思想强加於人、 硬要陪伴某人、 硬要照料某人 * Higher taxes were forced on the people. 政府强行提高税收.

  forced labour

  compulsory hard work, usu under harsh conditions 强迫劳动.

  forced landing

  emergency landing that an aircraft has to make (飞行器的)紧急降落, 迫降.

  forced march

  long emergency march made by troops 强行军.

  force majeure

  / 9fR:s mA5V\:(r); 9fRrs mB`V[/ (French law 法, 律) unforeseen circumstances, such as war, that excuses sb from keeping a promise, fulfilling a bargain, etc 不可抗力(难以预见的情况, 如战争, 藉以原谅某人未能实践诺言、 履行协议等).

  tour de force

  / 9tUE dE 5fR:s; 9tJrdE`fRrs/ (pl tours de force/ 9tUE dE5fR:s; 9tJrdE`fRrs/) (French 法) outstandingly skilful performance or achievement 绝技; 壮举; 杰作.

  force-feed

  / 5fR:sfi:d; `fRrs`fid/ v (pp, pt force-fed/ 5fR:sfed; `fRrs`fZd/) [Tn] compel (a person or an animal) to take food and drink 强迫(人或动物)进食及饮水: All the prisoners on hunger strike had to be force-fed. 所有绝食的犯人均需强迫进食.

  forceful

  / 5fR:sfl; `fRrsfEl/ adj strong and assertive 强有力的: (approv 褒) a forceful speaker 讲话有说服力的人 * a forceful argument, speech, style of writing, etc 有力的论据、 言语、 文体等.

  forcefully

  / -fElI; -fElI/ adv.

  forcefulness

  n [U].

  forcemeat

  / 5fR:smi:t; `fRrs9mit/ n [U] finely chopped meat mixed with herbs, etc and used as stuffing, eg in a roast chicken 加香料的碎肉(如用作填充烤鸡的馅).

  forceps

  / 5fR:seps; `fRrsZps/ n [pl] pincers or tongs used by dentists, surgeons, etc for gripping things (医生用的)钳子, 镊子: a pair of forceps 一把钳子 * [attrib 作定语] a forceps delivery, ie one in which the baby is delivered with the aid of forceps 产钳分娩.

  forcible

  / 5fR:sEbl; `fRrsEbl/ adj [attrib 作定语] 1 done by or involving the use of physical force 用强力的: make a forcible entry into a building 强行进入一建筑物. 2 convincing and effective; forceful 有说服力的; 强有力的: a forcible argument/reminder 有说服力的论据[措辞强硬的催单].

  forcibly

  / -EblI; -EblI/ adv.

  ford

  / fR:d; fRrd/ n shallow place in a river where one can walk or drive across 河流中(可涉水或开车越过)的浅处.

  ford

  v [Tn] cross (a river) by walking or driving across a shallow part 从水浅处涉水或开车过(河).

  fordable

  / -Ebl; -Ebl/ adj that can be forded 可以涉水而过的.

  fore

  / fR:(r); fRr/ adj 1 [attrib 作定语] situated in the front part of a vehicle 在运输工具前部的: in the fore part of the ship/plane/train 在轮船[飞机/火车]的前部. Cf 参看 hind1. 2 (idm 习语) be/come to the fore be/become prominent or important 作为[成为]突出的或重要的: She's always to the fore at moments of crisis. 她在危急关头总是挺身而出. * After the election several new Members of Parliament came to the fore. 大选後有几位新议员脱颖而出. fore and `aft (a) at the bow (front) and stern (back) of a ship 在船首与船尾. (b) (of sails) set lengthwise on a ship or boat (指船帆)沿船体纵向悬挂.

  fore

  adv in, at or towards the front of a ship or aircraft 在船或飞行器的前部; 向著船或飞行器的前部.

  fore

  n [U] front part (of a ship) (船的)前部.

  fore

  / fR:(r); fRr/ interj (in golf) shout given to warn people that a player is about to hit the ball (高尔夫球运动中)前面注意(警告人们运动员即将击球的口令).

  fore-

  pref 前缀 (with ns and vs 与名词及动词结合) 1 (of time or rank) before; in advance of (指时间或职位)前, 预先: forefather * foreman * foretell. 2 (of position) in front of (指位置)在前部: foreground * foreshorten.

  forearm

  / 5fR:rB:m; `fRr9Brm/ n part of the arm from the elbow to the wrist or fingertips 前臂. =>illus at human 见human插图.

  forearm

  / 9fR:r5B:m; fRr`Brm/ v 1 [Tn usu passive 通常用於被动语态] prepare (oneself/sb) in advance for possible danger, attack, etc; arm beforehand 使(自己[某人])做好准备(以防危险、 攻击等); 预先武装. 2 (idm 习语) forewarned is forearmed => forewarn.

  forebear (also forbear)

  / 5fR:beE(r); `fRr9bZr/ n [C usu pl 通常作复数] person from whom one is descended; ancestor 祖宗; 祖先.

  forebode

  / fR:5bEUd; fRr`bod/ v [Tn] (fml 文) be a sign or a warning of (esp trouble) 预示(尤指坏事): Her angry face forbode a confrontation. 她一脸怒气预示将有一场冲突. * These developments forebode disaster. 这些情况预示著要有灾祸.

  foreboding

  n [C, U] ~ (that...) strong feeling that danger or trouble is coming 要有危险或坏事的预感: She had a sinister foreboding that the plane would crash. 她有个不祥的预感, 飞机要失事. * Thoughts about the future filled him with foreboding. 他想到未来, 不寒而栗.

  forecast

  / 5fR:kB:st; ?@ -kAst; fRr`kAst/ v (pt, pp forecast or forecasted) [Tn, Tf, Tw] tell in advance (what is expected to happen); predict with the help of information 预报; 预测: forecast a fall in unemployment 预测失业人数下降 * forecast that it will rain tomorrow 预报明天有雨 * forecast what the outcome of the election will be 预测选举结果.

  forecast

  n statement that predicts sth with the help of information 预测: forecasts of higher profits 利润将增加的预测 * According to the (weather) forecast it will be sunny tomorrow. (天气)预报说明天天晴. * The forecast said there would be sunny intervals and showers. 预报说晴间阵雨.

  forecaster

  n person who forecasts sth, esp sb whose job is to forecast the weather 预测者; (尤指)气象预报员.

  forecastle (also focsle)

  / 5fEUksl; `foksl/ n part of the front of certain ships where the crew live and sleep 船首楼(某些船前部的水手舱).

  foreclose

  / fR:5klEUz; fRr`kloz/ v [I, Ipr, Tn] ~ (on sb/sth) (of a bank, etc that has lent money for a mortgage) take possession of the property of (sb), usu because repayments have not been made (指已放出抵押贷款的银行等)取得(某人)的财产(通常因未偿付贷款): The bank foreclosed (on the mortgage). 该银行已取消(对该抵押品的)赎取权.

  foreclosure

  / fR:5klEUVE(r); fRr`kloVL/ n [C, U] (act of) foreclosing a mortgage 取消抵押品赎取权.

  forecourt

  / 5fR:kR:t; `fRr9kRrt/ n 1 large open area or courtyard in front of a building, esp the front of a filling station where petrol is sold (建筑物前面的)大片空地或院子(尤指汽车加油站前的加油处). 2 (in tennis, badminton, etc) part of the court between the service-line and the net (在网球、 羽毛球等球场中)前场(自发球线至球网处).

  foredoomed

  / fR:5du:md; fRr`dumd/ adj ~ (to sth) intended (as if) by fate to be unsuccessful 注定失败的: All attempts to revive the fishing industry were foredoomed to failure. 千方百计振兴渔业注定徒劳无功.

  forefather

  / 5fR:fB:TE(r); `fRr9fBTL/ n [C usu pl 通常作复数] person from whom one is descended; ancestor, esp a male 祖宗, 祖先(尤指男性): the religion of his forefathers 他祖先的宗教信仰.

  forefinger

  / 5fR:fINgE(r); `fRr9fIN^L/ n finger next to the thumb; index finger 食指. =>illus at hand 见hand插图.

  forefoot

  / 5fR:fUt; `fRr9fJt/ n (pl -feet / -fi:t; -9fit/) either of the two front feet of a four-legged animal (四足动物的)前足.

  forefront

  / 5fR:frQnt; `fRr9frQnt/ n [sing] the ~ (of sth) the most forward or important position or place 最前部; 最重要之处: in the forefront of my mind 我首先考虑的 * The new product took the company to the forefront of the computer software field. 这一新产品面世後, 该公司在计算机软件领域中已处於领先地位.

  foregoing

  / 5fR:gEUIN; fRr`^oIN/ adj [attrib 作定语] (fml 文) preceding; just mentioned 在前的; 刚提到的; 上述的: the foregoing analysis, description, discussion, etc 以上分析、 描述、 论述等.

  the foregoing

  n [sing or pl v] (fml 文) what has just been mentioned 刚提及的事物: The foregoing have all been included in the proposals. 以上各点均包括在建议中.

  foregone

  / 5fR:gCn; ?@ -gR:n; `fRr9^Rn/ adj (idm 习语) a ,foregone conclusion result that can be predicted with certainty 可预料的必然结果: The outcome of the election is a foregone conclusion. 选举结果已在预料之中.

  foreground

  / 5fR:graUnd; `fRr9^raJnd/ n the foreground[sing] (a) front part of a view, scene, picture, etc; part nearest the observer (景物、场景、 画面等的)前部, 前景: The red figure in the foreground is the artist's mother. 画面前景中穿红衣服的人是画家的母亲. (b) (fig 比喻) position of greatest importance or prominence 最重要或最突出的位置: These teachers are keeping education in the foreground of public attention. 这些教师不断努力以使人人关心教育事业. Cf 参看 background 1,2.

  forehand

  / 5fR:hAnd; `fRr9hAnd/ adj [attrib 作定语] (of a stroke in tennis, squash, etc) made with the palm of the hand turned towards one's opponent or towards the front of the court (指网球、 壁球等的击球)正手打的: a forehand volley 正手拦击.

  forehand

  n 1 forehand stroke 正手击球. 2 (usu sing 通常作单数) (in tennis, squash, etc) the same side of a player as the hand in which he is holding the racket (指网球、 壁球等运动中)运动员握拍的手的同一侧: Hit the ball to her forehand. 把球打到她握拍手的一边. Cf 参看 backhand (back2).

  forehead

  / 5fCrId, also 5fR:hed; ?@ 5fR:rId; `fRrId/ (also brow) n part of the face above the eyebrows and below the hair 额. =>illus at head 见head插图.

  foreign

  / 5fCrEn; ?@ 5fR:r-; `fRrIn/ adj 1 (a) of, in or from a country or an area other than one's own 外国的: foreign languages, goods, students 外国语、 外国货、 外国学生. (b) dealing with or involving other countries 外交的; 涉外的: foreign affairs 外交事务 * foreign policy 外交政策 * foreign trade 对外贸易 * foreign aid, ie money, etc given by one country to another in need 外国的援助. 2 ~ to sb/sth (fml 文) not belonging naturally to sb/sth; alien to sb/sth; uncharacteristic of sb/sth 非某人[某事物]所固有的; 与某人[某事物]的本性相异: Dishonesty is foreign to his nature. 他的本性与弄虚作假格格不入. 3 (fml 文) coming or introduced from outside, usu by accident 来自外界的(通常指意外地): a foreign body (eg a hair or speck of dirt) in the eye 眼中的异物(如毛发或灰尘).

  foreigner

  n 1 person from a country other than one's own 外国人. 2 person who is regarded as not belonging to a particular community; outsider or stranger 外人; 陌生人.

  the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (abbr 缩写 FCO)

  (Brit) the government department that deals with foreign affairs 外交和联邦事务部. Cf 参看 the Home Office (home1).

  foreign exchange

  (system of buying and selling) foreign money 外汇: [attrib 作定语] the foreign exchange markets 外汇市场.

  Foreign Secretary

  government minister in charge of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office 外交大臣.

  foreknowledge

  / 9fR:5nClIdV; `for`nBlIdV/ n [U] knowledge of sth before it happens or exists 预知; 预见.

  foreland

  / 5fR:lEnd; `fRrlEnd/ n piece of land that extends into the sea; cape or promontory 岬角; 海角.

  foreleg

  / 5fR:leg; `fRr9lZ^/ n either of the two front legs of a four-footed animal (四足动物的)前腿.

  forelock

  / 5fR:lCk; `fRr9lBk/ n 1 piece of hair growing (and falling) over the forehead 额发. 2 (idm 习语) touch, tug, etc one's `forelock (formerly) raise a hand to one's forehead when meeting sb of higher social rank, usu as a sign of respect (旧时)(与地位高的人相见时)将一只手举至额头(通常指致敬).

  foreman

  / 5fR:mEn; `fRrmEn/ n (pl -men / -mEn; -mEn/, fem 阴性作 forewoman / -wUmEn; -9wJmEn/, pl -women / -wImIn; -9wImIn/) 1 experienced worker who supervises and directs other workers 领班; 工头. 2 person who acts as the leader and spokesperson of a jury 陪审团团长.

  foremost

  / 5fR:mEUst; `fRr9most/ adj 1 [attrib 作定语] most famous or important; best or chief 最著名的; 最重要的; 最好的; 主要的: the foremost painter of his time 在他那个时代里首屈一指的画家. 2 (idm 习语) first and foremost => first2.

  foremost

  adv in the first position 居於首位: She ranks foremost among the country's leading conductors. 她在国内第一流指挥家中名列榜首.

  forename

  / 5fR:neIm; `fRr9nem/ n (fml 文) name preceding the family name; person's first or Christian name 名(在姓之前); 教名. =>App 7 见附录7. =>Usage at name1 用法见name1.

  forenoon

  / 5fR:nu:n; fRr`nun/ n (Scot and in official, eg electoral, notices 苏格兰, 用於官方通告中, 如选举通告) part of the day between sunrise and noon; morning 上午.

  forensic

  / fE5rensIk; ?@ -zIk; fE`rZnzIk/ adj [attrib 作定语] of, related to or used in (courts of) law 法庭的; 与法庭有关的; 用於法庭的: forensic medicine, ie medical skill used to help with legal problems or police investigations 法医学.

  foreordain

  / 9fR:rR:5deIn; 9fRrRr`den/ v [usu passive 通常用於被动语态: Tn, Tf] (fml 文) (of God or fate) arrange or determine (sth) before it actually happens (指上帝或命运)注定: It was foreordained that the company would suffer a spectacular collapse. 这个公司注定要彻底垮台.

  foreplay

  / 5fR:pleI; `fRr9ple/ n [U] sexual activity such as caressing the sexual organs and kissing before sexual intercourse 性交之前的性活动(如抚摸性器官、 亲吻).

  forerunner

  / 5fR:rQnE(r); `fRr9rQnL/ n person or thing that prepares the way for the coming of sb or sth else more important; sign of what is to follow 先驱者; 开路人; 先兆: the forerunners of the modern diesel engine 现代柴油机的前身.

  foresail

  / 5fR:seIl, also 5fR:sl; `fRr9sel, `fRrsEl/ n main sail on the front mast of a ship 前帆.

  foresee

  / fR:5si:; fRr`si/ v (pt foresaw / fR:5sR:; fRr`sR/, pp foreseen / fR:5si:n; fRr`sin/) [Tn, Tf, Tw] see or know that sth is going to happen in the future; predict 预见; 预知; 预料: The difficulties could not have been foreseen. 这些困难是无法预见的. * He foresaw that the job would take a long time. 他预见到做这件工作需要很长时间. * They could not have foreseen how things would turn out. 他们不可能预知事情的结果.

  forseeable

  / -Ebl; -Ebl/ adj that can be foreseen 可以预见的: (in) the forseeable future, ie (during) the period of time (usu short) when one knows what is going to happen (在)可预见的将来.

  foreshadow

  / fR:5FdEU; fRr`FAdo/ v [Tn] be a sign or warning of (sth to come or about to happen) 预示: The increase in taxes had been foreshadowed in the minister's speech. 部长的讲话中早已预示要提高税额.

  foreshore

  / 5fR:FR:(r); `fRr9FRr/ n (usu 通常作 the foreshore) [sing] part of the shore between the limits of high and low tides, or between the sea and land that is cultivated or built on (高潮线与低潮线之间的)海滩; (海水与已耕种或有建筑物的陆地之间的)海滨.

  foreshorten

  / fR:5FR:tn; fRr`FRrtn/ v [Tn] (in drawing) represent (an object) by shortening certain lines to give an effect of distance and perspective (绘画中)用透视法表现(所画对像).

  foresight

  / 5fR:saIt; `fRr9saIt/ n [U] ability to see what one's future needs are likely to be; careful planning 先见之明; 精打细算: The couple had the foresight to plan their retirement wisely. 他们夫妇很有远见, 精心安排了退休後的生活. Cf 参看 hindsight.

  foreskin

  / 5fR:skIn; `fRr9skIn/ n loose fold of skin covering the end of the penis 包皮. =>illus at male 见male插图.

  forest

  / 5fCrIst; ?@ 5fR:r-; `fRrIst/ n 1 [C, U] (large area of land thickly covered with) trees, bushes, etc 森林(地带): the dense tropical forests of the Amazon basin 亚玛孙河流域茂密的热带森林 * Very little forest is left unexplored nowadays. 如今未经勘测的森林已是少之又少了. * [attrib 作定语] forest animals, fires 森林动物、 森林火灾. 2 [C] (fig 比喻) dense mass of tall or narrow objects that looks like a forest 似森林般密集的细长物体: a forest of television aerials 林立的电视天线.

  forested

  adj covered in forest 覆盖树木如林的.

  forester

  n 1 person who looks after a forest, eg by protecting the animals, planting new trees and guarding against fire 林务员; 守林人. 2 person who lives and works in a forest 在森林里居住及工作的人.

  forestry

  n [U] science and practice of planting, caring for, and managing forests 林学; 森林学.

  forestall

  / fR:5stR:l; fRr`stRl/ v [Tn] act before (sb else) so as to prevent him from doing sth 抢在(别人)之前行动: forestall a competitor, a rival, etc 抢在竞争者、 对手之前行动 * I had my objection all prepared, but Stephens forestalled me. 我已做好准备要提出反对意见, 不料斯蒂芬斯却抢先了一步.

  foretaste

  / 5fR:teIst; `fRr9test/ n ~ (of sth) small experience of sth before it actually happens; sample (在某事物到来之前的)浅尝; 样品: a foretaste of the fierce conflict to come 对未来的激烈冲突先尝到的滋味.

  foretell

  / fR:5tel; fRr`tZl/ v (pt, pp foretold / fR:5tEUld; fRr`told/) [Tn, Tf, Tw] (fml 文) tell (what will happen in the future); predict 预言; 预示; 预料: No one could have foretold such strange events. 谁也料不到有这些奇怪的事情. * The gypsy had foretold that the boy would die. 那吉普赛人曾经预言这男孩儿得夭折. * You can't foretell how the war will end. 这场战争的结局难以预料.

  forethought

  / 5fR:WR:t; `fRr9WRt/ n [U] careful thought or planning for the future 深谋远虑: With a little more forethought we could have bought the house we really wanted. 我们当初若是稍微再多考虑一下, 也许就能买到我们真正想要的房子了.

  foretold

  pt, pp of foretell.

  forever

  / fE5revE(r); fL`ZvL/ adv 1 (also for ever) for all time; always 永远: I'll love you forever! 我永远爱你! * You'll never get that ball back it's lost forever. 你再也找不回那个球了--永远也找不回来了. * (infml 口) It takes her forever (ie an extremely long time) to get dressed. 她穿衣打扮得用半天时间. 2 (usu with vs in the continuous tenses 通常与进行时态的动词连用) at all times; constantly or persistently 总是; 不断地; 无休止地: They are forever arguing. 他们总是争吵. * Why are you forever asking questions? 你怎麽老是问问题?

  forewarn

  / fR:5wR:n; fRr`wRrn/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr, Dn.f] ~ sb (of sth) warn sb before sth happens; advise sb (of possible dangers, problems, etc) 预先警告某人; 告诉某人(可能出现危险、 问题等): We had been forewarned of the risk of fire/that fire could break out. 已经事先警告过我们有发生火灾的危险. 2 (idm 习语) fore,warned is fore`armed (saying 谚) knowledge of possible dangers, problems, etc allows one to prepare for them 有备无患.

  foreword

  / 5fR:w\:d; `fRr9w[d/ n short introduction to a book, printed at the beginning and usu written by a person other than the author (书的)前言, 序言(通常指并非作者写的). Cf 参看 preface.

  forfeit

  / 5fR:fIt; `fRrfIt/ v [Tn] (have to) lose or give up (sth) as a consequence of or punishment for having done sth wrong, or in order to achieve sth (因做错事或为得到某事物)失去或放弃(另一事物): Passengers who cancel their reservations will forfeit their deposit. 旅客取消预订票者, 定金不予退还. * He has forfeited the right to represent the people. 已撤销他代表人民的资格. * The couple forfeited their independence in order to help those less fortunate. 这对夫妇把富裕出的钱都拿出来帮助那些受难的人.

  forfeit

  n 1 [C usu sing 通常作单数] thing (to be) paid or given up as a penalty or punishment (因受罚)丧失的东西; 罚金. 2 (a) forfeits [sing v] game in which a player gives up various articles if he makes a mistake and can have them back by doing sth ridiculous 罚物游 戏(输者交出小物品, 做滑稽表演後方可取回). (b) [C] article given up in this game 做此种游戏中交出的东西: Give me your watch as a forfeit. 你输了, 罚你把手表交给我.

  forfeit

  adj [pred 作表语] ~ (to sb/sth) (fml 文) (liable to be) lost, paid or given up as a forfeit (作为罚金或抵押品)(可能)失去, 交出: All goods may be forfeit to the State in time of war. 战时所有的货物都可能被国家徵用.

  forfeiture

  / 5fR:fItFE(r); `fRrfItFL/ n [U] ~ (of sth) (act of) forfeiting sth 丧失; 放弃; 没收: (the) forfeiture of one's property 放弃财产.

  forgather (also foregather)

  / fR:5gTE(r); fRr`^ATL/ v [I] (fml 文) come together; meet socially 聚会.

  forgave

  pt of forgive.

  forge

  / fR:dV; fRrdV/ n 1 workshop with a fire and an anvil where metals are heated and shaped, esp one used by a smith for making horseshoes 铁匠铺(尤指做马掌的). 2 (workshop, factory, etc with a) furnace for melting or refining metals 锻铁炉; 锻造车间或工厂.

  forge

  / fR:dV; fRrdV/ v [Tn] 1 (a) shape (sth) by heating it in a fire and hammering 锻造; 打铁: forge a sword, a chain, an anchor, etc 锻造剑、 铁链、 锚等. (b) (fig 比喻) create (usu a lasting relationship) by means of much hard work (靠艰苦工作)建立(通常为长期关系): forge a bond, a link, an alliance, etc 建立同盟、 联系、 联盟等 * a friendship forged by adversity 患难中建立起来的友谊. Cf 参看 weld. 2 make an imitation or copy of (sth) in order to deceive people 伪造: forge a banknote, will, signature, etc 伪造钞票、 遗嘱、 签字等. Cf 参看 counterfeit v.

  forger

  n person who forges (forge2 2) money, a document, etc 伪造(钱币、 文件等)的人. Cf 参看 counterfeiter (counterfeit).

  forgery

  / 5fR:dVErI; `fRrdVErI/ n 1 [U] (crime or act of) forging (forge2 2) a document, picture, signature, etc (文件、 画、 签字等的)伪造, 伪造罪, 伪造行为: He spent 5 years in prison for forgery. 他因伪造罪而坐了5年牢. 2 [C] document, signature, etc that has been forged 伪造的文件、 签字等: This famous painting was thought to be by Van Gogh, but it is in fact a forgery. 人们以为这是凡·高的名画, 其实是膺品. Cf 参看 counterfeit.

  forging

  n [C] piece of metal that has been forged (forge2 1a) or shaped under a press 锻件.

  forge

  / fR:dV; fRrdV/ v 1 [Ipr, Ip, Tn.pr] move forward steadily or gradually 稳步前进: forge constantly onwards 坚定不移地稳步前进 * forge into the lead, ie gradually overtake sb 稳步进入领先地位(逐步超越某人). 2 (phr v) forge ahead advance or progress quickly; take the leading position in a race, etc 高速前进; (在赛跑等运动中)进入领先地位: One horse forged ahead, leaving the others behind. 有一匹马跑在最前面, 把其他的马抛在後面.

  forget

  / fE5get; fL`^Zt/ v (pt forgot / fE5gCt; fL`gBt/, pp forgotten / fE5gCtn; fL`^Btn/) 1 [Ipr, Tn, Tf, Tw, Tg] ~ about sth (not used in the continuous tenses 不用於进行时态) fail to remember or recall (sth); lose the memory of (sth) 忘记(某事物); 遗忘: He forgot (about) her birthday, ie did not remember it at the proper time. 他把她的生日忘了. * I've forgotten her name. 我把她的名字忘了. * Did you forget (that) I was coming? 难道你忘了我要来吗? * She forgot how the puzzle fitted together. 她忘了那个拼图是怎麽拼在一起的. * I'll never forget seeing my daughter dance in public for the first time. 我永远忘不了看著我女儿第一次当众跳舞的情景. 2 (a) [I, Tt] fail to remember to do sth; neglect 忘记(做某事); 忽视: `Why didn't you buy any bread?' `Sorry, I forgot.' `你怎麽没买面包呢?'`真抱歉, 我忘了.' * Don't forget to feed the cat. 别忘了喂猫. * He forgot to pay me. 他忘了付给我钱. (b) [Tn] fail to remember to bring, buy, etc (sth) or take care of (sth) 忘记带、 购买、 照料等(某事物): I forgot my umbrella. 我忘带伞了. * Don't forget the waiter, ie give him a tip. 别忘了给服务员小费. 3 [Ipr, Tn, Tf] ~ (about) sb/sth stop thinking about sb/sth; not think about sb/sth; put sb/sth out of one's mind 忘掉或不再想某人[某事物]; 不把某人[某事物]放在心上: Let's forget (about) our differences. 咱们不要把彼此的分歧放在心上. * Try to forget (all) about him. 别再想他了. * You can forget about a holiday this year I've lost my job. 你别再想今年去度假的事了--我失业了. * `How much do I owe you?' `Forget it!', ie Don't bother to pay me back. `我欠你多少钱?'`算了吧!' * The shop will accept cheques and credit cards, not forgetting (ie and also) cash, of course. 这个商店可用支票和信用卡付帐, 当然也收现金. * I was forgetting (that) David used to teach you. 我几乎忘了大卫以前经常教你. 4 [Tn] ~ oneself (a) behave without proper dignity 忘乎所以: I'm afraid I forgot myself and kissed him wildly. 当时我有些忘乎所以, 疯狂地吻著他. (b) act unselfishly 忘我; 无私: Forget yourself and think of someone else for a change. 别光想著你自己, 你也为别人想一次. 5 (idm 习语) elephants never forget => elephant. forgive and forget => forgive.

  forgetful

  / -fl; -fEl/ adj 1 in the habit of forgetting; likely to forget 健忘的; 好忘记的: Old people are sometimes forgetful. 老人有时爱忘事. 2 [pred 作表语] ~ of sb/sth not thinking about sth; neglectful of sb/sth 对某人[某事物]不考虑、 疏忽: be forgetful of one's duties 玩忽职守.

  forgetfully

  / -fElI; -fElI/ adv.

  forgetfulness

  n [U].

  forget-me-not

  / fE5get mI nCt; fL`^ZtmI9nBt/ n small plant with tiny blue flowers 勿忘我(勿忘草属, 开蓝色小花).

  forgive

  / fE5gIv; fL`^Iv/ v (pt forgave / fE5geIv; fL`^ev/, pp forgiven / fE5gIvn; fL`^IvEn/) 1 [Tn, Tn.pr, Dn.n] ~ sth; ~ sb (for sth/doing sth) stop being angry or bitter towards sb or about sth; stop blaming or wanting to punish sb 原谅; 宽恕; 饶恕: I forgave her a long time ago. 我早已原谅她了. * I cannot forgive myself for not seeing my mother before she died. 母亲临终前我未去看她, 为这件事我永远不能原谅自己. * She forgave him his thoughtless remark. 她原谅了他说的轻率的话. * (religion 宗) Forgive us our trespasses, ie our sins. 请宽恕我们的罪孽吧! 2 [Tn, Tn.pr, Tsg] ~ sb (for doing sth) (used in polite expressions to lessen the force of what the speaker says and in mild apologies 礼貌用语, 用以缓和语气并示歉意): Forgive my ignorance, but what exactly are you talking about? 请原谅我孤陋寡闻, 你说的到底是什麽? * Please forgive me for interrupting/my interrupting. 对不起, 打搅了. 3 [Dn.n] say that sb need not repay (the money owed); not demand repayment from (sb) 免除(某人的债务); 不要求(某人)偿还: Won't you forgive me such a small debt? 这麽小小的一笔债, 请你免了行吗? 4 (idm 习语) for,give and for`get dismiss from one's mind all unkind feelings and the desire to blame and punish sb 不念旧恶; 不记某人的仇.

  forgivable

  / -Ebl; -Ebl/ adj that can be forgiven 可原谅的; 可宽恕的; 可饶恕的: His harshness is forgivable. 他很严厉, 但情有可原.

  forgiveness

  n [U] forgiving or state of being forgiven; willingness to forgive 原谅; 原谅的意愿: He asked forgiveness for what he had done wrong. 他请求原谅他的错误. * (religion 宗) the forgiveness of sins 对罪孽的宽恕 * She is sympathetic and full of forgiveness. 她富有同情心, 待人宽厚.

  forgiving

  adj ready and willing to forgive 宽容的; 宽恕的; 宽谅的: kind forgiving parents 慈爱而宽厚的父母 * a forgiving nature 宽容厚道的本性.

  forgivingly

  adv.

  forgo

  / fR:5gEU; fRr`^o/ v (pt forwent / fR:5went; fRr`wZnt/, pp forgone / fR:5gCn; ?@ -5gR:n; fRr`^Rn/) [Tn] give up or do without (esp sth pleasant) 放弃或没有(尤指美好的事物)也行: The workers agreed to forgo a pay increase for the sake of greater job security. 工人们为了工作更保险, 同意放弃增加工资的要求.

  forgot

  pt of forget.

  forgotten

  pp of forget.

  fork

  / fR:k; fRrk/ n 1 small implement with a handle and two or more points or prongs, used for lifting food to the mouth or holding things (esp meat) firmly while they are cut 叉子: eat with a knife and fork 使用刀叉吃东西. =>illus 见插图. 2 farm or gardening tool with a handle and prongs, used for digging the ground, lifting hay, etc 叉; 耙. =>illus 见插图. 3 (a) place where a road, river, tree branch, etc divides into two parts (路、 河、 树枝等的)分岔处, 岔口: Go up to the fork and turn left. 走到岔口处向左拐. (b) either of the two parts divided in this way 一个分岔: Take the right fork. 走右边

  forlorn

  / fE5lR:n; fL`lRrn/ adj 1 lonely and unhappy; uncared for 孤独而凄凉的; 无人照顾的: a forlorn child sitting on the street corner 坐在街角没人照顾的孩子. 2 (of places) looking uncared for; wretched or forsaken (指地方)似无人管理的, 破烂的, 被离弃的: deserted forlorn farmhouses 弃置的破烂农舍. 3 (idm 习语) a forlorn `hope plan or undertaking that is almost certain not to succeed 几乎不可能实现的计画或不可能成功的事情: Going to their rescue in a rowing-boat is a bit of a forlorn hope. 乘划艇去救他们, 希望不大.

  forlornly

  adv.

  forlornness

  n [U].

  form

  / fR:m; fRrm/ n 1 [C, U] outward physical appearance of sb/sth; shape 某人[某物]的外形; 外貌; 样子; 形状: a jelly mould in the form of a motor car 做成汽车形状的果冻 * We could just manage to see the form of an aircraft taking off in the fog. 飞机在雾中起飞, 我们仅仅能看出它的轮廓. * her slender graceful form 她那苗条优美的体形. 2 [C] ~ (of sth) specific type of arrangement or structure of sth; manner in which sth exists or appears; kind or variety 某事物的具体组成或结构; 某事物存在的或呈现的形式; 形态; 体制; 种类: water in the form of ice 水呈冰的形态 * different forms of government 各种政体 * The training took the form of (ie consisted of) seminars and lectures. 这种培训是以讨论与讲课的形式进行的. * the form (ie set order of words) of the marriage service 婚礼仪式. 3 [U] general structure and arrangement of sth created such as a musical composition or piece of writing, in contrast to its content (音乐及文学作品等的)形式, 体裁: music in sonata form 奏鸣曲 * literary form 文学体裁 * This painting shows a good sense of form. 这幅画的构图很好. 4 [C, U] (grammar) (particular) spelling or pronunciation of a word 字形; 字的发音: The plural form of `goose' is `geese'. goose的复数形式是geese. * The words `elevator' and `lift' are different in form but identical in meaning. elevator与lift形式相异但意义相同. 5 [U] particular manner of behaving, speaking, or writing that is normally required or expected 礼貌; 礼节: Although she is not entitled to attend the dinner, I think she should be invited as a matter of form, ie because it is correct or polite. 尽管她没有资格参加这次晚宴, 我认为出於礼节还是应该邀请她. * What is the form (ie the correct thing to do)? 按理说该怎麽做? 6 [U] (a) strength, fitness to compete with others, etc of an athlete, a horse, etc (运动员、 马等的)竞技状态: After six months training, the whole team is in superb form. 全队经过六个月的训练竞技状态极佳. (b) record of the actions, behaviour, progress, etc of a person, team, etc (对个人或全队等的动作姿态、 表现、 进步情况等的)记录: On present/current form, Spain will win tonight's match. 就西班牙队目前的状态来看, 今晚的比赛他们能赢. * Judging by recent form, he should easily pass the exam. 从他最近的表现来看, 他应该很容易考及格. * I've got no record of this horse's form. 我没有这匹马的情况记录. 7 [U] person's feelings, humour or spirits 感情、 幽默或精神状态: They were both in fine/good form at dinner. 晚餐时他们俩的精神都很好. 8 (Brit sl 俚) record of having been found guilty of crimes and (usu) of having received a prison sentence 犯罪记录(通常指曾入狱者); 前科: He's got no form! 他没有犯罪记录! 9 [C] class, esp in British private schools and some American private schools 年级(尤用於英国私立学校及美国部分私立学校的): The youngest children are in the first form, the oldest in the sixth form. 最小的儿童上一年级, 最大的上六年级. 10 [C] long wooden bench, usu without a back 长木凳. 11 [C] printed or typed piece of paper with questions, and spaces for answers 表格: fill in an application form 填申请表. 12 [C] place where a hare lives; lair (野兔的)窝, 窟. 13 (idm 习语) bad/good `form (dated 旧) incorrect/correct social behaviour according to accepted standards 失礼的[有礼貌的]行为: It is sometimes considered bad form to smoke between courses at a meal. 在两道菜之间抽烟有时认为是失礼的. a form of address style of addressing sb in speech or writing 称呼: What form of address should one use when writing to a bishop? 给主教写信应该怎样称呼? in any shape or form => shape1. on/off `form; in/out of `form in a good/bad state of fitness, ability, etc; performing as well as/not as well as usual 处於良好的[不佳的]竞技状态; 表现如常[不如平常]: The team were on excellent form throughout the whole competition. 这个队在整个比赛过程中一直处於极好的竞技状态. on present form => present1. true to form => true.

  -former

  (forming compound ns 用以构成复合名词) child or young person in the specified form1(9) at school 某年级的学生: a sixth-former.

  formless

  adj without a clear or definite shape or structure 形状或结构不清楚的; 无一定形状或结构的: formless shadows, ideas, dreams 模糊的影子、 想法、 梦.

  formlessly

  adv.

  form

  / fR:m; fRrm/ v 1 (a) [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (from sth) give shape or structure to sth; fashion sth; produce sth 形成、 构成、 塑造或产生某事物: form a bowl from clay 用陶土做碗 * form sentences and paragraphs 构成句子与段落 * The reservoir was formed by flooding the valley. 这个水库是引水淹没山谷而形成的. * The substances are formed from a mixture of liquids solidifying under pressure. 这些材料是由几种液体混合在一起并加压使之凝固而成的. (b) [Ln] take a particular shape or structure; develop 成一定形状或结构; 发展; 成型. 2 [Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr] ~ (sb/sth) into sth arrange(sb/sth) or be arranged in a certain order 将(某人[某事物])按一定顺序排列: The children formed (into) a line/The teacher formed the children into a line. 这些小学生排成了一排[老师让学生排成一排]. * The volunteers formed (themselves into) three groups. 志愿人员分成三组. 3 (a) [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (from sth) bring sth into existence; develop or organize sth 使某事物开始存在; 成立, 创立, 组织(某事物): form a committee, society, company, etc 成立委员会、 协会、 公司等 * The Labour leader was asked to form a government. 要求工党领袖组织政府. * (fig 比喻) form an idea, impression, opinion, etc (of sb/sth) 形成(对某人[某事物]的)想法、 印象、 意见等 * form a relationship 建立关系. (b) [Ipr] come into existence; take shape or develop 开始存在; 出现; 产生: thunder clouds forming in the distance 远处出现的雷雨云 * Ice forms (ie Water becomes solid) at 0C. 水在0C时结冰. * A scab formed on his leg. 他腿上结了个痂. 4 [Ln] be the material of (sth); be an essential part of (sth); constitute 成为(某事物的)材料; 成为(某事物的)基本部分; 构成: His research formed the basis of his new book. 他的研究成果是他这本新书的基础. * Should the new department form part of the Faculty of Arts? 这个新的系属文学院吗? * The historical aspect formed the main theme of her essay. 她的论文的主题是由历史观点贯穿起来的. 5 [Tn] instruct or train (sb/sth) 指导或训练(某人[某物]); 塑造; 养成: a character formed by strict discipline 靠严格的纪律培养起来的性格. 6 [Tn] produce (sth) as the particular spelling or pronunciation of a word 构成(字的某种拼写或发音形式): form the plural of a noun by adding `s' 在词尾加s构成名词的复数. 7 (phr v) form (sb) up move (sb) into position in lines, as on parade 将(某人)编入队伍: The battalion formed up by companies on the barrack square. 全营以连为单位在军营广场上列队.

  pro forma

  / 9prEU 5fR:mE; pro`fRrmE/ adj, adv as a matter of convention 作为惯例; 形式上(的).

  pro forma (also pro forma invoice)

  invoice that gives details of goods that have been sent, but does not request payment 形式发票, 估价单(开列所发货物之清单, 但不要求付款).

  formal

  / 5fR:ml; `fRrml/ adj 1 following accepted rules of behaviour; showing or expecting careful, serious behaviour, as eg on official occasions or in distant, not close, relationships 正式的; 正规的; 按规矩的; 有礼貌的; 庄重的; 文雅的: She has a very formal manner. 她举止端庄. * a formal dinner, luncheon, dance, etc 正式的晚餐、 午餐、 舞会等 * formal dress 礼服 * `Request' is a more formal way of saying `ask for'. 用request一词比用ask for显得郑重. 2 regular or geometric in shape; symmetrical 形状整齐的; 成几何图形的; 匀称的: formal gardens 整齐的花园. 3 of the outward shape or appearance (in contrast to the content or substance) 外形的; 外观的; 形式上的: There is only a formal resemblance between the two systems; they are in fact radically different. 这两种体系只是在表面上有某种相似之处, 其实根本不同. 4 publicly declared and recognized as official 公开宣布的; 正式承认的: a formal denial 公开否认 * a formal declaration of war 正式宣战. 5 [attrib 作定语] (of education) officially given at a school, college, etc (指教育)正规的: The job does not require any formal training. 做这种工作不需要任何正规训练.

  formalism

  / -mElIzEm; -ml9IzEm/ n [U] strict observance of external form, ceremony, technique, etc, often without concern for feeling or meaning, eg in art 形式主义: creativity reduced to an empty formalism 沦为空洞的形式主义的创造性.

  formally

  / -mElI; -mlI/ adv: The new rates of pay have not been formally agreed. 新的工资标准尚未正式同意.

  formaldehyde

  / fR:5mAldIhaId; fRr`mAldE9haId/ n [U] (chemistry 化) strong-smelling colourless gas used as a preservative and disinfectant when dissolved in water 甲醛.

  formalin

  / 5fR:mElIn; `fRrmElIn/ n (chemistry 化) solution of formaldehyde in water, used as above 甲醛水溶液; 福尔马林.

  formalize, formalise

  / 5fR:mElaIz; `fRrmE9laIz/ v [Tn] make (a plan, etc) official, esp by writing it down 使(计画等)成为正式的(尤指形成文字): formalize the arrangements for the conference 把会议的各项安排确定下来.

  formalization, formalisation

  / 9fR:mElaI5zeIFn; 9fRrmElE`zEFEn/ n [U].

  formality

  / fR:5mAlEtI; fRr`mAlEtI/ n 1 [U] careful observance of rules, conventions, etc of language or behaviour (语言或行为)认真遵循规范、 正统等: At board meetings you have to get used to the formality of the language. 参加董事会议必须习惯那种古板的语言. * I found the formality of the occasion irritating. 我觉得这种场合的繁文缛节十分讨厌. 2 [C] (a) action required by convention or law 传统上的或法律上的手续: comply with all the necessary formalities 遵照一切必需的礼仪 * go through the legal formalities 办理法律手续. (b) such an action which no longer has much real importance or meaning 形式; 例行公事: They said the interview was just a formality/a mere formality, as they've already given me the job. 他们说面试只是一种例行公事, 因为他们已经把工作给我了.

  format

  / 5fR:mt; `fRrmAt/ n 1 shape, size, binding, etc of a book (书的)版式, 开本, 装订方式: It's the same book, but a new format. 还是那本书, 但这是新的版式. 2 general arrangement, plan, design, etc of sth (某事物的)总体安排、 计画、 设计等: The format of the meeting was such that everyone could ask a question. 会议安排好可让每个人都能提一个问题. 3 arrangement or organization of data for processing or storage by a computer 格式.

  format

  v (-tt-) [Tn] arrange (sth) in a particular format, usu for a computer 按一定方式安排(某事物); (通常指计算机)编排格式.

  formation

  / fR:5meIFn; fRr`meFEn/ n 1 [U] organizing and developing (of sth) (某事物的)组织, 形成, 构成: the formation of a new government 新政府的组成 * the formation of national character 民族特性的形成. 2 [C] thing that is formed, esp in a particular or characteristic way 形成物(尤指结构特殊的); 结构: cloud, rock formations 云层、 岩层 * new word formations 新词的构成. 3 [U] particular arrangement or pattern 编排; 编队; 队形: aircraft flying in formation 编队飞行的飞机 * [attrib 作定语] for`mation flying 编队飞行.

  formative

  / 5fR:mEtIv; `fRrmEtIv/ adj [attrib 作定语] having an important and lasting influence on the development of sb's character 对某人的性格的形成有重要长期影响的: a child's formative years 儿童性格的形成时期 * formative influences in one's life 一生中影响性格形成的因素.

  former

  / 5fR:mE(r); `fRrmL/ adj [attrib 作定语] 1 of an earlier period or time 以前的: the former world champion 前世界冠军 * my former landlady 我以前的女房东 * in former times 以前 * She's back to her former self again, eg after an illness. 她又恢复了以前的样子(如病後). 2 being the first mentioned of two things or people 前者的(两者中先提到的): The former option favours the married man. 前一种选择对已婚男子有利. 3 (idm 习语) a shadow of one's/its former self => shadow.

  the former

  pron the first mentioned of two things or people 前者: If I had to choose between fish and chicken I'd prefer the former, ie fish. 若让我在鱼和鸡之间选择其一, 我要前者(即鱼).

  formerly

  adv in earlier times; previously 以前; 从前: The company formerly belonged to an international banking group. 该公司以前隶属於一个国际银行集团. * Namibia, formerly South West Africa 纳米比亚, 旧称西南非洲. Cf 参看 latter.

  formic acid

  / 9fR:mIk 5AsId; 9fRrmIk `AsId/ colourless acid used in textile finishing, etc originally obtained from ants but now produced synthetically 甲酸; 蚁酸.

  Formica

  / fR:5maIkE; fRr`maIkE/ n [U] (propr 专利名) hard heat-resistant plastic made into sheets for covering surfaces 福米加(贴於家具等表面的抗热硬塑料薄板).

  formidable

  / 5fR:mIdEbl; `fRrmIdEbl/ adj 1 causing fear or great anxiety; frightening; awesome 引起恐惧或不安的; 可怕的; 可畏的: a formidable appearance, look, prospect 可怕的外表、 神情、 景象. 2 difficult to deal with or overcome 难以应付的; 难以克服的: formidable obstacles, opposition, debts 难以逾越的障碍、 难以克服的反对力量、 难以偿还的债务 * a formidable task 艰巨的任务. 3 inspiring awe and respect because of excellence and strength; very impressive 极好极强的; 了不起的; 令人敬畏的; 惊人的: a formidable athlete, competitor, list of qualifications 杰出的运动员、 强大的竞争对手、 了不起的资历.

  formidably

  / -EblI; -EblI/ adv.

  formula

  / 5fR:mjUlE; `fRrmjElE/ n (pl ~s or, in scientific use 作科技用语, 复数作 formulae / -mjUli:; -mjJli/) =>Usage at data 用法见data. 1 [C] (a) (chemistry 化) set of symbols showing the elements that a substance is made of 分子式: The formula for water is H2O. 水的分子式为H2O. (b) (mathematics or physics 数或物) expression of a rule or relationship in algebraic symbols 公式: the formula for converting gallons into litres 加仑与升的换算公式. 2 [C] fixed arrangement of words, esp as used on social, legal or ceremonial occasions 套语, 惯用语(尤指社交、 法律场合或仪式上使用的): `How d'you do' and `Excuse me' are social formulae. `你好'和`对不起'是社交中的客套语. * know the formula for addressing bishops 知道对主教的习惯称呼. 3 [C] list of ingredients or set of instructions for making sth, esp medicines and fuels 配方; 药方; 处方: a formula for a new drug 新药的配方. 4 [C] set of statements or plans that can be agreed on by two or more persons or groups (双方或各方同意的)方案, 计画: Managers and workers are still working out a peace formula. 劳资双方仍在商谈制订和解方案. 5 [C] ~ (for sth) method, plan, or set of principles worked out to achieve a desired result (为达到预期目的而制订的)方法, 计画, 原则: There is no sure formula for success. 成功并无一定之规. * a formula for a happy marriage 美满婚姻的信条. 6 [U] classification of racing cars of a particular size, engine capacity, etc 方程式(根据汽车大小、 发动机容量等对赛车的分级): [attrib 作定语] Formula 1 racing cars 一级方程式赛车. 7 [U] (US) artificial powdered milk for babies 人造婴儿奶粉.

  formulaic

  / 9fR:mjU5leIIk; 9fRrmjE`leIk/ adj made up of set patterns of words 有固定用词格式的: Anglo-Saxon poetry is formulaic. 盎格鲁-撒克逊诗歌有固定的格式.

  formulate

  / 5fR:mjUleIt; `fRrmjE9let/ v [Tn] 1 create (sth) in a precise form 将(某事物)形式固定格式: formulate a rule, policy, theory, etc 制定规则、 制定政策、 创立理论. 2 express (sth) clearly and exactly using particular words 确切地表达(某思想): formulate one's thoughts carefully 确切地阐述自己的思想 * The contract was formulated in difficult legal language. 该合同是用深奥的法律术语订立的.

  formulation

  / 9fR:mjU5leIFn; 9fRrmjE`leFEn/ n (a) [U] action of formulating 格式化; 公式化; 确切的表达. (b) [C] result of this 公式; 确切的表达: choose another formulation 选择另一种表达方式.

  fornicate

  / 5fR:nIkeIt; `fRrnI9ket/ v [I] (fml esp derog 文, 尤作贬义) (of people not married to each other) have sexual intercourse (指无婚姻关系的人之间)性交; 通奸.

  fornication

  / 9fR:nI5keIFn; 9fRrnI`keFEn/ n [U].

  forsake

  / fE5seIk; fL`sek/ v (pt forsook / fE5sUk; fL`sJk/, pp forsaken / fE5seIkEn; fL`sekEn/) [Tn] 1 (fml 文) give (sth) up; renounce 抛弃, 放弃(某事物): forsake one's former habits 抛弃旧习惯. 2 leave (sb), esp when one should be helping him; abandon or desert 离开(某人)(尤指应予帮助时); 遗弃; 舍弃: forsake one's family and friends 舍弃家人和朋友 * a dreary forsaken beach in winter 冬季人迹罕至的海滨.

  forswear

  / fR:5sweE(r); fRr`swZr/ v (pt forswore / fR:5swR:(r); fRr`swRr/, pp forsworn / fR:5swR:n; fRr`swRrn/)(fml 文) 1 [Tn, Tg] (promise to) give up (sth); renounce (保证)放弃(某事物); 舍弃: He had forsworn smoking. 他已经戒烟了. 2 [Tn] ~ oneself = perjure oneself (perjure).

  forsythia

  / fR:5saIWIE; ?@ fEr5sIWIE; fL`sIWIE/ n [U] bush with bright yellow flowers, blooming in the spring 连翘.

  fort

  / fR:t; fRrt/ n 1 building(s) specially made or strengthened for the military defence of an area 要塞; 堡垒; 碉堡; 城堡. 2 (idm 习语) hold the `fort have the responsibility or care of sth/sb in the absence of others 代他人尽责或替他人关照某人[某事物].

  forte

  / 5fR:teI; ?@ fR:rt; fRrt/ n (usu sing 通常作单数) thing that sb does particularly well; strong point 某人擅长的事; 长处; 特长: Mathematics was never my forte. 数学一向非我所长.

  forte

  / 5fR:teI; `fRrte/ adj, adv (abbr 缩写 f) (music 音) loud; (to be) played loudly 强音(的); 用强音演奏(的). Cf 参看 piano1.

  forth

  / fR:W; fRrW/ adv part 1 (arch 古) out from home, etc (离家等处)外出: explorers who ventured forth to discover new lands 冒险去发现新地域的探险家. 2 (fml 文) onwards; forwards 向前; 向前方: from that day forth 从那天起. 3 (idm 习语) and (,so on and) `so forth and other things of the kind that have already been mentioned 等, 等等(表示列举未尽): They discussed investments, the state of the economy and so forth. 他们讨论了投资和经济状况等问题. back and forth => back3.

  forthcoming

  / 9fR:W5kQmIN; `fRrW`kQmIN/ adj 1 [attrib 作定语] about to happen or appear in the near future 即将发生或出现的: the ,forthcoming e`lections 即将举行的选举 * a list of ,forthcoming `books, ie those about to be published 即将出版的图书的目录. 2 [pred 作表语] (often with a negative 常与否定词连用) ready or made available when needed (需要时)现成, 可得到: The money we asked for was not forthcoming. 我们要的钱尚未得到. 3 [pred 作表语] ready to help, give information, etc 愿意帮忙或提供信息等: The secretary at the reception desk was not very forthcoming. 接待处的秘书不太主动.

  forthright

  / 5fR:WraIt; fRrW`raIt/ adj clear and honest in manner and speech; straightforward 言行坦诚的; 直率的: He has a reputation for being a forthright critic. 他是以直率著称的评论家. * condemnation in the most forthright language 直言不讳的谴责.

  forthwith

  / 9fR:W5wIW; ?@ -5wIT; fRrW`wIW/ adv (fml 文) immediately; at once 立刻; 立即; 即刻; 马上: Mr Jones will be dismissed forthwith. 琼斯先生即将被解职.

  fortieth

  => forty.

  fortify

  / 5fR:tIfaI; `fRrtE9faI/ v (pt, pp -fied) 1 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (against sth) (a) strengthen (a place) against attack, by building walls, etc 防卫(某地)(筑围墙等): fortify a town against invasion 加强防卫一城镇以抵御敌人入侵 * a fortified city 设防的城市. (b) support or strengthen (sb) physically or morally (在物质或道义上)支持(某人): Fortified against the cold by a heavy coat, he went out into the snow. 他穿上御寒的大衣冒雪外出. * fortify oneself by prayer and meditation 通过祈祷和冥想增强自己的信念. 2 [Tn usu passive 通常用於被动语态] increase the nutritional value of (a variety of food) by adding vitamins (添加维生素)增加(食物的)营养价值: cereal fortified with extra vitamins 强化营养麦片.

  fortification

  / 9fR:tIfI5keIFn; 9fRrtEfE`keFEn/ n 1 [U] fortifying; strengthening 加强防卫; 强化: plans for the fortification of the city 加强城市防御的计画. 2 [C usu pl 通常作复数] tower, wall, ditch, etc built to defend a place against attack 碉堡、 围墙、 战壕等防御进攻的建筑物: These fortifications were all built during the last war. 这些防御工事都是上次战争时修筑的.

  fortified wine

  wine strengthened by adding strong alcohol 加度葡萄酒: Port and madeira are fortified wines. 波尔图酒和马德拉酒都是加度葡萄酒.

  a fortiori

  / 9eI 9fR:tI5R:raI; 9e9fRrtI`R9raI/ (Latin 拉) for this stronger reason 因为这一更充分理由; 更加: If he can afford a luxury yacht, then a fortiori he can afford to pay his debts. 他若能买得起豪华的快艇, 就更能匀出钱来还债了.

  fortissimo

  / fR:5tIsImEU; fRr`tIsE9mo/ adj, adv (abbr 缩写 ff) (music 音) very loud; (to be) played very loudly 最强音(的); 用最强音演奏(的).

  fortitude

  / 5fR:tItju:d; ?@ -tu:d; `fRrtE9tJd/ n [U] courage, endurance and self-control in facing pain, danger or difficulty (在痛苦、 危险或困难面前表现出的)勇气、 坚韧和自制力: He bore the pain with great fortitude. 他以极大的毅力忍受了痛苦.

  fortnight

  / 5fR:tnaIt; `fRrtnaIt/ n (usu sing 通常作单数) (esp Brit) 1 (period of) two weeks 两星期(的时间); 两周: a fortnight's holiday 两周的假期 * a fortnight ago 两星期前 * a fortnight today/tomorrow/on Tuesday, ie two weeks after the day specified 自今天[明天/星期二]起两周之後. 2 (idm 习语) this day fortnight => day.

  fortnightly

  adj, adv (esp Brit) (happening) once a fortnight 每两星期(发生)一次(的): a fortnightly flight to Brazil 每两周飞往巴西一次的航班 * go home fortnightly 每两星期回家一次.

  FORTRAN (also Fortran)

  / 5fR:trAn; `fRrtrAn/ abbr 缩写 = (computing 计) formula translation, a programminglanguage used esp for scientific calculations 公式翻译(尤指用於科学计算的程序语言).

  fortress

  / 5fR:trIs; `fRrtrIs/ n castle or large fort; town strengthened against attack 城堡或大的碉堡; 加强防御能力的城镇: attempts to capture this well-protected fortress 夺取这座坚固堡垒的多次进攻.

  fortuitous

  / fR:5tju:ItEs; ?@ -5tu:-; fRr`tuEtEs/ adj (fml 文) happening by chance or coincidence 偶然发生的; 巧合的: a fortuitous meeting 偶然相遇.

  fortune

  / 5fR:tFu:n; `fRrtFEn/ n 1 [U] chance, esp regarded as a power affecting people's lives: (good or bad) luck 机会(尤指对人们生活有重要影响的); (好的或坏的)运气: By a stroke (ie instance) of (good) fortune, he won the competition. 他靠(好)运气在竞赛中获胜. * be a victim of ill (ie bad) fortune 成为恶运的牺牲品 * I had the good fortune (ie was lucky enough) to be chosen for a trip abroad. 我真幸运, 被选中出国旅行. 2 [C usu pl 通常作复数] event or change in the life of a person or in the progress of a country, business, etc (在人生中或在国家业务等的发展中的)事情或转变: The party's fortunes were at their lowest level after the election defeat. 该党在竞选失败後每况愈下. 3 [C] person's destiny or future; fate 个人的运气或前途; 命运: At the fair a gypsy told (me) my fortune, eg by looking at playing-cards or the lines on my hand. 有个吉普赛人在游乐场上给我算过命. 4 [C] large amount of money 大笔的钱; 巨款: That ring is worth/must have cost a fortune. 那戒指很值钱. * She inherited a large fortune. 她继承了一大笔财产. * He made a considerable fortune selling waste materials. 他靠卖废料发了大财. 5 (idm 习语) the fortune(s) of `war the good or bad luck one meets with in war 个人在战争中遇到的好运或恶运: made homeless by the fortunes of war 因战乱而无家可归. a hostage to fortune => hostage. seek one's fortune => seek. a small fortune => small. a soldier of fortune => soldier.

  fortune cookie

  (US) thin biscuit, folded to hold a printed message (eg a proverb, prophecy or joke), served in Chinese restaurants 签语饼(中国餐馆飨客的小脆饼, 包著印有谚语、 预言或笑话的小纸条).

  fortune-hunter

  n (derog 贬) person who wants to marry sb for money 为追求钱财而与某人结婚的人.

  fortune-teller

  n person who tells people's fortunes 算命者; 看相者.

  forty

  / 5fR:tI; `fRrtI/ pron, det, n 40; one more than thirty-nine 40, 四十(个). =>App 4 见附录4.

  fortieth

  / 5fR:tIEW; `fRrtIIW/ pron, det 40th; next after thirty-ninth 第40, 第四十(个). n one of forty equal parts of sth 四十分之一.

  forty

  n 1 [C] the number 40 *40; 四十. 2 the forties [pl] numbers, years or temperature from 40 to 49 从40到49的数目、 年数或温度. 3 (idm 习语) in one's forties between the ages of 40 and 50 在40岁到50岁之间.

  forty-five (also 45)

  n small record that is designed to be played on a record-player at 45 revolutions a minute (每分钟45转的)小唱片. For the uses of forty and fortieth see the examples at fifty, five and fifth. 关於forty和fortieth的用法见fifty、 five和fifth词条中的示例.

  forum

  / 5fR:rEm; `fRrEm/ n 1 (usu sing 通常作单数) place where important public issues can be discussed (讨论公共问题的)场所, 论坛: The letters page serves as a useful forum for the exchange of readers' views. 读者来信版是读者们交换意见的有益园地. 2 (in ancient Rome) public place where meetings were held (古罗马)集会的公共场所.

  forward

  / 5fR:wEd; `fRrwLd/ adj 1 [attrib 作定语] (a) directed or moving towards the front 向前方的; 向前进的: forward movement 向前运动. (b) situated in front; near or at the front 位於前面的; 接近或在前面的: forward ranks of troops 军队队列的前几排 * The forward part of the train is for first-class passengers only. 火车的前部只是头等车厢. 2 (of plants, crops, etc) having progressed more than is normal or expected; (of children) having developed certain abilities earlier than normal; well advanced (指花草、 农作物等)早熟的; (指儿童)发育早的; 早熟的: The summer crops were forward this year. 今年夏季农作物成熟得早. * a forward child 早熟的孩子. 3 [attrib 作定语] of or relating to the future 未来的; 与未来有关的: forward planning 对未来的计画 * (commerce 商) forward buying, ie buying goods at present prices for delivery later 预购. =>Usage at forward2 用法见forward2. 4 (a) ready and willing to be involved; eager 热心参与的; 急切的: be forward in helping others 热心助人的. (b) too eager; too bold in one's manner; presumptuous 过於急切的; (行为)过於大胆的; 冒昧的; 孟浪的; 莽撞的: a forward young girl 冒失的女孩子 * I hope you'll apologize that was a very forward thing to do. 我希望你能道歉--那事你做得太莽撞了. Cf 参看 backward.

  forwardness

  n [U] state of being forward1(4b) 过於急切的行为; 胆大妄为; 冒昧; 莽撞: Such forwardness is deplorable. 像这样的胆大妄为应该受到指责.

  forward

  / 5fR:wEd; `fRrwLd/ adv 1 (also forwards) towards the front or end, into a prominent position 向前或向末端(到达一突出位置): Move forward carefully or you'll slip. 小心地往前走, 不然会滑倒. * play a tape-recording forwards, not backwards 将录音带向前转, 别向後倒 * push one's way forward 挤著往前走. Cf 参看 back3 1. 2 onward so as to make progress 向前; 前进: an important step forward 向前迈进的重要一步 * We are not getting any further forward with the project. 我们目前在该计画上没有什麽进展. * The project will go forward as planned. 该工程将按计画进行. 3 towards the future; onwards in time 向著将来; 向著未来: from this time forward 从此以後 * Look forward and consider the advantages of a larger house. 从长远著想, 考虑一下大房子的好处. 4 (idm 习语) backward(s) and forward(s) => backwards (backward). put one's best foot forward => best1. put the clock/clocks forward/back => clock1.

  forward-looking

  adj (approv 褒) concerned with the future; having modern ideas; progressive 有前途的;有现代思想的; 进步的: a young forward-looking company新兴的有发展前途的公司.

  forward

  NOTE ON USAGE 用法: The suffix -ward means `in the direction of' and forms adverbs and adjectives*-ward这一後缀意为`向著某方向', 用以构成副词和形容词: forward, backward, westward, homeward, etc 向前、 向後、 向西、 向家里等. The suffix -wards has the same meaning but only forms adverbs *-wards与-ward意思相同但只能构成副词: forwards, backwards, westwards, homewards, etc 向前、 向後、 向西、 向家里等. Compare 试比较: They turned westward/westwards after crossing the river. 他们过河以後向西拐了. They travelled in a westward direction. 他们往西走了. * He leant forward/forwards to see better. 他把身子向前探, 以便看得更清楚. To move house requires forward planning. 要搬家得先做好计画.

  forward

  / 5fR:wEd; `fRrwLd/ v 1 (a) [I, Tn, Dn.n, Dn.pr] ~ sth (to sb) send (a letter, etc) to a new address 将(信件等)投递到新地址; 转递: please forward, ie a note written on an envelope, a parcel, etc 请转递(写在信封、 包裹上的字样) * Please forward our post (to our new home) when we move. 我们搬家後, 请将邮件转递(到我们的新住处). (b) [Tn, Dn.n, Dn.pr] ~ sth (to sb) send or dispatch (esp goods or information) to a customer (向客户)发送或递送(尤指货物或信息): forward a shipment of gloves 发送一批手套 * We have today forwarded you our new catalogue. 我们今天已将新目录发送给你们了. 2 [Tn] help to advance or develop (sth); further 帮助促进或发展(某事物); 增进; 提高: forward sb's plans, career, interests, etc. 促使完成某人的计画、 发展某人的事业、 提高某人的利益.

  forwarding address

  new address to which post is to be forwarded (邮件转递的)新地址: He moved house without leaving a forwarding address. 他搬家了, 没留下新地址.

  forwarding agent

  person or company that forwards (forward 1a) goods 转运行; 转运商.

  forward

  / 5fR:wEd; `fRrwLd/ n attacking player near the front in football, hockey, etc (足球、 曲棍球等的)前锋. Cf 参看 striker 2.

  forwent

  pt of forgo.

  fossil

  / 5fCsl; `fBsl/ n 1 remains of a prehistoric animal or plant preserved by being buried in earth and now hardened like rock 化石: This fossil may be over 2 million years old. 这化石可能超过二百万年了. * [attrib 作定语] fossil bones, shells, etc 变成化石的骨、 贝壳等. 2 (infml derog 口, 贬) person, esp an old one, who is unable to accept new ideas or adapt to new conditions 不能接受新思想或不能适应新情况的人(尤指老年人); 老顽固; 老古董: Our literature teacher is an old fossil. 我们的文学老师是个老顽固.

  fossilize, fossilise

  / 5fCsElaIz; `fBsl9aIz/ v [I, Tn usu passive 通常用於被动语态] 1 (cause sth to) become a fossil (使某物)成为化石: fossilized leaves 成为化石的叶子. 2 (fig 比喻) make (sth) or become out of date or fixed 使(某事物)(变得)过时或固定不变: old-fashioned fossilized attitudes 落後的、 固定不变的看法.

  fossilization, fossilisation

  / 9fCsElaI5zeIFn; ?@ -lI5z-;9fBslE`zeFEn/ n [U].

  fossil fuel

  fuel, eg coal or oil, formed from the decayed remains of prehistoric animals or plants 矿物燃料, 化石燃料(如煤或石油).

  foster

  / 5fCstE(r); ?@ 5fR:-; `fRstL/ v 1 [Tn] help the growth or development of (sth); encourage or promote 培养, 培育(某物); 鼓励; 促进: foster an interest, attitude, impression, etc 培养兴趣、 滋长某种情绪、 加深印象 * foster the growth of local industries 扶植地方工业. 2 [I, Tn] take care of and bring up (a child that is not legally one's own) 照顾, 抚养(法律上不属於自己的孩子); 领养; 收养: People who cannot have a baby of their own sometimes foster (a child). 不能生育的人有时领养别人的(孩子). Cf 参看 adopt 1.

  foster-

  (forming compound ns 用以构成复合名词) with a family connection through fostering rather than of birth 通过收养而产生家庭关系的: a `foster-parent, -mother, -child, -son, -sister, etc * a `foster-home.

  fought

  pt, pp of fight.

  foul

  / faUl; faJl/ adj 1 having a bad smell or taste; dirty and disgusting 难闻的; 有恶味的; 污秽的; 令人厌恶的: foul stagnant ponds 臭烘烘的死水塘 * a foul rubbish dump 又脏又臭的垃圾堆 * This medicine tastes foul! 这药味让人恶心! 2 (a) unpleasant; dreadful 不愉快的; 可怕的: `Go away! I've had a foul day at work.' `走开! 我干了一天活儿够受的了.' * His boss has a foul temper. 他的老板的脾气很坏. (b) evil or wicked 邪恶的; 罪恶的: a foul crime 邪恶的罪行. 3 (of language) obscene and offensive; full of swear-words (指语言)猥亵的, 无礼的; 充满脏话的. 4 (of weather) very rainy and windy; stormy or rough (指天气)风雨大作的, 暴风雨的, 恶劣的: The spring was foul this year it was cold and wet for weeks. 今春天气恶劣--一连几个星期又冷又潮湿. 5 (sport 体) (of an action) against the rules; unfair (指动作)犯规的, 不正当的: a foul stroke 犯规的一击. 6 (of a chimney, pipe, etc) blocked with waste, etc so that nothing can pass through (指烟囱、 管道等)不通畅的, 阻塞的. 7 (idm 习语) by fair means or foul => fair1.fall foul of sb/sth have a confrontation or disagreement with sb/sth, esp the government or the authorities 与某人[某事物]冲突或不一致(尤指与政府或当局): The police never caught him in any criminal activity but he eventually fell foul of the tax authorities. 警方从未当场见到他有犯罪活动, 但他最终却与税务局惹上了官非.

  foul

  n (sport 体) action that is against the rules of a game (比赛中的)犯规行为: That last foul (against/on Smith) lost us the match. 最後那次(对史密斯)犯规使我们输了那场比赛.

  foully

  / 5faUllI; `faJllI/ adv.

  foulness

  n [U].

  foul-mouthed

  adj using obscene and offensive language 用猥亵、 无礼语言的: a ,foul-mouthed `child 说脏话的孩子.

  foul play

  1 action that is against the rules of a sport; unfair or illegal dealings (运动中的)犯规行为; 不正当的或违法的交易: fresh evidence of foul play in financial dealings 在财务方面违法的新证据. 2 criminal violence that leads to murder (导致谋杀的)犯罪暴力行为: The police suspect foul play rather than suicide. 警方怀疑是谋杀不是自杀.

  foul

  / faUl; faJl/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.p] ~ sth (up) make sth dirty 弄脏某物: Dogs are not permitted to foul (ie excrete on) the pavement. 禁止狗在人行道上便溺. * The factories are responsible for fouling up the air for miles around. 这些工厂造成了很大范围的空气污染. 2 [I, Ip, Tn, Tn.p] ~ (sth) (up) (cause sth to) become caught or twisted (in sth) (使某物)缠结; (与某物)缠住: The ropes have fouled (up). 绳子缠住了. * My fishing-line got fouled (up) in an old net. 我的钓丝跟旧鱼网缠在一起了. 3 [I, Tn] (sport 体) commit a foul against (another player) (对运动员)犯规: He fouled the same player again in the second half. 他在下半场对同一运动员再次犯规. 4 (idm 习语) foul one's (own) nest bring disgrace, etc to one's home, family, profession, country, etc (给自己的家庭、 家人、 职业、 国家等)带来耻辱等. 5 (phr v) foul sth up (infml 口) spoil sth, usu by behaving in a thoughtless or foolish way; mess sth up 弄乱某事物(通常因粗心或愚蠢的行为所致); 搞糟: Everything was just fine until Fred came along and fouled things up. 本来一切都井井有条, 弗雷德一来就给搞得乱七八糟. * The weather has really fouled up my holiday plans. 我的假日安排因天气关系已全部打乱了.

  foul-up

  n (infml 口) spoiling or upsetting of arrangements, relationships, etc (安排、 关系等的)混乱, 差错: We'll finish the project on time if there are no more foul-ups. 只要不再出差错, 我们就能按时完成计画.

  found

  pt, pp of find.

  found

  / faUnd; faJnd/ v 1 [Tn] (begin to) build (sth); establish (开始)建设(某物); 建立; 创建; 创立: This settlement was founded in 1592. 该居民点建立於1592年. * The ancient Romans founded colonies throughout Europe. 古罗马人在整个欧洲建立了殖民地. 2 [Tn] start or establish (an organization, institution, etc), esp by providing money 创办, 创建(组织、 机构等)(尤指提供资金): found a research institute, company, hospital, etc 创办研究机构、 公司、 医院等. 3 [Tn.pr usu passive 通常用於被动语态] ~ sth on sth base or construct sth on sth 将某事物建立在另一事物的基础上: a novel founded on fact 根据事实写成的小说 * a morality founded on religious principles 基於宗教原则的道德.

  founding father

  1 person who establishes an institution, a popular movement, etc 创办机构、 发起民众运动等的人; 创始人: the founding fathers of modern linguistics 现代语言学的创始人. 2 Founding Father member of the body that in 1787 drew up the Constitution of the USA (1787年起草美国宪法的)制宪会议成员.

  found

  / faUnd; faJnd/ v 1 melt (metal) and pour it into a mould 熔化(金属)後注入模具; 熔铸. 2 make (an object) from metal in this way (用金属)铸造(物件).

  foundation

  / faUn5deIFn; faJn`deFEn/ n 1 [U] act of founding (an institution, organization, etc) (机构、 组织等的)建立, 创立, 创办: the foundation of the university 大学的创办. 2 [C] (a) (organization set up to provide) sums of money for research, charity, etc (为研究、 慈善事业等提供的)基金, 基金会: the Ford Foundation福特基金 * You may be able to get support from an arts foundation. 你可以从文艺基金会得到资助. (b) institution, eg a college or hospital, that is established by means of such a fund (用基金建立的)机构(如学院或医院). 3 [C usu pl 通常作复数] layer of bricks, concrete, etc forming the solid base of a building underground 地基; 房基; 基础: lay the foundations of a building 给建筑物奠基 * The huge lorries shook the foundations of the house. 大卡车驶过时, 连房基都震动了. 4 [C, U] principle, idea or fact on which sth is based; basis (作为某事的)基本原则、 思想或事实; 基础: lay the foundations of one's career 奠定个人事业的基础 * The political scandal shook the nation to its very foundations. 这一政治丑闻从根本上动摇了该国家. * The conclusions must have some solid foundation in reality. 这些结论一定有些牢固的现实基础. * That rumour has no foundation/is without foundation in fact. 那谣言没有事实根据. 5 [U] (also foundation cream) cream put on the face before other make-up is applied 粉底霜(化妆品).

  foundation course

  course taken at a college, etc that usu covers a wide range of subjects and prepares students for more advanced studies 基础课.

  foundation-stone

  n large block of stone laid at a special ceremony to mark the founding of a public building 奠基石(在奠基典礼上放置的大石块, 标志公共建筑物开工).

  founder

  / 5faUndE(r); `faJndL/ n person who founds or establishes sth 建立或创立某事物的人; 建立者; 缔造者: founder of a city, institution, company, etc 城市、 机构、 公司等的创建人.

  founder-member

  n one of the first and founding members of a society, an organization, etc (团体、 组织等的)最初建立者; 发起人; 创始人.

  founder

  / 5faUndE(r); `faJndL/ v 1 [I] (of a plan, etc) fail; break down (指计画等)失败, 垮掉: The project foundered as a result of lack of finance. 该项目因缺乏资金而告吹. 2 [I] (of a ship) fill with water and sink (指船)沉没: The boat foundered on rocks near the harbour. 船在港口附近触礁沉没. 3 [I] (esp of a horse) fall or stumble (尤指马)摔倒, 绊: The mare foundered under the heavy load and collapsed in the road. 那母马因负载过重而倒在路上.

  foundling

  / 5faUndlIN; `faJndlIN/ n (arch 古) abandoned child of unknown parents who is found by sb 弃儿.

  foundry

  / 5faUndrI; `faJndrI/ n place where metal or glass is melted and moulded into articles of particular shapes 铸造厂; 玻璃厂.

  fount

  / faUnt; faJnt/ n ~ (of sth) (rhet or arch 修辞或古) source or origin (of sth); fountain (某事物的)来源或根源; 泉: the fount of all wisdom 一切智慧的源泉.

  fount

  / faUnt; faJnt/ (also font/ fCnt; fBnt/) n set of printing type of one style and size 一套(字体和字号相同的印刷用)活字.

  fountain

  / 5faUntIn; ?@ -tn; `fBJntn/ n 1 jet of water, esp one forced up into the air artificially as an ornament 喷水; (尤指人造的作装饰用的)喷泉: The fountains of Rome are famed for their architectural beauty. 罗马的喷泉以其建筑之美而著称. * A fountain of water gushed from the broken fire hydrant. 从损坏的消防栓里喷出水来. 2 = drinking fountain (drink2). 3 ~ (of sth) (rhet or arch 修辞或古) source or origin (of sth); fount (某事物的)来源或根源; 源泉: the fountain of justice 正义的源泉.

  fountain-head

  n origin or source 根源; 来源: the fountain-head of power 力量的根源.

  fountain-pen

  n pen with a container from which ink flows continuously to the nib 自来水笔.

  four

  / fR:(r); fRr/ pron, det 1 4; one more than three 4, 四(个). =>App 4 见附录4. 2 (idm 习语) on all `fours (of a person) with one's hands and knees (and usu also toes) on the ground (指人)双手和双膝(通常还用脚趾)著地, 趴著: The baby was crawling about on all fours. 婴儿那时正在满处爬. =>illus at kneel 见kneel插图. (be) on all fours (with sb/sth) (be) the same in importance, function, etc (as sb/sth else) (重要性, 作用等)(与某人[某事物])相同, 一致.

  four

  n 1 the number 4 *4; 四. 2 group of four people or things 四个人或物的一组. 3 (crew of a) rowing-boat for four people 四人划行的船(员). 4 (in cricket) shot, scoring four runs, in which the ball crosses the boundary after having hit the ground (板球)得四分的一击.

  four-

  (in compounds 用以构成复合词) having four of the thing specified 有四个...的: a four-sided figure.

  fourth

  / fR:W; fRrW/ pron, det 4th; next after third 第4, 第四(个). =>App 4 见附录4. fourthly adv in the fourth position or place 在第四位. the fourth di`mension the dimension of time 第四维(时间). the ,Fourth of Ju`ly anniversary of the Declaration of Independence (1776) of the United States from Britain 美国独立纪念日(1776年7月4日). n one of four equal parts of sth 四分之一.

  fourfold

  / 5fR:fEUld; `fRr`fold/ adj, adv 1 four times as much or as many 四倍(的): The population in this area has increased fourfold. 该地区的人口已增加到四倍. 2 having four parts 有四部分(的).

  four-in-hand

  n coach or carriage pulled by four horses and driven by one person 驷马车(一人驾御四匹马拉的马车).

  four-letter word

  any of various short words, usu referring to sexual or other bodily functions, that are considered obscene or offensive 粗俗、 下流的词; 脏话.

  four-ply

  adj (of wool, wood, etc) having four strands or thicknesses (指毛线、 木材等)四股的, 四层的.

  four-poster

  n (also ,four-poster `bed) (esp formerly) large bed with a tall post at each of the four corners to support curtains (尤指旧时)四柱大床(四角各有一柱以支撑幔帐的).

  foursome

  / 5fR:sEm; `fRrsEm/ n 1 four people joining together to play a game, esp golf 四人参加的游戏(尤指高尔夫球). 2 two couples undertaking a leisure activity together 两对男女一同参加的娱乐活动: Let's make (up) a foursome and go out to a restaurant. 咱们四个人(两对男女)一起下饭馆吧.

  four-square

  adj (a) square-shaped 方形的; 方的. (b) solidly based; steady or resolute 不动摇的; 坚定的; 坚决的; 果断的: a ,four-square ap`proach to the problem 对该问题的强硬态度.

  four-wheel drive

  (of a vehicle in which) power is applied to all four wheels (指车辆)四轮驱动的. For the uses of four and fourth see the examples at five and fifth. 关於four和fourth的用法见five和fifth词条中的示例.

  fourteen

  / 9fR:5ti:n; fRr`tin/ pron, det 14; one more than thirteen 14, 十四(个). =>App 4 见附录4.

  fourteen

  n the number 14 *14; 十四.

  fourteenth

  / 9fR:5ti:nW; fRr`tinW/ pron, det 14th; next after thirteenth 第14, 第十四(个). n one of fourteen equal parts of sth 十四分之一. For the uses of fourteen and fourteenth see the examples at five and fifth. 关於fourteen和fourteenth的用法见five和fifth词条中的示例.

  fowl

  / faUl; faJl/ n 1 [C] (pl unchanged or ~s 复数或不变或作fowls) domestic cock or hen 鸡: We keep a few fowls and some goats. 我们养了几只鸡和一些山羊. 2 [U] flesh of certain types of birds, eaten for food 禽肉; 鸡肉: We had fish for the first course, followed by roast fowl and fresh vegetables. 我们吃的第一道菜是鱼, 接著上的菜是烤禽肉和新鲜蔬菜. 3 [C] (arch 古) any bird 任何鸟类: the fowls of the air 飞禽. 4 (in compounds 用以构成复合词) bird of the type specified 某种禽鸟: `waterfowl * barnyard fowl * `wildfowl.

  fowl

  v [I] (usu 通常作 go `fowling) hunt or snare wildfowl 猎捕野禽.

  fowl pest

  type of infectious disease among chickens, etc 家禽的瘟疫.

  fox

  / fCks; fBks/ n 1 (a) [C] (fem 阴性作 vixen / 5vIksn;`vIksn/) wild animal of the dog family, with reddish brown fur, a pointed face and a bushy tail 狐; 狐狸: Hunting foxes is a peculiarly English sport. 猎狐是英国特有的运动. * The fox is known for its cleverness and cunning. 狐狸的机敏和狡猾是人所共知的. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page iii. (b) [U] its skin and fur used to make coats, etc 狐皮. 2 [C] (infml esp derog 口, 尤作贬义) person who is clever and able to get what he wants by deceiving or manipulating others 狡猾的人; 老狐狸: a crafty/sly old fox 狡猾的老狐狸.

  fox

  v 1 [Tn] (a) be too difficult for (sb) to understand; baffle or confuse 使(某人)难以理解; 使困惑; 使迷惑: He was completely foxed by her behaviour. 他对她的所作所为大感迷惑. (b) trick (sb) by cunning; deceive (用诡计)骗(某人); 欺骗. 2 [Tn usu passive 通常用於被动语态] discolour (the pages of a book) with brown marks (生褐斑)使(书页)褪色: This volume is foxed on the flyleaf. 这卷书的空白页发黄了.

  foxy

  / 5fCksI; `fBksI/ adj (-ier, -iest) 1 crafty or deceitful; cunning 狡猾的; 骗人的; 狡诈的. 2 like a fox in appearance, ie reddish brown in colour or having a fox-like face 貌似狐狸的(即赤褐色的或面貌像狐狸 的). 3 ( sl approv 俚, 褒 esp US) (of a woman) physically attractive; sexy (指女人)长得漂亮的, 性感的: a foxy lady 性感的女人.

  foxhole

  n hole in the ground dug by soldiers as a shelter against enemy fire and as a firing-point 散兵坑.

  foxhound

  n type of dog trained to hunt foxes 猎狐狗.

  fox-hunting

  n [U] sport in which a fox is hunted by foxhounds and people on horses 猎狐(骑著马用猎狐狗猎狐的运动).

  fox-terrier

  n type of short-haired dog, formerly used to drive foxes out of their holes 猎狐狗(旧时用以将狐狸从洞中赶出的).

  foxglove

  / 5fCksglQv; `fBks9^lQv/ n tall plant with purple or white bell-shaped flowers growing up its stem 洋地黄; 毛地黄. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page ii.

  foxtrot

  / 5fCkstrCt; `fBks9trBt/ n (music for a) formal dance with both slow and quick steps 狐步舞; 狐步舞曲.

  foxtrot

  v (-tt-) [I] dance the foxtrot 跳狐步舞.

  foyer

  / 5fRIeI; ?@ 5fRIEr; `fRIL/ n entrance hall or large open space in a theatre, hotel, etc where people can meet or wait (剧场、 旅馆等的)门厅, 休息厅: I'll meet you in the foyer at 7 o'clock. 我七点钟和你在门厅见面.

  FPA

  / 9ef pi: 5eI; 9Zf pi `e/ abbr 缩写 = (Brit) Family Planning Association 计画生育协会.

  Fr

  abbr 缩写 = 1 (religion 宗) Father: Fr (Paul) Black (保罗·)布莱克神父. 2 French.

  fr

  abbr 缩写 = franc(s): fr18.50 18.50法郎.

  fracas

  / 5frAkB:; ?@ 5freIkEs; `frekEs/ n (pl unchanged 复数不变 / -kB:z; -kBz/; US ~es / -kEsEz; -kEsIz/) (usu sing 通常作单数) noisy quarrel, fight, or disturbance 大声争吵; 打闹; 骚乱: The police were called in to break up (ie stop) the fracas. 警察奉命去制止骚乱.

  fraction

  / 5frAkFn; `frAkFEn/ n 1 small part, bit, amount, or proportion (of sth) (某物的)小部分, 一点儿, 少许, 片断: The car stopped within a fraction of an inch of the wall. 汽车在离墙不到一英寸的地方停住了. * Could you move a fraction closer? 你能不能稍微再挪近点儿? 2 precise division of a number, eg , , 0.76 分数, 小数(如、 、 0.76).

  fractional

  / -FEnl; -FEnl/ adj 1 of or in fractions 部分的; 少许的; 片断的; 分数的; 小数的: a fractional equation 分数方程式. 2 very small; trivial or unimportant 极小的; 轻微的; 无足轻重的: a fractional difference in prices 微小的差价.

  fractionally

  / -FEnElI;-FEnElI/ adv to a very small degree; marginally 达极小程度地; 轻微地: One dancer was fractionally out of step. 有个跳舞人的舞步稍微有些不合拍.

  fractious

  / 5frAkFEs; `frAkFEs/ adj (esp of children) irritable; bad-tempered (尤指儿童)易怒的, 脾气坏的.

  fractiously

  adv.

  fractiousness

  n [U].

  fracture

  / 5frAktFE(r); `frAktFL/ n (a) [C] instance of breaking (esp a bone) 折断; 断裂; 破裂; (尤指)骨折: a fracture of the leg 腿部骨折 * He had several injuries, including three fractures. 他多处受伤, 其中三处是骨折. * a compound/simple fracture, ie one in which the skinis/is not pierced by the broken bone 有创[单纯]骨折 * a slight fracture in a pipe 管道的裂缝. (b) [U] breaking or breakage, esp of a bone 折断; 断裂; 破裂; (尤指)骨折: the site of fracture 断裂的位置.

  fracture

  v [I, Tn] (cause sth to) break or crack (使某物)折断, 破碎: Her leg fractured in two places. 她的腿有两处骨折. * suffer from a fractured pelvis 出现骨盆骨折.

  fragile

  / 5frAdVaIl; ?@ -dVl; `frAdVEl/ adj 1 easily damaged or broken; delicate 易受伤害的; 易碎的; 易损的: fragile china/glass 易碎的瓷器[玻璃器皿] * a fragile plant 娇嫩的植物 * (fig 比喻) Human happiness is so fragile. 人生幸福易逝. * a fragile economy 疲软的经济. 2 (infml 口) not strong and healthy; weak, eg because one has drunk too much alcohol 不强健的, 弱的(如因酗酒所致): He's feeling a bit fragile after last night's party. 他参加了昨晚的聚会以後, 现在觉得有些虚弱. Cf 参看 frail.

  fragility

  / frE5dVIlEtI; frE`dVIlEtI/ n [U].

  fragment

  / 5frAgmEnt; `frA^mEnt/ n 1 small part or piece broken off (sth) (某物的)碎片: find several fragments of a Roman vase 发现古罗马花瓶的几块残片. 2 separate or incomplete part (of sth) (某事物的)片断或不完整部分: I heard only a fragment of their conversation. 我只听到他们谈话的只言片语.

  fragment

  / frAg5ment; `frA^`mZnt/ v [I, Tn] (cause sth to) break into small pieces or parts; split up (使某物)破碎或裂开; 分裂; 分离: These bullets fragment on impact. 这些子弹射中物体时爆炸成碎片. * (fig 比喻) Ownership of the large estates is increasingly fragmented, ie divided among several people. 大片地皮的产权逐渐分成若干份.

  fragmentary

  / 5frAgmEntrI; ?@ -terI; `frA^mEn9tZrI/ adj made up of small incomplete or unconnected parts 由小的、 不完整的或无联系的部分组成的: fragmentary evidence 支离破碎的证据.

  fragmentation

  / 9frAgmen5teIFn; 9frA^mZn`teFEn/ n [U]. fragmentation bomb bomb designed to break up into many small pieces 杀伤炸弹(爆炸时成小碎片).

  fragrance

  / 5freIgrEns; `fre^rEns/ n (a) [C usu sing 通常作单数] pleasant or sweet smell; scent or perfume 好闻的或芳香的气味; 香; 香料: Lavender has a delicate fragrance. 薰衣草有淡淡的香味. (b) [U] quality of having a pleasant or sweet smell 芳香.

  fragrant

  / 5freIgrEnt; `fre^rEnt/ adj having a pleasant or sweet smell 有香味的; 芳香的: fragrant herbs, flowers, etc 香的药草、 花等.

  fragrantly

  adv.

  frail

  / freIl; frel/ adj 1 (of a person) physically weak or delicate (指人)体弱的, 虚弱的: a frail child 体弱的孩子 * At 90, she's getting very old and frail. 她90岁时渐渐非常衰老、 虚弱. 2 easily broken; fragile 易破碎的; 易损的: Careful: that chair's rather frail! 小心点儿: 那把椅子不结实! 3 morally weak 道德观念薄弱的: frail human nature 易堕落的人性.

  frailty

  / 5freIltI; `freltI/ n 1 [U] physical weakness (身体)虚弱. 2 [C, U] (instance of) weakness in character or morals; fault or imperfection (性格)软弱; (道德观念)薄弱; 错误; 缺点: She continued to love him despite his many frailties. 尽管他有很多缺点, 但她仍爱他. * human frailty 人类的弱点.

  frame

  / freIm; frem/ n 1 border of wood, metal, etc in which a picture, door, pane of glass, etc is enclosed or set (木材、 金属等做的)框架: a picture frame 画框 * a window frame 窗框. 2 rigid structure of a piece of furniture, building, vehicle, etc which makes its shape and forms a support for its parts (家具、 建筑物、 车辆等的)框架, 支架, 骨架: the frame of a cupboard, bed, rucksack 柜厨的框架、 床的框架、 帆布包的支架 * the frame of an aircraft, a car, etc 飞机、 汽车等的框架. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page xiii, =>illus 见插图. 3 (usu pl 通常作复数) structure of plastic, metal, etc that holds the lenses of a pair of glasses in place 眼镜框: glasses with heavy black frames 黑色粗框眼镜. =>illus at glass 见glass插图. 4 (usu sing 通常作单数) human or animal body; its form or structure (人或动物的)身体; 体形; 身体结构: Sobs shook her slender frame. 她抽泣著, 苗条的身体都在颤动. 5 general order or system that forms the background to sth (构成某事物背景的)规律或制度; 体制; 模式: the frame of contemporary society 现代社会的模式. 6 (a) any of the single photographs that make up a cinema film (影片的)一个镜头, 一个画面. (b) single picture in a comic strip (连环漫画中的)一幅画. 7 = cold frame (cold1). 8 (a) (in snooker, etc) triangular structure for positioning balls (落袋台球戏等)(摆放球的)三角框. (b) (in snooker, bowling, etc) single round of play (落袋台球 戏、 地滚球戏等)一轮, 一局, 一回. 9 (idm 习语) a frame of `mind particular state of one's mind or feelings; mood 心境; 心情; 情绪; 思想状态: I'm not in the right frame of mind to start discussing money. 我现在没心思来商量钱的问题. a frame of `reference set of principles, standards or observations used as a basis for one's judgement, behaviour, etc (作为个人的判断、 行为等的依据的)原则, 标准, 观点: sociological studies conducted within a Marxist frame of reference 以马克思主义观点指导的社会学研究.

  frame-house

  n house with a wooden frame covered with boards 木板房.

  framework

  n 1 structure giving shape and support 框架; 结构: a bridge with a steel framework 钢铁结构的桥梁. =>illus 见插图. 2 social order or system 社会的秩序或制度: civil unrest which shook the framework of the old system 动摇了旧制度的内乱. 3 set of principles or ideas used as a basis for one's judgement, decisions, etc (个人的判断、 决定等所依据的)原则, 思想: All the cases can be considered within the framework of the existing rules. 一切情况都可依据现行的规章加以考虑.

  frame

  / freIm; frem/ v 1 (a) [Tn] put or build aframe1(1) round (sth) (给某物)镶框; (给某物)做框: frame a photograph, painting, etc 给照片、 画等镶框. (b) [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] serve or act as a frame1(1) for (sb/sth) 形成(某人[某事])的框子: He stood framed in the doorway to the hall. 他站在门口, 堵住通向大厅的路. * A dense mass of black hair framed his face. 浓密的黑发衬托著他的面庞. 2 [Tn] express (sth) in words; compose or formulate (用文字)表达(某事); 创作; 拟定; 制定: frame a question, argument, response, etc 拟定问题、 论点、 回应等 * frame a theory, plan, set of rules, etc 创立理论、 拟定计画、 制定一套规章. 3 [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] (infml 口) produce false evidence against (an innocent person) so that he appears guilty 诬陷; 陷害: The accused man said he had been framed. 被告说他受人陷害了.

  frame-up

  n (infml 口) situation in which false evidence is produced against an innocent person so that he appears guilty 诬陷; 诬告; 阴谋: Don't you see it was all a frame-up! 难道你还不明白--那都是诬陷!

  franc

  / frANk; frANk/ n unit of currency in eg France, Belgium and Switzerland 法郎(如法国、 比利时和瑞士的货币单位).

  lingua franca

  / 9lINgwE 5frANkE; `lIN^wE`frANkE/ languageused for communicating between the people of an area in which several languages are spoken 混合语, 交际语(在使用几种语言的地区的人们进行交际的混合语言): Swahili is the principal lingua franca in East Africa. 东非的主要交际语是斯瓦希里语.

  franchise

  / 5frAntFaIz; `frAntFaIz/ n 1 [U] right to vote at public elections (公众选举的)投票权, 选举权: system of universal adult franchise 全体成年人都享有选举权的制度 * Women were not given the franchise in Britain until the twentieth century. 英国妇女直到二十世纪才获得选举权. 2 [C] formal permission to sell a company's goods or services in a particular area (正式授予在某地区销售某某公司的货物或经营某业务的)特权, 特许: buy a fast-food, printing, etc franchise 购买经营快餐、 印刷等的特权 * grant, withdraw a franchise 授予、 撤销特权.

  franchise

  v [Tn] grant a franchise(2) to (sb) 授予(某人)特权.

  Franciscan

  / frAn5sIskEn; frAn`sIskEn/ n, adj (friar or nun) of the Christian religious order founded by St Francis of Assisi 圣方济各会的(修士或修女).

  Franco-

  comb form 构词成分 French; of France 法国的: Franco-German history * Francophile, ie (person who is) friendly towards France.

  francophone

  / 5frANkEUfEUn; `frANkE9fon/ adj, n French-speaking (person) 说法语的(人): the francophone countries of West Africa 非洲西部说法语的国家.

  frank

  / frANk; frANk/ adj (-er, -est) ~ (with sb) (about sth) showing thoughts and feelings openly; honest and direct in speech; plain and blunt 公开表达思想感情的; 言语真诚的; 坦率的; 坦白的; 直率的: a frank reply, discussion, exchange of views, etc 坦率的回答、 讨论、 交换意见等 * To be (perfectly) frank with you, I think your son has little chance of passing the exam. 说实在的, 我认为你儿子这次考试及格的希望不大.

  frankly

  adv 1 in a frank manner 坦率地; 坦白地; 直率地; 真诚地: Tell me frankly what's wrong. 老老实实告诉我出什麽事了. 2 speaking honestly; to be truthful 说实话; 诚实地: Frankly, I couldn't care less. 说真的, 我毫不在乎. * Quite frankly, I'm not surprised. 坦白地说, 我并不感到意外. =>Usage at hopeful 用法见hopeful.

  frankness

  n [U]: She spoke about her fears with complete frankness. 她对自己的恐惧直言不讳.

  frank

  / frANk; frANk/ v [Tn] put a mark or a stamp on (a letter, etc) to show that postage has been paid or does not need to be paid 在(信件等)上做记号、 加印记(以示邮资己付或免费邮寄).

  franking-machine

  n device that automatically franks letters, etc and counts up the total postal charges 自动邮资盖印机.

  frankfurter

  / 5frANkf\:tE(r); `frANkf[tL/ (US wiener) n type of small smoked sausage 小熏肠.

  frankincense

  / 5frANkInsens; `frANkIn9sZns/ n [U] type of sweet-smelling gum from a tree, burnt as incense 乳香(有香味的树脂, 可作燃香).

  frantic

  / 5frAntIk; `frAntIk/ adj 1 in an extreme state of emotion, esp fear or anxiety 情感的极度状态(尤指恐惧或焦急); 发狂的; 发疯的: The child's parents were frantic when she did not return home on time. 那孩子没有按时回家, 她父母都要急疯了. * frantic with worry, anger, grief, etc 愁得要命、 气得要死、 悲痛欲绝. 2hurried and excited but disorganized; frenzied; desperate慌乱不安的; 狂乱的; 疯狂的; 令人绝望的; 不顾一切的: a frantic dash, rush, search, etc 疯狂的撞击、 冲击、 搜查等 * frantic activity 不顾一切的行动.

  frantically

  /-klI; -klI/ adv: shouting frantically for help 狂呼求救.

  fraternal

  / frE5t\:nl; frE`t[nl/ adj (esp rhet 尤作修辞) of a brother or brothers; brotherly or friendly 兄弟的; 兄弟般的; 友好的: fraternal love 手足之情 * fraternal greetings from fellow trade-unionists 同行业工会会员的友好问候.

  fraternally

  / -nElI; -nlI/ adv.

  fraternize, fraternise

  / 5frAtEnaIz; `frAtL9naIz/ v [I, Ipr] ~ (with sb) become friendly with enemy soldiers, or with civilians of a former enemy country (与敌军士兵、 原敌国百姓)建立友谊: Soldiers who fraternize with the enemy will be punished. 亲敌的士兵将受到惩罚. * Army personnel are often forbidden to fraternize with the civilian population. 军职人员常被禁止与平民百姓友好往来.

  fraternization, fraternisation

  / 9frAtEnaI5zeIFn; ?@ -nI5z-;9frAtLnI`zeFEn/ n [U].

  fraternity

  / frE5t\:nEtI; frE`t[nEtI/ n 1 [U] brotherly feeling; brotherhood 兄弟般的感情; 手足之情: There is a strong spirit of fraternity among these isolated people. 这些与世隔绝的人之间有强烈的兄弟般的情谊. 2 [CGp] group of people sharing the same profession or common interests or beliefs 有相同的职业、 共同的爱好或信仰的群体; 同人; 同好: the medical, banking, teaching, etc fraternity 医务界、 银行界、 教育界等同人 * the racing fraternity 赛马界同好 * the religious fraternity of St Benedict 本笃会的教友. 3 [C] (US) group of male students at a university who form a social club 组成社团的大学男生群体. Cf 参看 sorority.

  fratricide

  / 5frAtrIsaId; `frAtrE9saId/ n (a) [U] crime ofkilling one's brother or sister 杀害兄弟或姐妹罪. (b) [C]person who has done this 杀害兄弟或姐妹的人.

  fratricidal

  / 9frAtrI5saIdl; `frAtrI`saIdEl/ adj.

  fraud

  / frR:d; frRd/ n 1 [C, U] (act of) deceiving sb illegally in order to make money or obtain goods 欺骗(行为); 诈骗: found guilty of fraud 被裁定诈骗罪成立 * Thousands of frauds are committed every year. 每年有数以千计的诈骗案. 2 [C] person who deceives others by pretending to have abilities, skills, etc that he does not really have; impostor 骗子; 冒名顶替者: This woman is a fraud she has no medical qualifications at all. 这女人是个骗子--她根本没有行医的资格.

  fraudulent

  / 5frR:djUlEnt; ?@ -dVU-; `frRdVElEnt/ adj 1 deceitful or dishonest 欺骗的; 诈骗的; 不诚实的; 不老实的: a fraudulent display of sympathy 假惺惺的同情. 2 obtained or done by fraud; involving fraud 骗得的; 骗来的; 涉及欺骗的: fraudulent applications for shares (ie type of investment) in the new company 以欺骗手段申请新公司的股票.

  fraudulence

  / 5frR:djUlEns; ?@ -dVU-; `frRdVElEns/ n [U].

  fraudulently

  / 5frR:djUlEntlI; ?@-dVU-; `frRdVElEntlI/ adv.

  fraught

  / frR:t; frRt/ adj 1 [pred 作表语] ~ with sth filled with sth; charged with sth 充满某事物; 注入某事物: a situation fraught with danger 充满危险的情况 * a silence fraught with meaning 意义无穷的沉默. 2 worried or anxious; worrying 担心的; 烦恼的; 焦虑的; 令人忧虑的: There's no need to look so fraught! 用不著那麽愁眉苦脸的. * Next week will be particularly fraught as we've just lost our secretary. 我们的秘书刚刚辞职, 下星期特别令人担心.

  fray

  / freI; fre/ n the fray [sing] (rhet or joc 修辞或谑) fight, contest or argument; lively or challenging action 打斗; 争吵; 争辩; 刺激的或挑战的行为: ready/eager for the fray 急欲争斗 * enter/join the fray, ie take part in a fight, quarrel, etc 参与打架、 争吵等.

  fray

  / freI; fre/ v [I, Tn] 1 (cause sth to) become worn, so that there are loose threads, fibres or wires (使某物)磨损(致使线、 纤维或丝松弛): This cloth frays easily. 这布太不经磨. * Constant rubbing will fray even the thickest rope. 再粗的绳子也经不住总磨. * frayed shirt cuffs 磨破的衬衫袖口. 2 (cause sth to) become strained and irritated (使某事物)变得令人紧张、 急躁: Nerves/Tempers began to fray in the heat. 天热的时候人就容易神经紧张[脾气急躁]. * Relations between us have become frayed through a series of misunderstandings. 我们之间产生了一连串的误解, 因而关系紧张了.

  frazzle

  / 5frAzl; `frAzl/ n (idm 习语) beaten, burnt, worn, etc to a `frazzle completely beaten, burnt, exhausted, etc 被打得一败涂地; 被烧成灰烬; 精疲力竭.

  freak

  / fri:k; frik/ n 1 (infml derog 口, 贬) person considered abnormal because of his behaviour, appearance, ideas, etc (因行为、 相貌、 思想等而被看作)不正常的人: People think she's a freak just because she's religious. 就因为她信教, 人们就把她当成怪人. 2 (infml 口) person with a specified interest or obsession; fan 有特别兴趣或著迷的人; 迷: health/health-food freaks 对健康[保健食品]著迷的人 * a jazz freak 爵士乐迷 * an acid freak, ie sb addicted to the drug LSD 有迷幻药瘾的人. 3 very unusual event or action 极不寻常的事或行为: By some freak (of chance) I was overpaid this month. 真稀奇, 这个月多给我钱了. * [attrib 作定语] a freak accident, storm, etc 反常的事故、 暴风雨等. 4 (also ,freak of `nature) person, animal or plant that is abnormal in form 畸形的人、 动物或植物.

  freakish

  adj unusual or abnormal; strange 不寻常的; 不正常的; 反常的; 奇怪的; 奇异的: freakish weather 反常的天气 * freakish behaviour 奇怪的行为.

  freakishly

  adv.

  freakishness

  n [U].

  freaky

  adj unusual; weird; freakish 不寻常的; 不自然的; 怪诞的; 不正常的; 奇怪的; 奇异的.

  freak

  / fri:k; frik/ v (infml 口) 1 [I, Ip] ~ (out) have an extreme reaction to sth 对某事物有极端强烈的反应: My parents (really) freaked (out) when they saw my purple hair, ie were shocked and angry. 我父母看见我的紫红头发, 大惊失色. * When they told me I'd won a car, I absolutely freaked, ie was extremely happy. 听说我赢得一辆小汽车, 简直欣喜若狂. 2 (phr v) freak out (a) temporarily lose control of oneself; go crazy; act abnormally, usu under the influence of drugs 暂时对自己失去控制, 发疯, 行为异常(通常为毒品所致): This ordinary quiet guy just freaked out and shot ten people. 这个平时温和的家伙简直发疯了, 开枪打死了十个人. * John's party was really wild everyone freaked out (on drugs), ie hallucinated. 约翰搞的聚会真够疯狂的--大家都(因吸食毒品)神魂颠倒了. (b) adopt an unconventional style of life 采取不平常的生活方式. freak sb out make sb feel extreme pleasure or unease 使某人感到极度的欣喜或不安: Listening to a good stereo system always freaks me out. 我一听到好的立体声音乐就乐不可支.

  freak-out

  n wild and extreme experience, esp one produced by drugs 疯狂、 兴奋的感受(尤指因毒品所致).

  freckle

  / 5frekl; `frZkl/ n (usu pl 通常作复数) one of the small light-brown spots on the human skin 雀斑; 斑点: Ann's face and back are covered with freckles. 安的脸上和背上长满了雀斑. Cf 参看 mole1.

  freckle

  v [I, Tn] (cause skin to) become covered with freckles (使皮肤)生产斑或斑点: Do you freckle easily? 你容易长雀斑吗? * the boy's freckled arms 那男孩子长了雀斑的手臂.

  free

  / fri:; fri/ adj (freer / fri:E(r); `friL/, freest / fri:Ist;`friIst/) 1 (a) (of a person) not a slave or prisoner; allowed to move where one wants; having physical freedom (指人)(非奴隶或囚犯)自由的, 有人身自由的, 行动自由的: After ten years in prison, he was a free man again. 他坐了十年监狱, 又成了自由人. * The convicts were pardoned and set free. 那些囚犯获赦释放. * The driver had to be cut free from the wreckage of his car. 破开了汽车残骸才把司机解救出来. (b) (of an animal) not kept in a cage or tied up; able to move at will (指动物)不关在笼子里的, 不被栓住的, 可任意行动的: In nature, all animals are wild and free. 在自然界, 一切动物都是野生的, 自由自在的. * The dog was chained, so how did it get free? 狗拴著链子, 是怎麽挣脱开的呢? * An escaped tiger is roaming free in the town. 有一只老虎跑出, 正在城里东逃西窜. 2 not fixed or held down; loose 不固定的; 不受牵制的; 松弛的: the free end of the rope 绳索松著的一端 * Let the rope run free. 把绳子放开. * One of the wheels of the cart has worked (itself) free. 马车的一个轮子松了. 3 clear; not blocked; unrestricted 通畅的; 无阻碍的; 不受限制的; 不受约束的: Is the way/passage free? 道路[通道]畅通吗? * A free flow of water came from the pipe. 水从管道里通畅地流了出来. * The streets have been swept free of leaves. 街上的落叶已打扫乾净. 4 (of a country, its citizens and institutions) not controlled by a foreign government or the state itself (指国家及其公民和机关)不受外国政府或本国控制的, 自主的, 自由的: This is a free country I can say what I like. 这是个自由的国家--我爱说什麽就可以说什麽. * We might have a free press, but that doesn't mean all reporting is true and accurate. 我们即使有新闻自由, 也并不意味著一切报道都真实可信、 准确无误. 5 ~ (to do sth) not controlled or restricted (by rules or conventions); permitted to do sth 不受(规章或习俗)控制的, 许可做某事物的: free movement of workers within the European Community 在欧洲共同体内部工人的自由流动 * free access to secret information 对机密资料的自由接触 * You are free to come and go as you please. 你来去自便. * She's a free spirit, ie a person not hampered by convention. 她是个无拘无束的人. 6 [pred 作表语] ~ from/of sth (a) not harmed by sth dangerous; not spoilt by sth unpleasant 不受某危险事物伤害; 不受某不愉快事物影响: free from harm, prejudice, pain 不受伤害、 无偏见、 无痛苦 * free of weeds, contamination, pollution, etc 无杂草、 传染、 污染等. (b) not subject to certain rules, etc; unrestricted by sth 不受某规章等约束的; 不受某事物阻碍的: a holiday free from all responsibilities 摆脱一切责任的假期. 7 (a) costing nothing 免费的: free tickets for the theatre 免费的戏票 * Admission is free. 免费入场. * a free sample 免费样品. (b) [pred 作表语] ~ (of sth) not including, or not requiring, a specified payment, usu of tax or duty 免税: a payment of 30000 free of tax 30000英镑的免税付款 * Delivery is free (of charge) if goods are paid for in advance. 如预付货款就可免费送货. 8 (a) (of a place) not occupied or being used; (of a time) not engaged or booked (指地方或时间)未占用的, 空著的, 闲著的: Is that seat free? 那座位有人吗? * The bathroom's free now. 洗澡间现在空著. * Is there a time when the conference room is free? 会议室有空著的时候吗? * Friday afternoons are left free for revision. 留出星期五下午的时间做复习. (b) (of a person) without engagements or things to do; not busy (指人)有空的, 闲著的: I'm usually free in the afternoon. 我通常下午有空. * Are you free for lunch? 你有空儿去吃午饭吗? 9 [pred 作表语] ~ with sth giving sth easily and readily; generous with sth 大方; 慷慨: He is very free with his time, ie gives it willingly. 他毫不吝惜自己的时间. * He's a bit too free with his compliments. 他有点太爱恭维人. 10 (derog 贬) uncontrolled, often to the point of rudeness; too familiar 不约束的; 放肆的; 过於亲密的: I don't like him he is too free in his language and manner. 我不喜欢他--他的言行太放肆. 11 (of a translation) expressing the meaning of the original loosely, not exactly (指译文)不拘泥原文的, 不确切的. Cf 参看 literal 1a. 12 (chemistry 化) not combined with another element 未与其他元素化合的; 游离的: free hydrogen 游离氢. 13 (idm 习语) feel free => feel1. (get sth) for `free without payment being required; for nothing 不要钱的; 白给的: I got this ticket for free from sb who didn't want it. 我这张票没花钱, 是别人不要的. free and `easy informal; relaxed 不拘束的; 不拘礼的; 轻松的: The atmosphere in the office is quite free and easy. 办公室的气氛很轻松. free on `board/`rail (of goods) without charge for delivery to a ship/train (指货物)船[火车]上交货(价格). get, have, etc a free `hand get, have, etc permission or an opportunity to do what one chooses and make one's own decisions, esp in a job 有自主权(尤指工作上): My boss has given me a free hand in deciding which outside contractor to use. 老板已经给了我自主权, 让我决定用哪家承包商. give, allow, etc free `play/`rein to sb/sth give, etc complete freedom of movement or expression to sb/sth 给予...某人[某事物]行动或表达上的充分自由: In this picture the artist certainly allowed his imagination free rein. 艺术家在这幅画里任其想像力尽情奔驰. have one's hands free/tied => hand1. make sb free of sth allow sb full use or enjoyment of sth 允许某人充分利用或享受某物; 随意使用: He kindly made me free of his library for my research. 他热情地让我随意使用他的书房做研究工作. of one's own free will without being ordered or forced 非强迫的; 自愿的: I came here of my own free will. 我是自愿到这里来的.

  free

  adv 1 without cost or payment; freely 无偿地; 免费地: Children under five usually travel free on trains. 五岁以下的儿童乘火车通常免费. 2 (idm 习语) make free with sb/sth treat sb/sth casually and without proper respect; use sth as if it belongs to oneself 对待某人[某事物]随便而不尊重; 任意使用他人之物: He made free with all his girl-friend's money. 他随便花女朋友的钱.

  freely

  / 5fri:lI; `frilI/ adv 1 without any obstruction; in an unrestricted or uncontrolled manner 自由地; 毫无妨碍地; 不受阻挡地; 不受控制地; 无拘无束地: Water flowed freely from the pipe. 水从管道里通畅地流了出来. * drugs that are freely available 可随时买到的药物. 2 in an open and honest manner 开诚布公地; 坦诚地; 坦率地: It may require courage to speak freely. 要有勇气才能直言不讳. 3 willingly; readily 心甘情愿地; 自愿地: I freely admit that I made a mistake. 我欣然承认我犯了个错误. 4 in a generous and willing manner 大方地; 慷慨地; 爽快地: Millions of people gave freely in response to the famine appeal. 千百万人响应救灾呼吁而慷慨解囊.

  free agent

  someone able to act as he pleases, because he is not responsible to anyone 可以按自己意愿行事的人: I wish I were a free agent, but my contract binds me for three more years. 我要是不受约束就好了, 可是我的合同还要约束我三年.

  free association

  (psychology 心) method of analysis in which a person says the first word that comes to his mind in response to one spoken by the analyst 自由联想.

  Free Church

  Church that does not follow the teaching or practices of established Churches such as the Roman Catholic or Anglican Church 独立教会.

  free enterprise

  operation of business and trade without government control 自由企业.

  free fall

  1 movement through air or space under the force of gravity alone 自由降落. 2 part of a parachute jump before the parachute opens 降落伞张开前的降落.

  Freefone

  n [U] (Brit) system in which the person making a telephone call does not pay for the cost of the call 免费通话(打电话者不必付费的通话方式): Ring the operator and ask for Freefone 8921. 接通接线生, 然後要免费通话8921号.

  free-for-all

  n noisy fight or argument in which anyone present may join 在场者都可参加的争吵或辩论.

  free-hand

  adj, adv (done) by hand, without the use of an instrument, eg a ruler or compass 徒手(做)(的)(不使用仪器): a free-hand sketch 手画的略图 * sketched free-hand 徒手画略图.

  free-handed

  adj generous, esp in spending or giving money 慷慨的(尤指花钱或给钱); 出手大方的.

  freehold

  n, adj (law 律) (having) complete ownership of property for an unlimited period of time 财产的完全保有(的). Cf 参看 leasehold (lease).

  freeholder

  n person who owns land freehold 地产的完全保有者.

  free house

  (Brit) public house or inn not controlled by a brewery and therefore able to sell more than one brand of beer, etc (不受酿酒厂约束的)出售多种啤酒等的酒馆. Cf 参看 tied house (tie2).

  free kick

  (in football) kick taken without interference, as a penalty against the opposing team (足球)罚任意球.

  free lance

  / lB:ns; ?@ lAns; `lAns/ (also freelancer) n independent artist, writer, etc who earns his living by selling work to several employers (靠出卖作品为生的)自由艺术家、 作家等: [attrib 作定语] free-lance journalism自由新闻工作.

  free-lance

  v [I]: I've free-lanced for several years. 我做自由撰稿人已有几年了.

  free-living

  adj living for the pleasures of (esp) food and drink 沉溺於(尤指)吃喝享受的.

  free-liver

  n.

  free-load

  v [I] (infml 口 esp US) take advantage of free food and lodging, etc without giving anything in return; sponge 占便宜; 揩油.

  free-loader

  n person who free-loads; sponger 爱占便宜的人; 揩油的人.

  free love

  (dated 旧) agreed sexual relations without marriage 自由性爱.

  freeman

  n 1 / -mAn; -mAn/ person who is not a slave 自由人(非奴隶). 2 / -mEn; -mEn/ person who has been given the freedom(5) of a city 荣誉市民: made a freeman of the City of London 被授予伦敦荣誉市民称号.

  free port

  port open to all traders, with no restrictions, taxes or import duties 自由港.

  Freepost

  n [U] (Brit) system in which postage costs are paid by the receiver (usu a business company) 免费邮递(由收信人, 通常为厂商, 付邮资的方式): Reply to Publicity Department, FREEPOST, Oxford University Press, Oxford. 回信免费邮寄至牛津牛津大学出版社宣传部.

  free-range

  adj [attrib 作定语] produced by hens that are kept in natural conditions rather than in a battery(4) 放养的母鸡产的: ,free-range `eggs 放养的母鸡产的蛋.

  free speech

  right to express (in public) opinions of any kind 言论自由.

  free-standing

  adj not supported by or fixed to anything 无支撑物的; 不固於某物上的: a free-standing sculpture 独立的雕塑.

  free-style

  n [U] 1 (a) swimming race in which any stroke may be used 自由泳比赛(可采用任何姿势). (b) type of swimming stroke, usu the crawl(n 2) 自由泳(通常指爬泳). 2 type of wrestling with few restrictions on the holds permitted (摔角)自由式.

  free-thinker

  n person who forms ideas independently of generally accepted religious teachings 自由思想者.

  free-thinking

  adj.

  free trade

  (system in which) trade is carried on between countries without import restrictions, eg tax and duty 自由贸易; 自由贸易制度.

  free verse

  poetry without a regular rhythm or rhyme 自由诗(无固定韵律的诗).

  free vote

  vote in parliament in which members do not have to follow party policy 自由投票(议员无须遵循党派的方针而进行的议会内投票).

  freeway

  n (US) = motorway (motor). =>Usage at road 用法见road.

  free wheel

  (rear) wheel on a bicycle that continues to revolve when the pedals are not in use (自行车的)飞轮. ,free-`wheel v [I] 1 travel, usu downhill, by riding a bicycle without pedalling or driving a car without using engine power (自行车或汽车)滑行. 2 move or act freely or irresponsibly 自由地、 不须负责地活动或行动: I think I'll just free-wheel this summer and see what happens. 我打算今年夏天尽情放任一下再说.

  free will

  1 ability to decide one's own course of action 决定个人行动方针的能力; 自觉自愿: I did it of my own free will, ie acting voluntarily. 那是我自愿做的. 2 (belief in the) power to decide a course of action independently of God or fate 自由意志(不依靠上帝或命运而采取行动的决断力); 自由意志论.

  free-will

  adj voluntary 自愿的: a free-will offering 自愿的提供.

  free

  / fri:; fri/ v (pt, pp freed / fri:d; frid/) 1 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (from sth) make (sb/sth) free; release or liberate 使(某人[某物])自由; 释放; 解放: free the prisoner 释放囚犯 * free an animal from a trap 把动物从陷阱中放出来. 2 [Tn.pr] ~ sb/sth of/from sth take away sth unpleasant, unwanted, etc from sb/sth; rid sb/ sth of sth 使令人不快的、 不需要的一类事物离开某人[某事物]; 使某人[某事物]摆脱某事物: Relaxation exercises can free your body of tension. 放松运动可以松缓身体的紧张. * Try to free yourself from all prejudices.尽量消除一切偏见. 3 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb/sth (from sth)loosen sb/sth from sth that is preventing movement; disentangle or extricate sb/sth 使某人[某事物]摆脱妨碍活动的事物; 摆脱或脱离某人[某事物]: It took hours to free the victims (from the collapsed building). 用了很长时间才把遇难者(从倒塌的建筑物中)解救出来. * Can you free the propeller from the weeds? 你能把螺旋桨上的草除掉吗? 4 [Tn.pr, Cn.t] ~ sb/sth for sth make sb/sth available for (a purpose or an activity) 使某人[某物]可用於(某一目的或活动): The government intends to free more resources for educational purposes. 政府想把更多的资源用於教育方面. * Retiring early from his job freed him to join several local clubs. 他早早退休, 摆脱了工作的羁绊而加入了当地的几个俱乐部.

  -free

  comb form 构词成分 (forming adjs and adv 用以构成形容词和副词) without; free from 无; 免除: carefree * duty-free * trouble-free.

  freebie

  / 5fri:bi:; `fribi/ n (infml 口 esp US) thing given away free 免费的物品; 赠品: I got these mugs as freebies at the supermarket. 我这些缸子是超级市场给的赠品.

  freedom

  / 5fri:dEm; `fridEm/ n 1 [U] condition of being free; state of not being a prisoner or slave 自由: After 10 years in prison, he was given his freedom. 他坐了10年监狱以後又得到了自由. 2 (a) [U, C] ~ (of sth) right (esp political) to act, speak, etc as one pleases without interference (随意行动、 讲话等的, 尤指政治的)自由权: freedom of speech, thought, worship, etc 言论、 思想、 礼拜等的自由权 * press freedom 出版自由 * preserve the freedoms of the trade-union movement 保护工会运动的自由权. (b) [U] ~ (of sth); ~ (to do sth) state of being unrestricted in one's actions; liberty 个人的行动自主; 自由: freedom of action, choice, decision, etc 行动、 选择、 决定等的自由 * He enjoyed complete freedom to do as he wished. 他享有完全按照自己的意愿行事的自由. 3 [U] ~ from sth state of being without or not affected by the thing specified 无某事物的情况; 不受某事物影响的状态: freedom from fear, pain, hunger, etc 无恐惧、 痛苦、 饥饿等. 4 [sing] the ~ of sth unrestricted use of sth 随意使用某物的权利: I gave him the freedom of my house and belongings. 我让他随便使用我的房子和东西. 5 (idm 习语) give, etc sb his `freedom agree to a divorce; allow one's husband/wife to leave without opposing him/her legally 同意离婚; 给予自由身分(允许丈夫[妻子]离去而不依法追究): It seems foolish not to give Ann her freedom, if that's what she really wants. 安要是真想离婚的话, 不同意她离就太蠢了. give sb, receive, etc the freedom of the `city give, etc special rights of citizenship, esp as an honour for public services 授予荣誉市民权.

  freedom fighter

  person belonging to a group that use violent means to overthrow the government and achieve the independence of their country 自由战士(用暴力推翻政府以使自己的国家独立的人).

  Freemason

  / 5fri:meIsn; `fri9mesn/ n member of an international secret society with the aims of offering mutual help and developing friendly relations among its members 共济会会员(旨在互相帮助、 发展会员间友好关系的国际秘密组织的成员).

  Freemasonry

  n [U] 1 system, practices and rites of the Freemasons 共济会的制度、 活动及仪式. 2 freemasonry natural sympathy and unspoken understanding between people sharing similar interests 谅解; 默契: the freemasonry of TV reporters, professional photographers, etc 电视记者、 职业摄影师等的默契.

  freesia

  / 5frI:zIE; ?@ 5fri:V-; `friVIE/ n plant with fragrant yellow, pink, or white flowers 小苍兰(开黄色、 粉色或白色花, 味香).

  freeze

  / fri:z; friz/ v (pt froze / frEUz; froz/, pp frozen / 5frEUzn; `frozn/) 1 [I, Tn] (esp of water) change or be changed from liquid to solid by extreme cold (尤指水)结冰; 凝固: Water freezes at 0C. 水在0C时结冰. * The severe cold froze the pond. 天气寒冷池塘结了冰. Cf 参看 thaw. =>Usage at water1 用法见water1. 2 [I, Ip, Tn, Tn.p] ~ (sth) (up) (cause sth to) become full of ice or hardened with ice (使某物)结满冰或由於结冰变硬: The land itself freezes (up) in such low temperatures. 温度这麽低, 地都冻硬了. * Our (water) pipes froze (up) (ie were blocked with ice) last winter. 去年冬天, 我们的(水)管子冻了. * The clothes were frozen on the washing-line. 衣服在晾衣绳上冻住了. 3 [I] (used with it 与it连用) (of weather) be so cold that water turns to ice; be extremely cold (指天气)冷得使水结成冰, 严寒: It's freezing outside! 外面冷极了! * It may freeze tonight, so make sure the plants are covered. 今晚大概会有霜冻, 一定要把花草都遮盖好. 4 [I, Tn only passive 只用於被动语态] (cause a person or an animal to) be or feel very cold; (cause to) die from cold (使人或动物)冷或觉得很冷; (使)冻死: Shut the window I'm freezing! 关上窗户--我冷极了! * Two men froze to death/were frozen to death on the mountain. 有两个人在山上冻死了. 5 [I, Tn] (of food, etc) be able to be preserved by being stored at a temperature below freezing-point; preserve (food, etc), in this way (指食物等)能冷冻储藏; 冷藏(食物等): Some fruits don't freeze well at all. 有些水果根本就不能冷藏. * I'll buy extra meat and just freeze it. 我要多买些肉冷藏起来. * Strawberries don't taste nice if they've been frozen. 草莓若冷冻就不好吃了. * a packet of frozen peas 一包冷藏豌豆. 6 [I, Tn] (cause a person or an animal to) stop suddenly; make or become unable to move, speak, or act, because of fear, shock, etc (使人或动物)突然停住; (因恐惧、 震惊等)使得或变得不能活动、 说话或行动; 惊呆; 吓呆: Ann froze with terror as the door opened silently. 门一声不响地开了, 把安吓呆了. * The sudden bang froze us in our tracks. 突然砰的一响, 顿时把我们惊呆了. 7 [Tn] hold (wages, prices, etc) at a fixed level officially for a period of time 稳定(工资、 物价等): freeze wages, prices, fares, etc 稳定工资、 物价、 车费等. 8 [Tn] not allow (money or assets) to be used or exchanged, usu by government order 冻结(钱或资产): freeze a society's funds 冻结一团体的基金 * frozen assets 被冻结的资产. 9 (idm 习语) freeze one's blood/make one's blood freeze fill one with feelings of fear and horror 使充满害怕、 恐怖的感觉: The sight of the masked gunman made my blood freeze. 我一看见那个持枪的蒙面人就吓得浑身冰凉. 10 (phr v) freeze sb out (infml 口) exclude sb from business or from society by harsh competition or unfriendly behaviour (以残酷的竞争或敌意的态度)将某人(从生意或团体中)逼走, 挤走: Small shops are being frozen out by the big supermarkets. 小 子都要让大超级市场给挤垮了. freeze (sth) over (usu passive 通常用於被动语态) (cause sth to) become covered by ice (使某物)被冰封住: The lake was frozen over until late spring. 那湖全让冰封住了, 到晚春才解冻. freeze (sth) up (usu passive 通常用於被动语态) freeze (sth) so as to prevent normal use 冻住(某物)(以至妨碍正常使用): The window has frozen up and I can't open it. 窗户给冻上了, 我打不开.

  freeze

  n 1 (also `freeze-up) period of weather during which temperatures are below freezing-point 冰冻期; 严寒期: last year's big freeze 去年的严寒期 * After the last freeze-up we put insulation round the pipes. 我们在上个冰冻期之後把管道用保温材料裹上了. 2 official fixing of wages, prices, etc for a period of time (官方对工资、 物价等的)冻结: a wage/price freeze 工资[物价]冻结.

  freeze-dry

  v (pt, pp -dried) [Tn] preserve (esp food) by freezing and then drying it in a vacuum 冷冻乾燥保存(尤指食物).

  freezing-point (also freezing)

  n [U] temperature at which a liquid, esp water, freezes 冰点; 凝固点: The freezing-point of water is 0C. 水的冰点是0C. * Tonight the temperature will fall to 3 degrees below freezing. 今夜的温度将降至冰点下3度. =>App 5 见附录5.

  freezer

  / 5fri:zE(r); `frizL/ n 1 (also deep freeze) large refrigerator or room in which food is stored for a long time at a temperature below freezing point 冰柜; 冷藏室. 2 small compartment in a refrigerator for freezing ice and storing frozen food (冰箱里的)冷冻室.

  freight

  / freIt; fret/ n [U] goods transported by ships, aeroplanes, or trains (水运、 空运、 陆运的)货物: send goods by air freight 空运发货. =>Usage at cargo 用法见cargo.

  freight

  v 1 [Tn] transport (merchandise) as freight 运送(货物). 2 [Tn.pr] ~ sth with sth load (a ship, etc) with freight 装货於(船等): a barge freighted with bananas 载著香蕉的驳船.

  freighter

  n ship or aircraft that carries mainly freight 货船; 运输机.

  freight car

  (US) = wagon 2.

  freightliner

  n (also liner train, liner) fast train carrying goods in special large containers that can be loaded and unloaded quickly and easily 集装箱列车; 货柜列车.

  freight train

  (US) (Brit goods train) train that carries goods only 货运列车.

  French

  / frentF; frZntF/ n 1 the French [pl v] the people who live in France 法国人: The French are renowned for their cooking. 法国人擅长烹饪. 2 [U] language spoken in France and parts of Belgium, Switzerland, and Canada 法语: French is a Romance language. 法语是罗曼语. 3 (idm 习语) excuse/pardon my `French (infml euph 口, 婉) excuse the swear-words I shall use 原谅我要说骂人的话了: Excuse my French, but he's a bloody nuisance! 别怪我骂人, 可他实在太不是东西! take French `leave leave one's work, duty, etc without permission 未经允许而脱离工作、 岗位等; 擅离职守; 不辞而别.

  French

  adj of France, its people or its language 法国的; 法国人的; 法国语的: the French countryside 法国的乡村.

  French bean

  kidney or haricot bean, the pod and seeds of which are eaten as a vegetable 菜豆.

  French Canadian

  Canadian whose native language is French 以法语为母语的加拿大人.

  French chalk

  finely powdered talc, used as a marker, dry lubricant, etc 滑石粉.

  French dressing

  salad dressing of seasoned oil and vinegar 油和醋调成的色拉调料.

  French fry

  (esp US) = chip1 3.

  French horn

  brass wind instrument with a long tube coiled in a circle and a wide bell 法国号(一种铜管乐器). =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page x.

  French letter

  (infml 口 esp Brit) contraceptive sheath; condom 避孕套; 阴茎套.

  French loaf (also French bread)

  long thin loaf of crusty white bread 法国面包(长条状的). =>illus at bread 见bread插图.

  Frenchman

  n (pl -men / -mEn; -mEn/) man of French birth or nationality 法国男人.

  French polish

  varnish consisting of shellac and alcohol, painted onto wood to give a hard shiny surface 罩光漆. French-polish v [Tn] treat (wood) with French polish 给(木材)涂罩光漆.

  French seam

  seam on a garment, etc with the raw edges turned and sewn under 法式线缝; 来去线缝.

  French window (US also French door)

  one of a pair of doors with long glass panes, usu opening onto a garden or balcony 落地窗(通常为通向花园或阳台的). =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page vii.

  Frenchwoman

  n (pl -women / -wImIn; -9wImIn/) woman of French birth or nationality 法国女子.

  frenetic (also phrenetic)

  / frE5netIk; frE`nZtIk/ adj very excited; frenzied; frantic 非常激动的; 狂乱的; 发狂的: frenetic activity 疯狂的活动.

  frenetically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  frenzy

  / 5frenzI; `frZnzI/ n [sing, U] state of extreme excitement; extreme and wild activity or behaviour 极度激动的状态; 极度狂乱的活动或行为: in a frenzy of zeal, enthusiasm, hate, etc 疯狂的激情、 热情、 仇恨等 * The speaker worked the crowd up into a (state of) frenzy. 演讲者煽动起群众疯狂的情绪.

  frenzied

  / 5frenzId; `frZnzId/ adj [usu attrib 通常作定语] wildly excited or agitated; frantic 狂乱的; 狂躁的; 发狂的: The dog jumped at the intruder with frenzied barks. 那狗狂吠著跳起扑向闯进来的人. * the mob's frenzied attack 暴徒的疯狂攻击.

  frenziedly

  adv.

  audio frequency

  / 9R:dIEU 5fri:kwEnsI; 9RdIo `frikwEnsI/ (radio) frequency that can be heard when converted into sound waves by a loudspeaker 成音频率; 音频.

  frequency

  / 5fri:kwEnsI; `frikwEnsI/ n 1 [U] (a) rate of occurrence or repetition of sth, usu measured over a particular period of time (某事发生或重复的)频率: Fatal accidents have decreased in frequency over recent years. 近年来死亡事故发生的频率已经下降. * the alarming frequency of computer errors 计算机差错惊人的频密. (b) fact of being frequent or happening often 屡次; 频繁: the frequency of premature births in this region 该地区早产情况的频繁. 2 [C, U] rate at which a sound wave or radio wave vibrates; band or group of similar frequencies (声波或无线电波的)振动频率; 波段:high-/low-frequency sounds 高[低]频的声音 * a musical note with a frequency of 256 vibrations per second 振动频率为每秒256次的音调 * In the evening this station changes frequency and broadcasts on another band. 该电台晚上改变频率, 在另一波段播音.

  frequent

  / 5fri:kwEnt; `frikwEnt/ adj happening often; habitual 时常发生的; 惯常的: the car manufacturer's frequent changes of models 汽车制造厂产品型号的经常变换 * His visits became less frequent as time passed. 他渐渐地不常登门了.

  frequently

  adv often 时常; 经常: Buses run frequently from the city to the airport. 公共汽车频繁地从城市驶往机场.

  frequent

  / frI5kwent; frI`kwZnt/ v [Tn] (fml 文) often go to or visit (a place) 常去, 常到(一地方): He used to frequent the town's bars and night-clubs. 他从前常去镇上的酒吧和夜总会.

  fresco

  / 5freskEU; `frZsko/ n (pl ~s or ~es / -kEUz;-koz/) picture painted in water-colour on a wall or ceiling before the plaster is dry (墙壁或天花板未乾时绘制的)壁画: The frescos in the Sistine Chapel are world-famous. 西斯廷教堂的壁画举世闻名.

  fresh

  / freF; frZF/ adj (-er, -est) 1 (a) [usu attrib 通常作定语] new or different 新的; 不同的: fresh evidence 新的证据 * a fresh piece of paper 另一张纸 * make a fresh start 重新开始 * fresh problems 新问题 * a fresh approach (ie one that is original in a lively and attractive way) to the difficulty 解决困难的别开生面的方法. (b) made, obtained or experienced recently and not changed 新做的; 新得到的; 刚经历的: fresh tracks in the snow 雪地上的新痕迹 * Their memories of the wedding are still fresh in their minds. 他们至今对婚礼仍记忆犹新. 2 (a) (usu of food) newly made, produced, gathered, etc; not stale (通常指食物)新做的, 新出的, 新采的, 新鲜的: fresh bread, ie just baked 新烤的面包 * fresh flowers, eggs, milk, etc 新鲜的花、 蛋、 奶等. (b) (of food) not preserved in tins, with salt or by freezing (指食物)鲜的, 非罐头的, 未加盐的, 未冷冻的: fresh vegetables, fruit, meat, etc 鲜的蔬菜、 水果、 肉等. 3 (of clothes) not already used or worn; clean (指衣服)未经穿用的, 清洁的: put on some fresh clothes 穿几件新衣服. 4 (of water) not salty, stale or bitter; not sea water (指水)不咸的, 不腐的, 不苦的, 淡的. 5 (a) (of the air) clean and refreshing; pure (指空气)清洁的, 清新的, 纯净的: Open the window and let in some fresh air. 打开窗户放进些新鲜空气. * play in the fresh air, ie outside 在户外玩耍. (b) (of weather) rather cold and windy; (of the wind) cool and fairly strong (指天气)冷而有风的; (指风)凉飕飕的: It's a bit fresh this morning, isn't it? 今天早晨有点儿凉丝丝的吧? 6 [usu attrib 通常作定语] (a) (of colours) clear and bright; unfaded (指颜色)鲜明的, 鲜艳的, 未褪色的: fresh colours in these old prints 旧印刷物上的鲜艳色彩. (b) (of skin) clear and healthy (指皮肤)白净健康的: a fresh complexion 气色好的面容. 7 (of paint) just applied (指油漆)刚上的, 未乾的: Fresh paint please do not touch. 油漆未乾--请勿触摸. 8 [usu pred 通常作表语] having renewed strength; refreshed and ready to tackle work, etc 又有活力; 又精神饱满: I feel really fresh after my holiday. 我度假之後真觉得又精神饱满了. 9 [pred 作表语] ~ from/out of sth having just come from (a place) or having just had (a particular experience); straight from sth 刚从(某地)来; 刚有过(某一经历); 直接来自某事物: students fresh from college 刚从学校毕业的学生. 10 [pred 作表语] ~ (with sb) (infml 口) too forward in behaviour or speech, esp in a sexual manner, with a person of the opposite sex (言行)过於卤莽(尤指对异性), 无礼, 放肆: He then started to get fresh with me. 他於是对我放肆起来. 11 (idm 习语) break fresh/new ground => ground1. a breath of fresh air => breath. (as) fresh as a `daisy vigorous and lively or attractive, esp in a clean fresh way 生动活泼的, 有吸引力的(尤指以新的方式). new/fresh blood => blood1.

  fresh

  adv (idm 习语) fresh out of sth (infml 口 esp US) having just used all one's supplies of sth 刚刚(将储备的某物)用尽: We're fresh out of eggs. 我们刚把所有的鸡蛋都吃光了.

  fresh-

  (forming compound adjs 用以构成复合形容词) newly; just 新近的; 刚刚的: fresh-baked bread * fresh-cut flowers.

  fresher

  n (Brit infml 口) student in his/her first year at university or college 大学或学院一年级学生.

  freshly

  adv (usu followed by past participles 通常後接过去分词) recently; newly 新近; 刚刚: freshly picked strawberries 新摘的草莓 * freshly laid eggs 刚生的蛋.

  freshness

  n [U].

  freshman

  / -mEn; -mEn/ n (pl -men / -mEn; -mEn/) (US) student in his/her first year at college, high school or university 大学、 学院或中学一年级的学生.

  freshwater

  adj [attrib 作定语] from, of, living in or containing fresh (not salty or sea) water 来自淡水的; 淡水的; 生活於淡水的; 含淡水的: freshwater fish 淡水鱼 * freshwater lakes 淡水湖. Cf 参看 saltwater (salt).

  freshen

  / 5freFn; `frZFEn/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.p] ~ sth (up) make sth fresh 使某物新鲜: A good clean will really freshen (up) the house. 好好收拾一下的确会使房子焕然一新. 2 [I] (of the wind) become strong and cool (指风)变得强而凉, 变得凉飕飕. 3 [Tn] (US) add (more liquid, esp alcohol) to a drink (往饮料中)添加(液体, 尤指酒): Can I freshen your drink? 我再给你添些酒好吗? 4 (phr v) freshen (oneself) up wash and make (oneself) look clean and tidy after a journey, before a meeting, etc (为自己)梳洗: I'll just go and freshen (myself) up before the interview. 我这就去梳洗打扮一番再去会面.

  freshener

  / 5freFnE(r); `frZFEnL/ n thing that freshens sth 使某物变得清新之物: an `air-freshener 空气清新剂[器].

  fret

  / fret; frZt/ v (-tt-) 1 [I, Ipr, Tn] ~ (about/at/over sth) (cause sb to) become unhappy, bad-tempered, or anxious about sth; worry (使某人)不愉快, 烦躁, 焦急, 发愁, 担心: Don't fret, we'll get there on time. 别著急, 我们能准时到那里. * Fretting about it won't help. 发愁於事无补. * Babies often fret (themselves) when their mothers are not near. 婴儿常常因母亲不在身边而哭闹. 2 [Tn] wear (sth) away by rubbing or biting 磨损, 咬坏(某物): a horse fretting its bit 咬嚼子的马 * a fretted rope 磨损的绳子.

  fret

  n [sing] state of irritation, worry 烦躁; 担忧: be in a fret 担忧.

  fretful

  / -fl; -fEl/ adj irritable or complaining, esp because unhappy or worried 烦躁的, 发牢骚的(尤指因不愉快或烦恼): a fretful child 烦躁的孩子.

  fretfully

  adv.

  fret

  / fret; frZt/ v (-tt-) [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] decorate (wood, etc) with patterns made by cutting or sawing 以刻出的或锯出的图案装饰(木制品等): an elaborately fretted border 回纹饰边.

  fretsaw

  n narrow saw fixed in a frame, used for cutting designs in thin sheets of wood 线锯; 钢丝锯; 镂花锯.

  fretwork

  n [U] ornamental work in a decorative pattern, esp wood cut into patterns with a fretsaw 回绞细工; 万字细工.

  fret

  / fret; frZt/ n one of the bars or ridges on the finger-board of a guitar, etc, used as a guide for the fingers to press the strings at the correct place (吉他等指板上的)柱, 马, 品, 桥. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page xi.

  Freudian

  / 5frRIdIEn; `frRIdIEn/ adj of or related to the theories of the Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) about the working of the human mind, esp his theories about subconscious sexual ideas or feelings (奥地利心理学家)弗洛伊德学说的, 与弗洛伊德学说有关的(尤指对性的潜在的意识或感觉的理论).

  Freudian slip

  comment made accidentally by a speaker instead of what was originally intended, but which is considered to reveal his true thoughts 走嘴, 溜嘴(不留神而吐露的真心话).

  Fri

  abbr 缩写 = Friday: Fri 7 March 3月7日星期五.

  friable

  / 5fraIEbl; `fraIEbl/ adj (fml 文) easily broken up or crumbled 易破的; 易碎的; 脆的: friable soil 松土.

  friability

  / 9fraIE5bIlEtI; 9fraIE`bIlEtI/ n [U].

  friar

  / 5fraIE(r); `fraIL/ n man who is a member of one of certain Roman Catholic religious orders, and who works with people in the outside world rather than living in retreat 托 修士. Cf 参看 monk.

  friary

  / 5fraIErI; `fraIErI/ n building in which friars live 男修道院.

  fricassee

  / 5frIkEsi:; 9frIkE`si/ n [C, U] dish of pieces of cooked meat or poultry served in a thick white sauce 烹制後浇白色浓汁的肉块、 鸡块等: chicken fricassee 白汁鸡块.

  fricative

  / 5frIkEtIv; `frIkEtIv/ n, adj (consonant) made by forcing air through an opening made narrow by bringing the tongue or lips near to another part of the mouth 由摩擦产生的(辅音): / f, v, W/ are fricatives. /f/、 /v/、 /W/是摩擦辅音.

  friction

  / 5frIkFn; `frIkFEn/ n 1 [U] (a) rubbing of one surface or thing against another 摩擦: Friction between two sticks can create a fire. 两个棍棒相互摩擦能起火. (b) resistance of one surface to another surface or substance that moves over it 摩擦力: The force of friction affects the speed at which spacecraft can re-enter the earth's atmosphere. 摩擦力能影响航天器返回地球大气层的速度. 2 [U, C] disagreement or conflict between people or parties with different views 人或党派之间不同观点的矛盾或冲突: There is a great deal of friction between the management and the work force. 劳资双方之间存在大量矛盾. * conflicts and frictions that have still to be resolved 仍须解决的冲突和摩擦.

  Friday

  / 5fraIdI; `fraIdI/ n [U, C] (abbr 缩写 Fri) the sixth day of the week, next after Thursday 星期五. For the uses of Friday see the examples at Monday. 关於Friday的用法见Monday词条中的示例.

  fridge

  / frIdV; frIdV/ n (infml 口) refrigerator 冰箱.

  fridge-freezer

  n upright unit containing separate refrigerator and freezer compartments (冷藏室和冷冻室分开的)立式冰箱.

  fried

  pt, pp of fry.

  friend

  / frend; frZnd/ n 1 person one knows and likes, but who is not a relation 朋友: He's my friend. 他是我的朋友. * We are all good friends. 我们都是好朋友. * I've known her for years, but she was never a friend. 我认识她多年了, 但成不了朋友. 2 ~ of/to sth helper, supporter, or patron of sth 某事物的帮助者、 支持者或赞助者: a friend of the arts/the poor 有助於艺术的人、 帮助贫民的人 * a friend of justice, peace, etc 维护正义、 和平等的人 * You are invited to become a Friend of the Bristol Hospice, ie to contribute money regularly. 邀请您作布里斯托尔末期病人安养所的赞助人. 3 person who is of the same country, group, etc as oneself; ally 同胞; 国人; 自己人; 同盟者: Who goes there friend or foe? 谁在那里--是自己人还是敌人? * At last, among friends, he was free to speak his mind. 他终於向自己人倾诉衷肠. 4 thing that is very helpful or familiar 极有益或极熟悉的事物: Honesty has always been his best friend. 忠实可靠一向使他受益匪浅. * Let's look it up in our old friend, the dictionary. 让我们请教一下老朋友--字典吧. 5 Friend member of the Society of Friends; Quaker (基督教)公谊会教友. 6 (fml 文) person being addressed in public 在公开场合对人的称呼: Our friend from China will now tell us about her research. 现在我们的中国朋友要向大家介绍她自己的研究情况. * Friends, it is with great pleasure that I introduce... 朋友们, 我很高兴地介绍... * My learned friend, ie used by a lawyer of another lawyer in a lawcourt 律师在法庭上的互称 * My honourable friend, ie used by a Member of Parliament to another Member of Parliament in the House of Commons 在下议院, 国会议员间的互称. 7 (idm 习语) be/make `friends (with sb) be/become a friend (of sb) 是[成为](某人的)朋友; 交朋友: They soon forgot their differences and were friends again, ie after a quarrel. 他们不久就捐弃前嫌而重归於好. * David finds it hard to make friends (with other children). 戴维觉得(与别的孩子)交朋友是很难的事. a ,friend in `need (is a ,friend in`deed) (saying 谚) a friend who helps one when one needs help (is a true friend) 患难之交(是真交).

  friendless

  adj without any friends 无朋友的.

  friendly

  / 5frendlI; `frZndlI/ adj (-ier, -iest) 1 (a) behaving in a kind and pleasant way; acting like a friend 和蔼可亲的; 朋友般的; 友爱的: a friendly person 和蔼可亲的人 * The children here are quite friendly with one another. 这里的孩子相互之间十分友爱. * It wasn't very friendly of you to slam the door in his face. 你冲著他摔门太伤和气了. * friendly nations, ie not hostile 友邦. (b) showing or expressing kindness and helpfulness 亲切的; 友好的: a friendly smile, welcome, gesture, manner, etc 亲切的微笑、 亲切的欢迎、 友好的表示、 友好的态度 * friendly co-operation 亲密的合作. (c) of a relationship in which people treat each other as friends 和睦的;融洽的: friendly relations 和睦的关系 * on friendly terms with the boss 与老板关系融洽. 2 not seriously competitive (竞争)不激烈的, 友好的: a friendly game of football 足球友谊赛 * a friendly argument 友好的争论 * friendly rivalry 友好的竞争.

  friendliness

  n [U].

  -friendly

  (in compound adjs 用以构成复合形容词) that is, or is intended to be, easy for the specified person to use 便於某人使用的: a user-friendly computer system.

  friendly match (also friendly)

  game of football, etc that is not part of a serious competitive series (足球等的)友谊比赛: There's a friendly between Leeds United and Manchester City next week. 利兹联队和曼彻斯特市队下星期有一场友谊赛.

  Friendly Society (also Provident Society)

  association formed to support its members when they are ill or old 互助会.

  friendship

  / 5frendFIp; `frZndFIp/ n (a) [U] feeling or relationship between friends; state of being friends 友情; 友谊; 友爱: There were strong ties of friendship between the members of the society. 该团体的成员之间有牢固的友情. * The aim of the conference is to promote international friendship. 会议的目的是增进国际间的友谊. (b) [C] instance of this 友情; 友谊: At school she formed a close friendship with several other girls. 她在学校里与几个女同学建立起亲密的友谊. * I've had many friendships, but never such an intimate one. 我交过很多朋友, 但从没有如此密切.

  frieze

  / fri:z; friz/ n [C] band of sculpture or decoration round the top of a wall or building 雕带; (墙头或建筑物上端的)带状装饰. =>illus at column 见column插图.

  frig

  / frIg; frI^/ v (-gg-) (phr v) frig about/around (<!> infml 讳, 口) waste time; mess about 浪费时间; 吊儿郎当: I've been frigging about all day. 我一整天吊儿郎当.

  frigate

  / 5frIgEt; `frI^Et/ n small fast naval escort-vessel (小型)护卫舰.

  frigging

  / 5frIgIN; `frI^IN/ adj [attrib 作定语] (<!> sl 讳, 俚) (used to emphasise a judgement or comment 用以加强判断或评论的语气) utter; absolute; bloody 完全的; 十足的; 绝对的; 该死的: You frigging idiot! 你这个该死的大笨蛋!

  fright

  / fraIt; fraIt/ n 1 (a) [U] feeling of sudden unpleasant fear 惊吓: trembling with fright 吓得发抖. (b) [C usu sing 通常作单数] instance of this 惊吓: You gave me (quite) a fright suddenly coming in here like that. 你那样突然走到这里, 真吓了我一大跳. * I got the fright of my life, ie I was extremely frightened. 我吓得要命. 2 [C usu sing 通常作单数] (infml 口) person or thing that looks ridiculous or unattractive 奇形怪状的或不起眼的人或物: She thinks that dress is pretty I think she looks a fright in it. 她以为那件衣服挺漂亮--依我看她穿著像个丑八怪. 3 (idm 习语) take fright (at sth) be extremely frightened (by sth) (被某事物)惊吓, 受惊: The animals took fright at the sound of the gun. 那些动物受到枪声的惊吓.

  frighten

  / 5fraItn; `fraItn/ v 1 [Tn] fill (sb) with fear; make afraid; scare (使某人)感到恐惧; 使害怕; 惊吓: Sorry, I didn't mean to frighten you. 对不起, 我不是故意吓唬你的. * Loud traffic frightens horses. 车辆噪音使马受惊. 2 (idm 习语) frighten/scare sb to `death/out of his `wits; frighten the `life out of sb frighten sb very much; terrify or startle sb 惊吓某人; 使某人恐怖或惊愕: The child was frightened to death by the violent thunderstorm. 那孩子让狂风暴雨吓得要命. * You frightened the life out of me/frightened me out of my wits suddenly knocking on the window like that! 你突然那样敲窗户真把我的魂儿都吓掉了. frighten/scare the daylights out of sb => daylights. 3 (phr v) frighten sb/sth away/off force or drive (a person or an animal) to run away by frightening him/it 将(人或动物)吓跑: The alarm frightened the burglars away. 警铃声把贼吓跑了. * The children's shouts frightened off the birds. 孩子们的喊声把鸟儿吓飞了. frighten sb into/out of doing sth cause sb to do/not to do sth by frightening him 吓得某人做[不敢做]某事: News of the robberies frightened many people into fitting new locks to their doors. 发生抢劫的消息把许多人吓得装上新门锁.

  frightened

  adj in a state of fear; afraid; scared 恐惧的; 害怕的; 受惊的: Frightened children were calling for their mothers. 受惊的孩子们呼喊著找妈妈. * He looked very frightened as he spoke. 他说话时显得非常恐惧. * They're frightened of losing power. 他们害怕失去权力.

  frightening

  / 5fraItnIN; `fraItnIN/ adj causing fear; alarming 引起恐惧的; 惊恐的; 可怕的: a frightening possibility, situation, development, etc 引起恐惧的可能性、 形势、 发展等 * It is frightening even to think of the horrors of nuclear war. 核战争的恐怖状况连想都不敢想.

  frighteningly

  adv: The film was frighteningly realistic. 该影片逼真得令人害怕.

  frightful

  / 5fraItfl; `fraItfEl/ adj 1 very unpleasant; dreadful 令人厌恶的; 令人惧怕的; 可怕的: a frightful accident 可怕的事故. 2 [attrib 作定语] (infml 口) (used to emphasize a statement) extreme; extremely bad (用以加强叙述的语气)极端的, 极坏的, 极糟的: in a frightful rush 极其匆促 * They left the house in a frightful mess. 他们离去时房子里乱七八糟.

  frightfully

  / -fElI; -fElI/ adv (infml 口) very; awfully 非常; 很; 太; 极: I'm frightfully sorry, but I can't see you today. 太对不起了, 我今天不能见你.

  frigid

  / 5frIdVId; `frIdVId/ adj 1 very cold 寒冷的; 严寒的: a frigid climate/zone 严寒的气候[地区]. 2 (esp of a woman) not responsive sexually (尤指女人)性冷感的. 3 formal and unfriendly, esp in relationships with other people 郑重而冷淡的(尤指与他人的关系): a frigid glance, look, etc 冷淡的目光、 神情等.

  frigidity

  / frI5dVIdEtI; frI`dVIdEtI/ n [U].

  frigidly

  adv.

  frill

  / frIl; frIl/ n 1 ornamental border on a garment or curtain, gathered or pleated at one edge (外衣或帘幕的)饰边, 褶边. =>illus 见插图. 2 (usu pl 通常作复数) (fig 比喻) additional item that is not essential for something but makes it more decorative (华而不实的)附加物: a straightforward presentation with no frills 直截了当、 不加渲染的叙述.

  frilled

  adj decorated with frills (frill 1) 饰有褶边的: a frilled blouse 带褶边的女衬衫.

  frilly

  / 5frIlI; `frIlI/ adj having many frills (frill 1) 多饰边的; 多褶边的: a frilly petticoat 有很多褶边的衬裙.

  fringe

  / frIndV; frIndV/ n 1 (esp Brit) (US bang) front hair cut so that it hangs over the forehead 垂在额前的短发; 刘海儿: She has a fringe and glasses. 她额前有刘海儿, 戴著眼镜. =>illus at hair 见hair插图. 2 decorative edge on a garment, rug, etc consisting of loose or hanging threads or cords (外衣、 小地毯等的)饰边, 毛边, 穗子, 流苏. 3 outer edge of an area, group or activity (地方、 群体或活动的)外围: the fringe of a forest 森林的边缘 * on the fringes of society 在社会的边缘 * on the radical fringe of the party (ie the part having views not held by most people) 党内意见偏激的一方 *[attrib 作定语] fringe theatre, ie that stages unconventional and experimental productions 实验剧院 * a fringe meeting, ie one which is not part of the main programme at a political conference (政治会议中的)小会议. 4 (idm 习语) the lunatic fringe => lunatic.

  fringe

  v 1 [Tn] make a fringe(2) for (sth); decorate with a fringe 给(某物)做穗; 以穗装饰: fringe a shawl 给围巾做穗. 2 (idm 习语) be fringed by/with sth have sth as a border 以某物做边界: The estate was fringed with stately elms. 那片地以挺拔的榆树为边界.

  fringe benefit

  extra benefit, esp given to an employee in addition to salary or wages 额外津贴(尤指在工资之外付给雇员的); 附加福利: The fringe benefits of this job include a car and free health insurance. 这工作的附加福利包括一辆小汽车和免费健康保险.

  frippery

  / 5frIpErI; `frIpErI/ n 1 [U] unnecessary showy ornamentation, esp in clothing 无必要的炫耀装饰(尤指服装上的). 2 [C usu pl 通常作复数] cheap useless ornament 廉价而无用的装饰.

  Frisbee

  / 5frIzbi:; `frIzbi/ n (propr 专利名) light plastic disc, shaped like a plate, thrown between players in a game 飞盘(一种碟形塑料盘, 供游戏者互相抛扔玩耍).

  frisk

  / frIsk; frIsk/ v 1 [Tn] (infml 口) pass one's hands over (sb) in a search for hidden weapons, drugs, etc 搜查(某人)(寻找暗藏的武器、 毒品等): Everyone was frisked before getting on the plane. 每个人都经过搜身才登上飞机. 2 [I, Ip] (of animals) run and jump playfully (指动物)欢快地跑跳: lambs frisking (about) in the meadow 在草地上跳来跳去的小羊.

  frisk

  n [sing] 1 (infml 口) act of frisking (frisk 1) a person 搜身. 2 act of playfully jumping and running 欢跃; 欢快的跑跳.

  frisky

  adj lively and energetic, wanting to enjoy oneself 活泼有力的; 爱玩耍的: a frisky lamb 欢蹦乱跳的小羊 * I feel quite frisky this morning. 我今天上午觉得精神挺足.

  friskily

  / -IlI; -IlI/ adv.

  frisson

  / 5fri:sCn; ?@ fri:5sEUn; fri`son/ n (French 法) sudden feeling or thrill, esp of excitement or fear 震颤, 战栗(尤指因激动或害怕): a frisson of delight, horror, fear, etc 喜悦、 恐怖、 惧怕等的战栗.

  fritter

  / 5frItE(r); `frItL/ v (phr v) fritter sth away (on sth) waste (esp one's time or money) foolishly (on small useless things) (在无意义的小事上)愚蠢地浪费(尤指个人的时间或金钱): fritter away time/energy 浪费时间[精力] * fritter away one's money on gambling 在赌博上挥霍公钱.

  fritter

  / 5frItE(r); `frItL/ n (usu in compounds 通常用以构成复合词) piece of fried batter, usu containing sliced fruit, meat, etc 油煎饼(通常有水果、 肉等的馅): banana fritters 香蕉馅煎饼.

  frivolous

  / 5frIvElEs; `frIvElEs/ adj 1 (of people, their character, etc) not sensible or serious; foolish and light-hearted (指人、 性格等)不明事理的, 不严肃的, 漫不经心的, 轻率的, 肤浅的: At 18, he's still rather frivolous and needs to grow up. 他到了18岁仍然很不懂事、 很不成熟. * frivolous comments, objections, criticisms, etc 肤浅的评论、 轻率的反对、 不严肃的批评等. 2 (of activities) silly or wasteful (指活动)无聊的; 浪费的: She thought that reading romantic novels was a frivolous way of spending her time. 她认为看浪漫小说是虚度时光.

  frivolity

  / frI5vClEtI; frI`vBlEtI/ n 1 [U] frivolous behaviour 轻浮的举止: youthful frivolity 年轻人的心浮气躁. 2 [C usu pl 通常作复数] frivolous activity or comment 无聊的活动或议论: I can't waste time on such frivolities. 我不能在这种无聊的事情上浪费时间.

  frivolously

  adv.

  frizz

  / frIz; frIz/ v [Tn] form (esp hair) into small tight curls 使(尤指毛发)鬈曲: You've had your hair frizzed. 你把头发鬈弯了.

  frizz

  n hair that has been frizzed 鬈发; 鬈毛.

  frizzy

  adj (of hair) tightly curled; frizzed (指毛发)鬈紧的, 鬈曲的.

  frizzle

  / 5frIzl; `frIzl/ v [I, Ip, Tn, Tn.p] ~ (sth) (up) twist (hair) into small tight curls 使(毛发)鬈曲.

  frizzle

  / 5frIzl; `frIzl/ v 1 [I, Tn] cook (food) with a sizzling noise 烹制(食物)发出吱吱声: bacon frizzling in the pan 在锅里煎得吱吱作响的腌肉. 2 [I, Ip, Tn, Tn.p] ~ (sth) (up) burn or shrivel (food) by frying it over a very strong heat; scorch (用旺火将食物)炸焦, 炸缩, 烧焦: The bacon is all frizzled up! 腌肉都煎糊了!

  fro

  / frEU; fro/ adv (idm 习语) to and fro => to3.

  frock

  / frCk; frBk/ n 1 dress worn by women or girls 连衣裙; (小女孩的)整身衣裙: All my frocks are for the summer. 我的连衣裙都是夏天穿的. 2 long loose gown with sleeves, worn by monks 僧袍.

  frock-coat

  n long coat worn (formerly) by men, now worn only on ceremonial occasions (旧时男子的)长礼服(现仅於典礼、 仪式场合穿著).

  frog

  / frCg; ?@ frR:g; frR^/ n 1 type of small cold-blooded smooth-skinned animal that lives in water or on land and has very long back legs for jumping, and no tail 蛙; 青蛙: the croaking of frogs 蛙鸣. =>illus 见插图. 2 ornamental fastener on a garment, consisting of a button and a looped cord that fits over it 钮扣和钮襻. 3 frog (infml offensive 口, 蔑) French person 法国人. 4 (idm 习语) have, etc a `frog in one's throat have a (usu temporary) loss or hoarseness of the voice (通常为暂时的)失音或嗓音嘶哑.

  frogman

  / -mEn; -mEn/ n (pl -men / -mEn; -mEn/) swimmer with a rubber suit, flippers and an oxygen supply that enables him to work underwater for periods of time 蛙人.

  frog-spawn

  / 5frCgspR:n; `frB^9spRn/ n [U] soft almost transparent jelly-like mass of the eggs of a frog 蛙的卵块.

  frog-march

  / 5frCgmB:tF; `frB^9mBrtF/ v [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] 1 force (sb) to move forward with the arms held tightly together behind the back 迫使(某人)(反剪双臂)前行: All prisoners were frogmarched (out) into the compound. 犯人都被迫反剪双臂(出来)进入院子. 2 carry (sb) face downwards with four people each holding an arm or a leg 蛙式抬运(某人)(使其面朝下由四人各持一肢抬行).

  frolic

  / 5frClIk; `frBlIk/ v (pt, pp frolicked) [I, Ip] ~ (about) play about in a lively happy way 嬉戏: children frolicking about in the swimming-pool 在游泳池里嬉戏的儿童.

  frolic

  n [sing] lively and enjoyable activity 欢乐的活动: having a frolic in the garden 在花园里开游乐会.

  frolicsome

  / -sEm; -sEm/ adj merry; playful 欢快的; 爱逗著玩儿的: a frolicsome kitten 爱逗著玩儿的小猫.

  from

  / frEm; frEm strong form 强读式 frCm; frBm/ prep 1 (indicating the place or direction from which sb/sth starts 表示某人[某物]出发的地方或方向): go from Manchester to Leeds 从曼彻斯特到利兹 * a wind from the north 从北方刮来的风 * Has the train from London arrived? 伦敦来的火车到了吗? * She comes home from work at 7 pm. 她下午7点下班回家. * A child fell from the seventh floor of a block of flats. 小孩儿从公寓的八楼上摔了下来. * carpets stretching from to wall to wall, ie from one wall to the opposite one 铺满地板的地毯(从地板一端铺到另一端). 2 (indicating the time at which sth starts 表示某事开始的时间): I'm on holiday from 30 June. 我从6月30日开始休假. * It's due to arrive an hour from now. 从现在起一个小时就该到了. * We lived in Scotland from 1960 to 1973. 我们从1960年到1973年住在苏格兰. * There's traffic in the streets from dawn till dusk. 从黎明到黄昏街上车辆川流不息. * We're open from 8 am till 7 pm every day. 我们每天由早8点到晚7点营业. * He was blind from birth. 他从出生就失明了. 3 (indicating who sent, gave or communicated sth 表示送、 给予或传送某物的人): a letter from my brother 我兄弟来的信 * a present from a friend 朋友送的礼物 * I had a phone call from Mary. 我接到了玛丽的电话. * the man from (ie representing) the Inland Revenue 税务局的人. 4 (indicating where sb/sth originates or is stored 表示某人[某事物]的来源): I'm from New Zealand. 我是新西兰人. * They come from the north. 他们是北方人. * the boy from the baker's 面包房的小伙子 * documents from the 16th century 16世纪的文件 * famous quotations from Shakespeare 莎士比亚的名句 * music from an opera 歌剧选曲 * draw water from a well 从井中取水 * powered by heat from the sun 以太阳的热量为动力的. 5 (indicating distance between two places 表示两地间的距离): 10 miles from the coast 距海岸10英里 * 100 yards from the scene of the accident 离事故现场100码 * (fig 比喻) Far from agreeing with him, I was shocked by his remarks. 我很不同意他的意见, 听了他的话我很吃惊. 6 (indicating the lower limit of a range of numbers, prices, etc 表示数目、 价格等的最低限度): write from 10 to 15 letters daily 每天写10到15封信 * Tickets cost from 3 to 11. 票价为3英镑至11英镑. * Our prices start from 2.50 a bottle. 我们的价格起码是2.50英镑一瓶. * Salaries are from 10% to 50% higher than in Britain. 薪金比在英国高10%到15%. 7 (indicating the state or form of sth/sb before a change 表示某事物[某人]改变之前的状态或形式): Things have gone from bad to worse. 事情已经越来越糟了. * You need a break from routine. 你需要从日常工作中脱身去休息一下. * translate from English to Spanish 从英语译成西班牙语 * The bus fare has gone up from 35p to 40p. 公共汽车的票价已由35便士涨到40便士. * From being a librarian she is now an MP. 她从一个图书馆管理员当上了如今的下议院议员. 8 (indicating the material from which sth is made, the material being changed in the process 表示制造某物的原料, 该原料在加工过程中有所改变): Wine is made from grapes. 葡萄酒是用葡萄酿造的. * Steel is made from iron. 钢是用铁炼成的. Cf 参看 of 5, out of 5. 9 (a) (indicating separation, removal, etc 表示分离、 除去等): separated from his mother for long periods 与他母亲已分离很长时间 * take the money from my purse 从我钱包里把钱拿走 * borrow a book from the library 从图书馆借书 * release sb from prison 将某人从监狱释放 * 6 from 14 leaves 8. 14减6剩8. (b) (indicating protection or prevention 表示保护或防止): protect children from violence 保护儿童免遭暴力侵犯 * save a boy from drowning 救一男孩使之免遭溺毙 * Wild fruit kept us from dying of starvation. 我们靠著野果才没饿死. * prevent sb from sleeping 不让某人睡著. 10 (indicating the reason, cause or motive 表示理由、 原因或动机): She felt sick from tiredness. 她因疲劳而感到不舒服. * suffer from cold and hunger 受饥寒交迫之苦 * She accompanied him from a sense of loyalty. 她出於忠诚而伴随他. 11 considering (sth) 考虑到(某事物): From the evidence we have heard so far... 就我们所知的证据来说... * From her looks I'd say she was Swedish. 从她的相貌上看, 我敢说她是瑞典人. * From what I heard last night we're going to need a new chairman. 考虑到我昨晚听到的情况, 我们需要一个新主席了. * You can tell quite a lot from the handwriting. 从笔迹上能了解很多东西. 12 (used to make a distinction between two people, places or things 用以区别两人、 两地或两事物): Is Portuguese very different from Spanish? 葡萄牙语和西班牙语的差别很大吗? * I can't tell one twin from the other. 我分不出双胞胎中谁是谁. * How do you know a fake from the original? 怎样识别膺品和真品呢? 13 (indicating a standpoint 表示立场、 观点): Seen from above the town covers a wide area. 从高处下望, 这座城镇占地很广. * From this angle it looks crooked. 从这个角度看这是弯的. * From a teacher's point of view this dictionary will be very useful. 以教师的观点来看, 这部词典很有用. 14 (idm 习语) from...on starting at the specified time and continuing for an indefinite period 从所述的时间开始而延续的期间未定: From now on you can work on your own. 你从现在起可以独立工作了. * From then on she knew she would win. 她从那时起就知道自己会得胜. * She never spoke to him again from that day on. 她从那天以後就再也不和他说话了.

  frond

  / frCnd; frBnd/ n leaf-like part of a fern or palm (蕨类或棕榈类的)叶.

  front

  / frQnt; frQnt/ n 1 (esp the front) [sing] (a) most important part or side of sth; part or side that faces forward; most forward part of sth 正面; 前面: The front of the building was covered with ivy. 建筑物的前面爬满了常春藤. * Put the statue so that the front faces the light. 把雕像摆好, 让正面向著光. * The front of the car has a dent in it. 小汽车的前面有一个凹痕. * The young boy spilt some juice down his front, ie the clothes covering his chest. 那男孩把果汁洒在前襟上了. (b) position directly before or ahead; most forward position or place 正前方或前面的位置, 最靠前的位置或地方: All eyes to the front as we pass the other competitors! 我们超越对手时要目不斜视! * The teacher made me move my seat to the front of the classroom. 老师让我把座位挪到教室的最前面去坐. * At the front of the house, someone had planted a beautiful garden. 有人在房前种上了花, 成了个漂亮的花园. * I prefer to travel in the front of the car, ie next to the driver. 我愿意坐在汽车的前面(挨著司机). Cf 参看 back1 1. 2 the front [sing] the land along the edge of the sea or a lake; promenade 海边; 湖边; 海滨: walk along the (sea) front 沿著海滨散步. 3 the front [sing] (in war) area where fighting takes place; foremost line of an army (战争中)前线, 前沿: be sent to the front 被派往前线 * serve at the front 在前线服役. 4 [sing] outward appearance or show, esp of the specified type 外表或样子(尤指所述的类型): Her rudeness is just a front for her shyness. 她色厉内荏. * put on/show/present a bold front 装出一副大胆的样子 * We might argue among ourselves, but against the management we must present a united front, ie act and speak as a group. 我们内部不妨有争论, 但对付资方我们必须团结一致. 5 [sing] a ~ for sth (infml 口) something that serves to hide an illegal or a secret activity 非法或秘密活动的掩蔽物: The jewellery firm is just a front for their illegal trade in diamonds. 该珠宝公司不过是进行非法的钻石交易的幌子. 6 [C] (of weather) forward edge of an advancing mass of warm or cold air (指天气)(热或冷气团的)锋: A cold front is moving in from the north. 一股冷锋正从北方向这里移动. 7 [C] (usu with an adj or a n 通常与形容词或名词连用) specified area of activity活动的范围或领域: on the domestic, financial, education, etc front 在国内、 金融、 教育等方面. 8 [sing] (esp in names 尤用於名称) organized and often aggressively active political group 有组织的、 常有过激活动的政治团体: the National Front 民族阵线. 9 (idm 习语) back to front => back1. eyes right/left/front => eye1. in `front; out `front part of a theatre where the audience sits 观众席. in front adv in a position further forward than but close to sb/sth 在某人[某物]前面: a small house with a garden in front 前面带花园的小房子 * The children walked in twos with one teacher in front and one behind. 孩子们排成两行走, 前後各有一位老师. * The British car has been in front now for several minutes. 英国汽车已领先数分钟. Cf 参看 behind2. in front of prep (a) in a position further forward than but close to (sb/sth) 在(某人[某物])前面: The car in front of me stopped suddenly and I had to brake. 我前面那辆小汽车突然停住, 我只好刹车. * The bus stops right in front of our house. 公共汽车正停在我们房前. * I keep the children's photographs in front of me on the desk. 我把孩子们的照片放在书桌上, 摆在我面前. * If you're phoning from outside London, dial 01 in front of the number. 从伦敦以外的地方打来电话, 要先拨01再拨电话号码. Cf 参看 behind1. =>Usage at before2 用法见before2. (b) in the presence of (sb) 当(某人的)面: The cheques must be signed in front of the cashier at the bank. 必须当著银行出纳员的面签这些支票. * Please don't talk about it in front of the children. 请不要当著孩子们谈论那事. up `front (infml 口) as payment in advance 提前付款; 先期付款: We'll pay you half up front and the other half when you've finished the job. 我们先付给你一半钱, 剩下的一半等你干完了再付.

  front

  adj [attrib 作定语] of or at (the) front(1) 前面的; 在前面的: on the front page of the newspaper 在报纸的头版 * front teeth 门齿 * They keep the front room for visitors. 他们把前面的房间留给客人. * the front door, ie the door that serves as the main entrance to a house 前门 * the front seats of a bus 公共汽车前面的座位.

  front

  v 1 [Ipr, Tn] ~ (onto) sth have the front facing or directed towards sth; face 面对; 直对; 面向: hotels that front onto the sea 面向大海的旅馆 * Attractive gardens fronted the houses. 这些房子的前面都有漂亮的花园. 2 [Tn usu passive 通常用於被动语态] provide (sth) with a front 用(某物)作正面: The monument was fronted with stone. 纪念碑的正面是石料做的. 3 [Tn] (infml 口) (a) serve as a leader or representative of (an organization) 作为(某组织的)领导人或代表. (b) present (a television or radio programme) 主持(电视节目或广播节目): Dan Davies has been chosen to front a new discussion programme. 丹·戴维斯获任主持一个新的讨论节目.

  the front bench

  (either of the two rows of seats in the British Parliament occupied by the) leading members of the government and opposition (在英国议会中的两排)前座(的政府及反对党议员): members on the front bench(es) opposite 反对党前座议员 * [attrib 作定语] the ,front-bench `spokesman on defence 议会中谈论国防事务的前座发言人. front-`bencher n Member of Parliament entitled to sit on the front bench 前座议员.

  the front line

  1 line of fighting which is closest to the enemy 前线: [attrib 作定语] front-line troops, units, etc 前沿部队、 单位等. 2 the most important, advanced or responsible position 最重要、 最前面的或责任最重大的位置; 第一线: in the front line of research 处於研究工作的第一线.

  front man

  (infml 口) 1 (person who acts as the) leader or representative of an organization 某组织的领导人或代表; 头面人物. 2 presenter of a television or radio programme (电视或广播的)节目主持人.

  front-page

  adj [attrib 作定语] interesting or important enough to be printed on the front page of a newspaper 头版的: ,front-page `news 头版新闻.

  front runner

  person who seems most likely to succeed or win, eg in a race or contest 最有可能成功或获胜的人(如在比赛或竞争中); 领先者: Who are the front runners in the Presidential contest? 哪些人在总统竞选中最有可能获胜?

  frontage

  / 5frQntIdV; `frQntIdV/ n [C, U] extent of a piece of land or a building along its front, esp bordering a road or river 一块土地或一建筑物的正面的空地(尤指临街或沿河的): For sale, shop premises with frontages on two streets. 出售商业用房, 前有空地两面临街. * a warehouse with good river frontage 带有一片良好的临河空地的仓库.

  frontal

  / 5frQntl; `frQntl/ adj [attrib 作定语] 1 at, from, in, or of the front 靠正面的; 从正面的; 在正面的; 正面的: a frontal view 正面所见 * a frontal attack, ie one directed at the front or the main point 正面攻击 * full frontal nudity, ie complete nudity, showing the whole of the front of the body 正面全裸. 2 (medical 医) of a person's forehead 前额的: frontal lobes 额叶. 3 concerning a weather front(6) (天气)锋的: a frontal system 锋系.

  frontier

  / 5frQntIE(r); ?@ frQn5tIEr; frQn`tIr/ n 1 [C] (a) ~ (between sth and sth); ~ (with sth) border between two countries 国界; 边界: the frontier between Austria and Hungary 奥地利和匈牙利之间的边界. (b) land on either side of such a border 边疆; 边陲; 边境; 国境: [attrib 作定语] a frontier zone 边境地带 * a frontier town 边疆城镇 * frontier disputes 边界争端. 2 the frontier [sing] (esp US) extreme limit of settled land, beyond which the country is wild and undeveloped 已开发地区的边缘地带: Beyond the frontier lay very real dangers. 在开发地区以外十分危险. 3 the frontiers [pl] extreme limit, esp of knowledge about sth 极限(尤指有关某事物的知识的); 尖端; 边缘: advance the frontiers of science 拓展科学的领域 * teach near the frontiers of one's subject, ie give recently discovered information 讲授个人专业领域的新知识. =>Usage at border 用法见border.

  frontiersman

  / -zmEn; -zmEn/ n (pl -men / -mEn; -mEn/) man living on the frontier; one of the first settlers of an area 边疆居民; 边民; 拓荒者; 开拓者.

  frontispiece

  / 5frQntIspi:s; `frQntIs9pis/ n (usu sing 通常作单数) illustration at the beginning of a book, on the page opposite the title-page 卷首插图(在与书名页相对的一页上的).

  frost

  / frCst; ?@ frR:st; frRst/ n 1 (a) [U] weather condition in which the temperature falls below freezing-point, usu accompanied by the formation of frost(2) 严寒(气温在冰点以下, 通常伴有霜冻): Young plants are often killed by frost. 植物的幼苗常因严寒而冻死. * a temperature of 10 degrees of frost, ie 10 degrees Celsius below freezing-point 冰点下10摄氏度的气温. (b) [C] instance or period of this 严寒; 严寒期: There was a heavy (ie severe) frost last night. 昨夜有严重霜冻. * early frosts, ie in autumn 秋寒 * late frosts, ie in spring 春寒. 2 [U] dew or water vapour frozen into tiny white ice crystals that cover the ground, etc when the temperature falls below freezing-point 霜: The windscreen was covered with frost. 挡风玻璃上结了霜.

  frost

  v 1 [Tn] cover (sth) with frost 在(某物)上结霜: frosted pavements 结霜的人行道. 2 [Tn usu passive 通常用於被动语态] kill or damage (plants, etc) with frost n (1) 冻死或冻坏(植物等). 3 [Tn] (esp US) decorate (a cake, etc) with icing or frosting 用糖衣或糖霜装饰(糕饼等). 4 [Tn] make (glass) opaque by giving it a rough frostlike surface 使(玻璃)不透明(形成霜状粗糙表面): frosted window panes 磨砂窗户玻璃. 5 (phr v) frost over/up become covered with frost 结霜: The car windscreen frosted over during the night. 汽车的挡风玻璃在夜间结了霜.

  frost-bite

  n [U] injury to the body, esp fingers, toes, ears, etc, caused by extreme cold 冻伤; 冻疮: Two of the mountain climbers were suffering from frost-bite. 有两个登山者冻伤了.

  frost-bitten

  adj suffering from or affected by frost-bite 患冻疮的; 被冻伤的: frost-bitten ears 冻伤的耳朵.

  frostbound

  adj (of the ground) made hard by frost (指地)冻硬的.

  frosting

  / 5frCstIN; ?@ 5frR:stIN; `frRstIN/ n [U] (esp US) = icing.

  frosty

  / 5frCstI; ?@ 5frR:stI; `frRstI/ adj (-ier, -iest) 1 (a) very cold; cold with frost 严寒的; 霜冻的: frosty weather 有霜冻的天气 * It's sunny, but the air is frosty. 虽然是晴天, 但空气很冷. (b) covered with frost 结霜的: frosty fields 结霜的田地. 2 (fig 比喻) cold and unwelcoming in manner; not friendly 冷若冰霜的; 不友好的: a frosty look, response, welcome, etc 冷若冰霜的表情、 反应、 迎接等.

  frostily

  / -IlI; IlI/ adv.

  frostiness

  n [U]: a certain frostiness in her greeting 在她的问候中略含冷淡之意.

  froth

  / frCW; ?@ frR:W; frRW/ n [U] 1 mass of small bubbles, esp on the surface of a liquid; foam 泡(尤指液体表面上的); 泡沫: I don't like beer with too much froth. 我不喜欢泡沫太多的啤酒. 2 (derog 贬) light but worthless conversation, ideas, etc 空洞的交谈、 思想等: Their chatter was nothing but froth! 他们聊天儿没别的, 全是废话!

  froth

  v 1 [Tn, Tn.p] ~ sth (up) cause (a liquid) to foam 使(液体)起泡: froth (up) a milk shake 将含奶的饮料打起泡沫来. 2 [I, Ipr] have or produce froth 有泡沫、 起泡沫; 发泡; 冒泡: The water frothed as it tumbled down the rocks. 水冲击在岩石上溅起了泡沫. * Animals with rabies often froth at the mouth. 患狂犬病的动物常常口吐白沫. * (fig 比喻) He was so angry he was almost frothing at the mouth. 他气得差点儿口吐白沫.

  frothy

  adj (-ier, -iest) 1 full of or covered with froth 有泡沫的; 起泡沫的: frothy beer 有泡沫的啤酒 * a frothy mixture of eggs and milk 起泡儿的蛋奶混合物. 2 light and trivial 轻浮的; 浅薄的; 空洞的: a novel written in a frothy style 笔调轻浮的小说.

  frothily

  adv.

  frothiness

  n [U].

  frown

  / fraUn; fraJn/ v 1[I, Ipr] ~ (at sb/sth) bring the eyebrows together, so wrinkling the skin on one's forehead (to express anger, thought, worry, etc) 皱眉, 蹙额(以示生气、 沉思、 忧愁等): What's wrong? Why are you frowning? 出什麽事了? 干什麽皱著眉头? * Peter frowned at the noise coming from the boys' bedroom. 彼得听到从男孩子卧室传来的吵闹声便皱起眉头. * She read through the letter, frowning at its contents. 她把信看了一遍, 从头到尾双眉深锁. 2 (phr v) frown on/upon sth disapprove of sth 不赞成某事; 不许可; 不同意: My parents always frown on late nights out. 我父母向来不赞成深夜外出. * Gambling is frowned upon by some church authorities. 有些教会权力机关不许可赌博. =>Usage at smirk 用法见smirk.

  frown

  n serious, angry, worried, etc look on the face causing lines on the forehead; expression of displeasure 皱眉; 蹙额; 不悦: She looked up from her exam paper with a worried frown. 她看完自己的试卷愁眉不展地抬起头来. * I noticed a slight frown of disapproval on his face. 我留意到他轻轻皱了一下眉, 露出不赞成的样子.

  frowsty

  / 5fraUstI; `fraJstI/ adj (derog 贬 esp Brit) (of the air conditions in a room) stale and stuffy (指房间里的空气)不流通的, 闷热的.

  frowzy

  / 5fraUzI; `fraJzI/ adj (esp Brit) 1 untidy or unclean in appearance; shabby 外表不整洁的; 邋遢的. 2 ill-smelling; stale and stuffy; musty 难闻的; 污浊闷热的; 霉臭的.

  froze

  pt of freeze.

  frozen

  pp of freeze.

  FRS

  / 9ef B:r 5es; 9Zf Br `Zs/ abbr 缩写 = (Brit) Fellow of the Royal Society 皇家学会会员: Charles May FRS 皇家学会会员查尔斯·梅.

  fructify

  / 5frQktIfaI; `frQktE9faI/ v (pt, pp -fied) [I, Tn] (fml 文) (cause sth to) bear fruit or be fruitful (使某物)结果实或多产.

  fructification

  / 9frQktIfI5keIFn;9frQktEfE`keFEn/ n [U].

  fructose

  / 5frQktEUs, -EUz; `frQktoz/ n type of sugar found in fruit juice, honey, etc 果糖(果汁、 蜂蜜等中所含的糖).

  frugal

  / 5fru:gl; `fru^l/ adj (a) careful and thrifty, esp with money and food 节约的, 节俭的, 节省的(尤指对金钱和食物): a frugal housekeeper 节俭的管家. (b) of life in which such care is shown 生活俭朴的: They lived a very frugal existence, avoiding all luxuries. 他们生活非常俭朴, 力避奢华. (c) costing little; small in quantity 花费少的; 省钱的; 小量的: a frugal meal of bread andcheese 只有面包和奶酪的便餐.

  frugality

  / fru5glEtI; fru`^AlEtI/ n [U].

  frugally

  / -gElI; -^lI/ adv

  fruit

  / fru:t; frut/ n 1 [C, U] fleshy seed-bearing part of a plant used as food; quantity of these 水果; 水果的量: The country exports tropical fruit(s). 该国出口热带水果. * Is a tomato a fruit or a vegetable? 蕃茄是水果还是蔬菜? * Bananas, apples and oranges are all fruit. 香蕉、 苹果和橘子都是水果. * This pudding has two pounds of fresh fruit in it. 这个布丁里有两磅鲜果. * [attrib 作定语] `fruit juice 果汁 * `fruit trees 果树. =>illus 见插图. 2 [C] (botany 植) part of a plant, tree or bush in which the seed is formed 果实. 3 [C usu pl 通常作复数] any plant product used as food 可做食物的任何植物的产物: the fruits of the earth, ie vegetables, cereals, etc 农产品(蔬菜、 谷物等). 4 (esp 尤作 the fruits [pl]) result or reward of an action, hard work, etc 成果; 结果; 产物: enjoy the fruit(s) of one's labours 享受自己的劳动成果. 5 [U] (also ,dried `fruit) currants, raisins, or sultanas, used as food or in baking 乾果. 6 (idm 习语) bear fruit => bear2. forbidden fruit => forbid.

  fruit

  v [I] produce fruit 结果实: These apple trees have always fruited well. 这些苹果树总是结很多苹果.

  fruit-cake

  n 1 [C, U] cake containing dried fruit 含有乾果的糕饼; 乾果蛋糕. 2 (idm 习语) nutty as a fruit-cake => nutty (nut).

  fruit-fly

  n small fly that feeds on decaying plant matter, esp fruit 果蝇.

  fruit-knife

  n small knife used for cutting and peeling fruit 水果刀.

  fruit machine

  (Brit) (also esp US ,one-armed `bandit) type of coin-operated gambling machine, often displaying symbols representing fruit 吃角子老虎(以硬币启动的赌具, 常以水果图案为显示符号).

  fruit salad

  1 (esp Brit) mixture of different types of fruit, cut up and served as a dessert 水果色拉; 水果杂拌. 2 (US) dish of small pieces of fruit set in jelly(1a) and served as a dessert 水果冻; 果冻.

  fruiterer

  / 5fru:tErE(r); `frutErL/ n (esp Brit) person who sells fruit, esp in a shop or stall 水果商贩.

  fruitful

  / 5fru:tfl; `frutfEl/ adj 1 having many good results; productive or profitable; successful 硕果累累的; 多产的; 有利的; 成功的: a fruitful experience, day's work, partnership 丰富的经验、 收获大的一日工作、 成功的合作关系 * fruitful areas of research 硕果累累的研究领域. 2 producing a lot of fruit 果实结得多的.

  fruitfully

  / 5fru:tfElI; `frutfElI/ adv.

  fruitfulness

  / 5fru:tfElnIs;`frutfElnIs/ n [U].

  fruition

  / fru:5IFn; fru`IFEn/ n [U] fulfilment of hopes, plans, etc; getting what one wants or has worked for (希望、 计画等的)实现; 完成: After months of hard work, our plans came to/were brought to fruition. 我们经过几个月的苦干, 终於实现了计画.

  fruitless

  / 5fru:tlIs; `frutlIs/ adj producing little or no result; unsuccessful 不结果实的; 无结果的; 不成功的; 无益的; 无效的: a fruitless attempt 无益的尝试 * Our efforts to persuade her were fruitless she didn't even listen. 我们怎麽劝她都没用--她连听都不听.

  fruitlessly

  adv.

  fruitlessness

  n [U].

  fruity

  / 5fru:tI; `frutI/ adj (-ier, -iest) 1 like fruit in smell or taste; containing a lot of fruit 果香的; 果味的; 含大量水果的: a fruity wine 果酒 * a fruity dessert 水果甜食. 2 (infml 口) funny in a crude and often sexually suggestive way (粗俗而常含色情内容)逗笑的: a fruity joke, remark, story, etc 色情的笑话、 言语、 故事等. 3 (infml 口) (of a voice, etc) rich and deep in tone or quality (指声音等)圆润而深沉的: a fruity chuckle 低沉的笑声.

  frump

  / frQmp; frQmp/ n (derog 贬) person (usu a woman) who wears dull old-fashioned clothes 衣著不入时的人(通常指女子).

  frumpish

  adj: a frumpish outfit 不时兴的衣装.

  frustrate

  / frQ5streIt; ?@ 5frQstreIt; `frQstret/ v [Tn] 1 (a) prevent (sb) from doing or achieving sth 阻止(某人)做成某事; 妨碍: He had hoped to set a new world record, but was frustrated by bad weather. 他本希望能创造新的世界纪录, 但因天气恶劣而未果. (b) make (efforts, etc) useless; defeat 使(努力等)无效; 失败: Bad weather has frustrated plans to launch the spacecraft today. 今日发射宇宙飞船的计画, 因天气恶劣而落空. 2 upset or discourage (sb) 扰乱或阻挠(某人); 使沮丧; 使灰心: Mary was frustrated by the lack of appreciation shown of her work. 玛丽因工作得不到赏识而灰心丧气.

  frustrated

  adj 1 (a) [pred 作表语] discouraged; not satisfied 令人灰心; 令人沮丧; 令人不满: As a nurse she got very frustrated, but being an administrator seems to suit her. 她做护士很不顺心, 但当管理人员似乎倒很适合. (b) [attrib 作定语] unable to be successful in one's chosen career 失意的; 不得志的; 受挫的: Film directors are sometimes frustrated actors. 电影导演有时是不得志的演员. 2 not satisfied sexually 性欲上不满的.

  frustrating

  adj annoying; discouraging 使人心烦的; 使人讨厌的; 使人灰心的; 使人沮丧的: I find it frustrating that I can't speak other languages. 我不会说别的语言, 感到惘然若失.

  frustration

  / frQ5streIFn; frQs`treFEn/ n 1 [U] (state of) being frustrated 灰心; 沮丧; 不满; 失意; 受挫. 2 [C] instance of this; disappointment 灰心; 沮丧; 不满; 挫折; 失意; 失望: Every job has its frustrations. 每种工作都有让人不称心的地方.

  fry

  / fraI; fraI/ v (pt, pp fried/ fraId; fraId/) 1 [I, Tn] cook (sth) or be cooked in boiling fat or oil 油煎; 油炸: fried chicken 炸鸡 * bacon frying in the pan 在煎锅里煎著的腌肉. =>Usage at cook 用法见cook. 2 (idm 习语) have bigger/other fish to fry => fish1.

  frying-pan (US fry-pan)

  n 1 flat shallow pan with a long handle, used for frying food 长柄平底浅锅(煎锅). =>illus at pan 见pan插图. 2 (idm 习语) out of the `frying-pan into the `fire from a bad situation to one that is worse 跳出油锅又入火坑; 愈来愈糟; 每况愈下.

  fry-up

  n (Brit) (dish of) fried food, esp bacon, eggs, sausages, etc 油煎食品(菜肴)(尤指腌肉、 蛋、 香肠等): We always have a fry-up for Saturday lunch. 我们星期六的午饭总有一道油煎菜.

  fry

  / fraI; fraI/ n [pl v] 1 young or newly hatched fishes 小鱼; 鱼苗. 2 (idm 习语) `small fry => small.

  fryer (also frier)

  / 5fraIE(r); `fraIL/ n 1 large deep pan for frying food, esp fish 大而深的锅(用以炸食物、 尤指鱼). 2 (esp US) small young chicken suitable for frying (适宜炸食的)雏鸡.

  FT

  / 9ef 5ti:; 9Zf `ti/ abbr 缩写 = (Brit) Financial Times (newspaper) 金融时报: the FT (share) index 金融时报(股票)指数.

  Ft

  abbr 缩写 = (in names 用作名称) Fort: Ft William, eg on a map 威廉堡(如地图上的字样).

  ft

  abbr 缩写 = (also symb 符号为 ) feet; foot: 11 ft x (ie by) 6 ft (11 x 6) 11英尺6英尺 * She was only 5 ft (tall). 她只有5英尺(高). Cf 参看 in, yd.

  kung fu

  / 9kUN 5fu, also 5kQN; 9kJN`fu/ n [U] Chinese form of unarmed combat similar to karate (中国武术中的)徒手功夫.

  fuchsia

  / 5fju:FE; `fjuFE/ n shrub with red, purple or white drooping flowers 倒挂金钟(灌木, 开红色、 紫色或白色花, 悬垂呈倒挂钟状).

  love

  / fQk; fQk/ v (<!> sl 讳, 俚) 1 [I, Tn] have sexual intercourse with (sb) 与(某人)性交. 2 [I, Tn](esp imperative or as an interj in exclamations expressing extreme anger, annoyance or disgust 尤用於祈使句或用於感叹句中作感叹词, 表示极其愤怒、 烦恼或憎恶): love (it)! 他妈的! * love you I don't care if I never see you again. 滚你妈的蛋--我这辈子也不想见你了. * love the bloody thing it won't work. 去他妈的倒霉玩意儿--不管用. 3 (idm 习语) `loveing well (used to emphasize an angry statement, esp an order 说气话时用以加强语气, 尤作命令用语) certainly; definitely 确实; 一定: You're loveing well coming whether you want to or not. 不管你想来不想来, 你是一定得来. 4 (phr v) love a`bout/a`round behave foolishly or unhelpfully 干愚蠢的或无谓的事; 胡闹: Stop loveing around and come and give me a hand. 别胡闹了, 过来给我帮个忙.love sb about/around treat sb badly or inconsiderately亏待或不体谅某人: This bloody company keeps loveing me about. 这倒霉的公司一直亏待我. love `off (esp imperative 尤用於祈使句) go away 走开; 滚. love sth up spoil or ruin sth 弄糟或毁坏某事物.

  love

  n (usu sing 通常作单数) (<!> sl 讳, 俚) 1 act of sexual intercourse 性交. 2 (sexist 性别偏见) person, esp a woman, considered as a sexual partner 性交对象(尤指女子): She's a good love. 她是个床上的好伴. 3 (idm 习语) not care/give a love (about sb/sth) not care at all 毫不在乎: He doesn't give a love about anyone else. 他对别人毫不关心.

  loveer

  n (<!> sl 讳, 俚) (as a general term of abuse) fool; idiot (用作一般的辱骂用语)傻瓜, 笨蛋.

  loveing

  (<!> sl 讳, 俚) adj, adv (used to add emphasis in expressions of anger, annoyance, etc 用以增强表示愤怒、 烦恼等的语气): I'm loveing sick of the whole loveing lot of you. 你们他妈的真让我恶心.

  love-all

  n [U] (<!> sl 讳, 俚) nothing at all 丝毫没有; 什麽都没有: You've done ,love-`all today. 你今天是屁事也没干. * [attrib 作定语] He's ,love-all ,use as a `goalkeeper. 他当守门员屁事不顶.

  love-up

  / 5fQkQp; `fQk9Qp/ n (<!> sl 讳, 俚) complete mess; disaster 一团糟; 一塌糊涂: What a love-up! 真是乱成一锅粥!

  fuddle

  / 5fQdl; `fQdl/ v [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] confuse (sb/sth), esp with alcoholic drink 使(某人[某事])错乱(尤指因含酒精饮料所致): in a fuddled state 处於昏昏沉沉的状态 * one's mind fuddled with gin 喝杜松子酒喝得烂醉.

  fuddle

  n (usu sing 通常作单数) confused state 混乱: My brain's in a fuddle. 我的脑子糊里糊涂的.

  fuddy-duddy

  / 5fQdIdQdI; `fQdI9dQdI/ n (infml derog or joc 口, 贬或谑) person who has old-fashioned ideas and habits 老脑筋; 老顽固; 老古董: You're such an old fuddy-duddy! 你这个老古董! * [attrib 作定语] You and your fuddy-duddy ideas! 你这个老脑筋!

  fudge

  / fQdV; fQdV/ n [U] soft sweet made of sugar, butter and milk, often with added flavourings (由糖、 奶油和牛奶, 有时加香料制成的)软糖: chocolate/walnut fudge 巧克力[核桃]软糖.

  fudge

  / fQdV; fQdV/ v [Tn] (infml 口) 1 do (sth) clumsily or inadequately 胡乱地或敷衍地做(某事): He had to fudge a reply because he didn't know the right answer. 因为他不知道正确的答案, 只好胡编乱造一个. 2 misrepresent or falsify (sth); evade (sth) 歪曲或捏造(某事); 逃避(某事): Our manager has been fudging the issue of bonus payments for months. 我们的经理数月来一直回避发放奖金一事.

  fuel

  / 5fju:El; `fjuEl/ n 1 [U] (a) material burned to produce heat or power, eg wood, coal, oil, etc 燃料: What sort of fuel do these machines need? 这些机器需要哪种燃料? (b) material that produces nuclear energy 核燃料. 2 [C] any particular type of fuel 任何类型的燃料. 3 [C] (fig 比喻) thing that increases anger or other strong feelings (使愤怒或其他激情增强的)刺激因素: His indifference was a fuel to her hatred. 他无动於衷使她心中的怨恨火上加油. 4 (idm 习语) add fuel to the flames => add.

  fuel

  v (-ll-; US -l-) 1 [I] take in fuel 给(某物)加燃料; 供给(某物)燃料: All aircraft must fuel before a long flight. 所有飞机均须先加油方能作长途飞行. 2 [Tn] supply (sth) with fuel: fuelling a car with petrol 给汽车加汽油 * (fig 比喻) inflation fuelled by big wage increases.

  fug

  / fQg; fQ^/ n (usu sing 通常作单数); (infml 口) warm stuffy atmosphere, eg in a small or crowded room 热而污浊的空气(如在狭小的或拥挤的房间里): Open the window there's quite a fug in here. 打开窗户吧--这里的空气不新鲜了.

  fuggy

  adj.

  fugitive

  / 5fju:dVEtIv; `fjudVEtIv/ n ~ (from sb/sth) person who is running away or escaping 逃跑者; 逃亡者: fugitives from a country ravaged by war 从饱受战争蹂躏的国家逃出的难民 * a fugitive from justice 逃犯.

  fugitive

  adj 1 escaping; running away 逃亡的; 逃跑的: a fugitive criminal 逃跑的罪犯. 2 [usu attrib 通常作定语] (fml 文) lasting only a short time; fleeting 短暂的; 瞬间的; 转瞬即逝的: fugitive thoughts, impressions, sensations, etc 瞬间的想法、 印象、 感觉.

  fugue

  / fju:g; fju^/ n musical composition in which one or more themes are introduced and then repeated in a complex pattern 赋格曲.

  -ful

  suff 後缀 1 with ns and vs forming adjs 与名词和动词结合构成形容词; full of; having qualities of; liable to 充满...的; 有...性质的; 有...倾向的: beautiful * masterful * forgetful. 2 (with ns forming ns 与名词结合构成名词) amount that fills 充满...的量: handful * mouthful.

  fulcrum

  / 5fUlkrEm; `fJlkrEm/ n (pl ~s or fulcra/ 5fUlkrE; `fJlkrE/) point on which a lever is supported 支撑杠杆的点; 支点. =>illus at lever 见lever插图.

  fulfil (US fulfill)

  / fUl5fIl; fJl`fIl/ v (-ll-) [Tn] 1 perform (sth) or bring (sth) to completion 履行(某事); 使(某事)实现: fulfil a promise, prophecy 履行诺言、 使预言实现. 2 satisfy (sth); answer 满足(某事); 符合: fulfil a desire, prayer, hope, need, dream, etc 满足欲望、 实现祈愿、 符合愿望、 符合需要、 符合理想 * Does your job fulfil your expectations? 你的工作符合你的预想吗? 3 satisfy the specific requirements of (sth) 满足(某事)的要求: fulfil the terms of a contract 满足合同条款的要求 * fulfil the conditions of entry to a university 具备某大学的入学条件. 4 perform (sth); do; obey fully 履行(某事); 做; 服从: fulfil a duty, a command, an obligation, etc 履行职责、 服从命令、 履行义务. 5 ~ oneself fully develop one's abilities and character 充分发挥自己的能力和性格: He was able to fulfil himself through music. 他通过音乐能充分地发挥自己的才能.

  fulfilled

  adj satisfied; completely happy 满意的; 满足的; 十分愉快的: He doesn't feel really fulfilled in his present job. 他对目前的工作并非真正满意.

  fulfilment

  n [U] fulfilling or being fulfilled 满意; 满足.

  full

  / fUl; fJl/ adj (-er, -est) 1 ~ (of sth/sb) (a) holding or containing as much or as many as possible; completely filled 满的; 饱含的; 充满的: drawers full to overflowing 抽屉满得装不进东西 * My cup is full. 我的杯子是满的. * The bin needs emptying; it's full of rubbish. 垃圾箱该倒了, 垃圾都满了. * The theatre is full, I'm afraid you'll have to wait for the next show. 剧院已客满, 很抱歉你只能等下一场了. =>Usage at empty1 用法见empty1. (b) having or containing much or many; crowded 充足的; 丰富的; 挤满的: a lake full of fish 有很多鱼的湖 * a room full of people 挤满人的房间 * She's full of vitality. 她充满活力. 2 ~ of sth completely occupied in thinking about sth 头脑里充满某想法的; 只想著某事物的: She was full of the news, ie could not stop herself talking about it. 她满脑子都是那消息. 3 ~ (up) having had enough to eat and drink 吃饱喝足: No more thank you, I'm full up. 不添了, 谢谢, 我已经吃饱喝足了. 4 [attrib 作定语] (a) complete; plentiful 全面的; 完整的; 详尽的; 充分的: give full information, details, instructions, etc 提供完整的资料、 详尽的细节、 全面的指导等. (b) complete; reaching specified or usual limits 完全的; 十足的; 达到(指定的或通常的)限度的: The roses are in full bloom. 玫瑰花正在盛开. * I had to wait a full hour for the bus. 我等公共汽车足足等了一小时. * He got full marks (ie the highest marks possible) for his essay. 他的文章得了满分. * Her dress was a full three inches above the knee. 她的连衣裙下摆离膝盖整整三英寸. 5 [usu attrib 通常作定语] plump; rounded 丰满的; 圆的: a full figure 胖体形 * rather full in the face 脸很胖. 6 (of clothes) fitting loosely or made with plenty of material (指衣服)宽松的, 肥大的: a full skirt 肥大的裙子 * Please make this coat a little fuller across the back. 请把这件大衣的後身放宽些. 7 (of a tone or voice) deep and mellow (指音调或嗓音)深沉圆润的. 8 (idm 习语) at full `stretch to the limit of one's ability 达到个人能力的限度; 竭尽全力: working at full stretch 竭尽全力地工作. at half/full cock => cock2. come full `circle return to the starting point after a series of events, experiences, etc (事情、 经历等)绕一圈回到原处. come to a full `stop stop completely 停住: The car came to a full stop at the traffic lights. 汽车在交通信号灯处停住了. draw onself up to one's full height => draw2. the first/full flush of youth, etc => flush1. (at) full `blast at maximum power, activity, etc 以最大的力量、 活力等: going, talking, shouting full blast 疾步行走、 高声谈话、 大声疾呼 * An orchestra playing at full blast is a tremendous sound. 管弦乐队全力演奏声音大得惊人. full of `beans/`life having a lot of energy and vitality 精力旺盛. full of the joys of spring lively and light-hearted 活泼愉快. (at) full length with the body stretched out and flat 全身伸直: lying full length on the sofa 全身伸直躺在沙发上. `full of oneself (derog 贬) selfish and conceited 自私自利; 自以为是: You're very full of yourself today, I must say. 你今天太自以为是了, 我不得不说出来. full of one's own im`portance (derog 贬) thinking that one is very important 自负; 自高自大. (at) full `pelt/`tilt/`speed with great speed or force 以极高的速度或极大的力量: He drove full tilt intothe lamppost. 他车开得飞快, 撞上了路灯柱. full speed/steam ahead (proceeding) with as much speed and vigour as possible 全速前进; 竭尽全力. give full/short measure => measure. give sb/sth full play give sb/sth complete freedom of action or expression 使某人[某事物]充分表现或发挥. have one's hands full => hand1. in full completely; with nothing omitted 全部地; 全面地; 无省略地; 无遗漏地: publish a report in full 全文发表一份报告 * write one's name in full, eg John Henry Smith, not J H Smith 写全名(如写作John Henry Smith, 不作J.H. Smith). in full `cry (of a pack of hunting hounds) barking together noisily as they chase their prey (指一群猎犬)追赶猎物时齐声狂吠: (fig 比喻) The pop group raced for their car, pursued by fans in full cry. 流行歌手朝著他们的汽车跑去, 後面跟著一群狂呼乱叫的歌迷. in full play fully operating or active 正在进行中; 正起劲. in full sail (of a ship) with all the sails spread or set (指船)张满帆. in full `swing fully active 正起劲; 正活跃: The party was in full swing when we arrived. 我们到达时恰值聚会的高潮. in full `view (of sb/sth) completely visible 全都看得见的: He performed the trick in full view of the whole audience. 他在全体观众都看得见的情况下变魔术. to the `full to the greatest possible extent 达到尽可能大的程度; 充分地: enjoy life to the full 尽情享受人生的乐趣.

  full

  adv 1 exactly; directly 精确地; 直接地: John hit him full in the face. 约翰一下正打在他的脸上. 2 very 很; 非常: as you know full well 正如你十分了解的.

  fullness (also fulness)

  n [U] 1 completeness; being full(4b) 完整; 完全; 全部. 2 (idm 习语) in the fullness of time at the appropriate or right time; eventually 在适当的时候; 时机成熟时; 终於: In the fullness of time they married and had children. 他们到时候就结了婚, 生了孩子.

  fully

  adv 1 completely; entirely 完全地; 全部地; 全面地; 十分地: fully satisfied 十分满意 * She was fully dressed in five minutes. 她用五分钟就已穿戴整齐了. * I was fully expecting to lose my job, so this promotion has come as a complete surprise. 我原先满以为会失业, 所以这次晋升完全出乎意料. 2 at least; the whole of 至少; 整整: The journey will take fully two hours. 此行至少要用两小时. 3 (idm 习语) fully stretched made to work, etc at the limits of one's capacities or talents 竭尽所能; 全力以赴. ,fully-`fashioned adj (of women's clothing) designed to fit the body closely (指女装)设计得完全合身的. ,fully-`fledged adj 1 (of a young bird) having grown all its feathers (指幼鸟)羽毛丰满的. 2 (fig 比喻) mature and well established 成熟的; 巩固的: Computer science is now a fully-fledged academic subject. 计算机科学目前已是一门成熟的学科.

  full back

  (in hockey, football, etc) defensive player near the goal (曲棍球、 足球等的)後卫.

  full-blooded

  adj 1 not of mixed race or breed 纯种的: a ,full-blooded `mare 纯种母马. 2 vigorous and hearty 血气方刚的; 精神饱满的: a ,full-blooded and,passionate `person 既精神又热情的人 * (fig 比喻) a,full-blooded `argument 激烈的争论.

  full-blown

  adj (esp of flowers) fully developed; quite open (尤指鲜花)盛开的, 怒放的: ,full-blown `roses 盛开的玫瑰.

  full board

  the providing of bed and all meals, in a hotel, etc 全食宿(旅馆等提供住宿和全部伙食): The price is 20 for bed and breakfast, 25 full board. 住宿加早餐的价钱是20英镑, 全食宿25英镑. Cf 参看 half board (half3).

  full-bodied

  adj rich in quality, tone, etc 质地纯正的; 醇厚的; 浓烈的; 声调宏亮的; 雄浑的: a ,full-bodied red `wine 醇厚的红葡萄酒.

  full house

  1 theatre, cinema, etc with all its seats occupied 满座; 客满: We have a full house tonight. 我们今晚客满了. 2 (in poker) set of cards held by a player that consists of three cards of one value and two of another (扑克戏)由三张同点的及另两张同点的牌组成的一手牌. 3 (in bingo, etc) set of numbers needed to win (宾戈等赌博游戏)为获胜所需的一组号码.

  full-length

  adj (a) (of a picture, mirror, etc) showing the whole (human) figure (指照片、 镜子等)照出(人的)全身的. (b) not shortened; of the expected length 未缩短的; 未删节的; 全长的; 照原有长度的: a,full-length `novel 足本的小说 * a ,full-length `skirt, ie one that reaches the ankles 全长裙(长及踝的).

  full marks

  maximum marks possible in an examination, etc (考试等的)满分: (fig 比喻) I must say I give you full marks for your tactful handling of a difficult situation. 你巧妙地处理了困难的局面, 我得给你打满分.

  full moon

  the moon in its fullest phase, with its whole disc illuminated; time when this occurs 满月; 望月. Cf 参看 new moon (new).

  full page

  adj filling a complete page 全页的; 整版的: a ,full page ad`vertisement 整版篇幅的广告.

  full-scale

  adj not reduced in size; the same size as the object itself; complete 原尺寸的; 与原物同样大小的; 实比的; 完全的; 全面的: a ,full-scale `drawing, `plan, `design, etc 与原物同样大小的图画、 全面的计画、 实比的图样 * (fig 比喻) a ,full-scale reorgani`zation of the department 部门的全面大改组.

  full stop (also full point, US period)

  1 punctuation mark (.) used at the end of a sentence or an abbreviation 句号; 句点. =>App 3 见附录3. 2 (used to indicate finality 用以表示定局) without further qualification 无斟酌余地: I just think he is very unpleasant, full stop. 我就是认为他很讨厌, 没别的说的.

  full time

  end of a game of football, etc (足球等比赛的)终场, 结束.

  full-time

  adj for or during the whole of the working day or week 全(工作)日制的; 全(工作)周的: a,full-time `job 一份全日制的工作. adv on a full-time basis 全日制地; 全周地: ,work full-`time 全日制工作. Cf 参看 part-time (part1).

  fuller

  / 5fUlE(r); `fJlL/ n person who cleans and thickens freshly woven cloth 漂洗工.

  fuller's earth

  type of clay used for this process 漂白土; 漂土.

  fulminate

  / 5fQlmIneIt; ?@ 5fUl-; `fJlmE9net/ v [I, Ipr] ~ (against sb/sth) protest strongly and loudly 强烈抗议; 叱责.

  fulmination

  / 9fQlmI5neIFn; ?@ 9fUl-; 9fJlmE`neFEn/ n (a) [U] fulminating 强烈抗议; 叱责. (b) [C] instance of this; bitter protest or criticism 强烈的抗议; 叱责; 激烈的反抗; 严厉的批评.

  fulsome

  / 5fUlsEm; `fJlsEm/ adj excessive and insincere 过分而虚伪的: fulsome words, compliments, etc 溢美之词、 恭维等 * be fulsome in one's praise 假意称赞.

  fulsomely

  adv.

  fulsomeness

  n [U].

  fumble

  / 5fQmbl; `fQmbl/ v 1 [I, Tn] touch or handle (sth) awkwardly or nervously (笨拙地或紧张地)摸索或处理(某事物): He fumbled the ball and then dropped it. 他笨手笨脚地漏接了球. 2 [Ipr] ~ at/for/with sth use the hands awkwardly in doing sth or in search of sth 笨手笨脚地做某事或寻找某物: fumble in one's pocket for some coins 笨手笨脚地在口袋里摸索几枚硬币 * She fumbled with her notes and began to speak. 她手忙脚乱地翻找讲稿, 然後开始讲话. * fumble for the light switch 摸索电灯开关 * (fig 比喻) fumble for the right thing to say 笨嘴拙舌地寻找恰当的话题. 3 [Ip] ~ about/around move about clumsily in doing sth or in search of sth 笨拙地四处乱走(做某事或寻找某物): fumbling around in the dark 在黑暗中瞎撞.

  fumble

  n [sing] act of fumbling 摸索; 笨拙的处理.

  fume

  / fju:m; fjum/ n (usu pl 通常作复数) smoke, gas or vapour that smells strongly (气味强烈的)烟, 气, 汽: petrol fumes 强烈的汽油味 * The air was thick with cigar fumes. 空气里弥漫著雪茄的烟.

  fume

  v 1 [I, Ipr] ~ (at sb/sth) be very angry; show this anger 愤怒; 大怒; 发怒; 发火: fume at the delay 因耽搁而发怒 * By the time we arrived an hour late she was fuming (with rage). 我们晚到了一小时, 她正气得七窍生烟. 2 [I] emit or give off fumes 冒烟; 冒气: The smouldering wreck fumed for days. 燃烧的残骸冒了好几天的烟. 3 [Tn] treat (esp wood) with chemical fumes to darken it 用(化学药品的)烟雾处理(尤指木材)(使其颜色变深); 熏: fumed oak 熏栎木.

  fumigate

  / 5fju:mIgeIt; `fjumE9^et/ v [Tn] destroy infectious germs, insects, etc in (sth) with the fumes ofcertain chemicals 用烟熏(某物)消毒: The hospital wards were fumigated after the outbreak of typhus. 发现斑疹伤寒以後, 医院的病房进行了烟熏消毒.

  fumigation

  / 9fju:mI5geIFn; 9fjumE`^eFEn/ n [U].

  fun

  / fQn; fQn/ n [U] 1 enjoyment; pleasure 享乐; 快乐; 娱乐; 乐趣: We had lots of fun at the fair today. 我们今天在游乐场上玩得很高兴. * It took all the fun out of the occasion when we heard that you were ill. 我们一听说你病了, 欢乐的气氛一扫而光. * What fun it will be when we all go on holiday together. 我们大家一起去度假那可太有意思了. * Have fun! ie Enjoy yourself! 尽情玩儿吧! 2 source of this 有趣的事; 开心的事: Sailing is (good/great) fun. 帆船运动是一大乐趣. * It's not much fun going to a party alone. 独自一人去参加聚会没什麽意思. 3 playfulness; good humour 滑稽; 幽默: She's very lively and full of fun. 她很活泼又很幽默. 4 [attrib 作定语] (esp US) amusing; providing pleasure 有趣; 逗笑: a fun hat 可笑的帽子. 5 (idm 习语) (just) for `fun/for the `fun of it; (just) in `fun for amusement; not seriously; as a joke 取乐; 非认真地; 当笑话: I'm learning to cook, just for the fun of it. 我正在学做饭, 做著玩儿而已. * He only said it in fun he didn't really mean it. 他只是说著玩儿--并非真是那个意思. fun and `games (infml 口) light-hearted and playful activities 玩耍; 嬉戏: That's enough fun and games! Let's get down to work. 别再玩儿了! 咱们安下心来工作吧. make fun of sb/sth (cause people to) laugh at sb/sth, usu unkindly; ridicule sb/sth (使人)因某人[某事物]发笑(通常含恶意); 嘲笑某人[某事物]: It's cruel to make fun of people who stammer. 嘲笑口吃的人未免不近人情. poke fun at sb/sth => poke1.

  fun-fair (also fair)

  n collection of outdoor amusements, stalls and side shows, usu in a park 游乐场(露天的娱乐活动、 摊位游戏、 杂耍表演等, 通常於公园中).

  function

  / 5fQNkFn; `fQNkFEn/ n 1 special activity or purpose of a person or thing 作用; 功能; 机能; 职能; 职责: to fulfil a useful function 起到有益的作用 * The function of the heart is to pump blood through the body. 心脏的功能是把血液输往全身. * It is not the function of this committee to deal with dismissals. 处理解雇问题不是本委员会的职责. 2 important social event or official ceremony 重大的社交聚会; 典礼; 宴会: Heads of state attend numerous functions every year. 国家首脑每年要出席很多重大宴会. 3 (mathematics 数) quantity whose value depends on the varying values of others 函数: X is a function of Y. X是Y的函数. 4 any of the basic operations of a computer (计算机的任何基本的)功能: What functions can this program perform? 这一程序有哪些功能?

  function

  v 1 [I] work; operate 起作用; 运转: His brain seems to be functioning normally. 他的大脑看来功能正常. * This machine has stopped functioning, ie is out of order. 这机器坏了. 2 [Ipr] ~ as sth work as sth; operate or perform the function(1) of the thing specified 起某物的作用; 具有某物的功能; 起到所述事物的作用: The sofa can also function as a bed. 这沙发也可以当床. * Some English adverbs function as adjectives. 英语中有些副词可作形容词用.

  functional

  / -FEnl; -FEnl/ adj 1 of or having a function(1) or functions 功能的; 机能的; 职务上的; 有作用的; 有功能的: a functional duty, title, office 职责、 职称、 职能 * a functional disorder, ie illness caused when an organ of the body fails to perform its function 机能紊乱. 2 practical and useful; not decorative 实用的; 非装饰性的: functional furniture, clothing, architecture 实用的家具、 衣服、 建筑. 3 [pred 作表语] working; able to work 起作用; 运转; 能起作用; 能运转: Is this machine functional? 这机器能用吗? * I'm hardly functional if I don't get eight hours' sleep! 我要是不睡上八个小时就无法工作!

  functionally

  / -FEnElI; -FEnElI/ adv.

  function key

  (computing 计) key that causes an operation or sequence of operations to be performed 功能键; 操作键: a special function key that displays the help menu 显示求助项目单的特殊功能键.

  functionalism

  / 5fQNkFEnElIzEm; `fQNkFEnl9IzEm/ n [U] principle in architecture, design, etc that the purpose and use of an object should determine its shape and construction 功能主义, 实用建筑主义(主张建筑物的形式和结构应取决於其用途).

  functionalist

  / -FEnElIst; -FEnlIst/ n, adj (believer in the principle) of functionalism 功能主义的; 功能主义者.

  functionary

  / 5fQNkFEnErI; ?@ -nerI; `fQNkFEn9ZrI/ n (often derog 常作贬义) person with official duties 公务员; 官员: a minor functionary 小官.

  fund

  / fQnd; fQnd/ n 1 [C] sum of money saved or made available for a particular purpose 专款; 基金: a disaster/relief fund 赈灾[救济]款 * the church restoration fund 教堂修缮基金. 2 [sing] stock or supply of sth 某事物的储备或蕴藏: a fund of jokes, knowledge, experience, etc 大量的笑话、 知识、 经验等. 3 funds [pl] financial resources; money 资金; 现款: government funds 政府的资金 * I'm short of funds so I'll pay you next week. 我手头缺钱, 下星期再付给你吧. 4 (idm 习语) in funds having money to spend 有钱花.

  fund

  v [Tn] 1 provide (an institution, a project, etc) with money (为机构、 项目等)拨款: The government is funding another unemployment scheme. 政府正为处理失业问题的另一计画拨款. 2 make (a debt) long-term at a fixed rate of interest 将(短期借款)转为有固定利息的长期借款.

  fundamental

  / 9fQndE5mentl; 9fQndE`mZntl/ adj 1 (a) of or forming the basis or foundation of sth; essential 基本的; 基础的; 构成基础的; 根本的: There are fundamentaldifferences between your religious beliefs and mine. 你我的宗教信仰根本不同. (b) serving as a starting-point; basic 作为起点的; 基本的: the fundamental rules of mathematics 数学的基本法则. 2 most important; central or primary 十分重要的; 主要的; 首要的: His fundamental concern was for her welfare. 他最关心的是她的幸福. * The fundamental question is a political one. 首要的问题是政治问题. 3 ~ (to sth) essential or necessary 根本的; 必要的: Hard work is fundamental to success. 必须苦干才能成功.

  fundamental

  n (usu pl 通常作复数) basic rule or principle; essential part 基本规则; 基本原则; 基本原理; 基本部分: the fundamentals of religion, philosophy, art, etc 宗教、 哲学、 艺术等的基本原理.

  fundamentally

  / -tElI; -tlI/ adv basically 基本地; 基础地; 根本地: Her ideas are fundamentally sound, even if she says silly things sometimes. 即使她有时说些傻话, 她的想法基本上是好的.

  fundamentalism

  / 9fQndE5mentElIzEm; 9fQndE`mZntl-9IzEm/ n [U] (in Christian thought) belief that the Bible is literally true and should form the basis of religious thought or practice (基督教学说)原教旨主义, 基要主义(认为《圣经》的经文翔实无误, 应构成宗教的理论或实践的基础).

  fundamentalist

  / -Ist; -Ist/ n supporter of fundamentalism 原教旨主义者; 基要主义者: [attrib 作定语] fundamentalist ideas 原教旨主义思想.

  funeral

  / 5fju:nErEl; `fjunErEl/ n 1 (usu religious) ceremony of burying or burning dead people (通常为宗教的)葬礼, 出殡: When is his funeral? 他的葬礼何时举行? * [attrib 作定语] funeral rites 葬礼 * a funeral procession 送葬的行列 * a funeral march, ie a sad and solemn piece of music suitable for funerals 送葬曲. 2 procession of people at a funeral 送葬人的行列. 3 (idm 习语) it's/that's my, etc funeral (infml 口) it's/that's my, etc particular and unpleasant responsibility 那是我自己的、 某某人的...倒霉事: `You're going to fail your exams if you don't work hard.' `That's my funeral, not yours.' `你要不努力, 考试就不会及格.'`倒霉是我自己的事, 跟你没关系.'

  funereal

  / fju:5nIErIEl; fju`nIrIEl/ adj suitable for a funeral; gloomy; dismal 适於葬礼的; 忧郁的; 凄凉的; 阴沉的: a funereal expression, atmosphere 忧郁的表情、 凄凉的气氛.

  funeral director

  (esp US) = undertaker.

  funeral parlour (US funeral home)

  place where dead people are prepared for burial or cremation 殡仪馆.

  fungicide

  / 5fQndVIsaId; `fQndVE9saId/ n [C, U] substance that kills fungus 杀真菌剂.

  fungus

  / 5fQNgEs; `fQN^Es/ n (pl -gi / -gaI, also -dVaI; -^aI,-dVaI/ or ~es / -gEsIz; -^EsIz/) 1 (a) [C] any of varioustypes of plant without leaves, flowers or green colouring-matter, growing on other plants or decaying matter 真菌; 蕈: Mildew and mushrooms are fungi. 霉和蘑菇都是真菌. =>illus 见插图. (b) [U] such plants as a group 真菌类植物丛: The lawn was covered with fungus. 草地上到处都是蘑菇. 2 [U] types of fungus harmful to plants, etc 对植物等有害的真菌: The roses have fungus. 玫瑰花长了真菌. * [attrib 作定语] a fungus infection 真菌感染.

  fungoid

  / 5fQNgRId; `fQN^RId/ adj of or like a fungus (似)真菌的: fungoid growths 真菌样生长物.

  fungous

  / 5fQNgEs; `fQN^Es/ adj of, like or caused by fungus (似)真菌的; 由真菌引起的: fungous diseases 由真菌引起的疾病.

  funicular

  / fju:5nIkjUlE(r); fju`nIkjElL/ n (also funicular railway) railway on a steep slope, with some cars being pulled up by a cable at the same time as others are lowered by it 缆索铁道.

  funk

  / fQNk; fQNk/ n (infml 口) 1 [sing] (also blue funk) (state of) fear or anxiety 恐惧; 忧虑: She was in a funk about changing jobs. 她害怕变换工作. 2 [C] (derog 贬) coward 胆怯的人; 胆小鬼.

  funk

  v [Tn, Tg] avoid (sth/doing sth) because of fear (因恐惧)避开(某事物[做某事]): He funked telling her he had lost his job. 他不敢告诉她自己已经失业了.

  funky

  / fQNkI; `fQNkI/ adj (-ier, -iest) 1 (sl 俚) (of music, esp jazz) having a characteristic rhythm and expressiveness, like early blues music (指音乐, 尤指爵士乐)有独特节奏和表现力的(像早期布鲁斯乐曲). 2 (infml approv 口, 褒) very modern; fashionable 新式的; 新型的; 时髦的: a funky car, party, hairstyle 新型汽车、 新式聚会、 时髦发型.

  funnel

  / 5fQnl; `fQnl/ n 1 tube or pipe that is wide at the top and narrow at the bottom, used for pouring liquids, powders, etc into a small opening 漏斗: I need a funnel to pour petrol into the tank. 我需要一个漏斗把汽油灌进油箱. =>illus at filter 见filter插图. 2 metal chimney on a steam-engine, ship, etc, through which smoke escapes (蒸汽机、 轮船等的)烟囱.

  funnel

  v (-ll-; US -l-) [Ipr, Ip, Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] (cause sth to) move through a funnel or a narrow space (使某物)通过漏斗或狭窄的空间: funnel petrol into a can 用漏斗把汽油注入罐中 * The water funnelled through the gorge and out onto the plain. 水穿过峡谷流到平原.

  funny

  / 5fQnI; `fQnI/ adj (-ier, -iest) 1 causing amusement, laughter, etc 有趣的; 可笑的: funny stories 好笑的故事 * a funny man 风趣的人 * That's the funniest thing I've ever heard. 那是我听说过的最可笑的事. 2 difficult to explain or understand; strange 难以解释的; 难以理解的; 奇怪的: A funny thing happened to me today. 今天我遇见个莫名其妙的事. * That's funny he was here a moment ago and now he's gone. 真是怪事--他刚才还在这里, 转眼就走了. * The engine's making a very funny noise. 这发动机有一种很怪的声音. 3 (infml 口) (a) slightly unwell 稍感不适的; 稍不舒服的: I feel a bit funny today I don't think I'll go to work. 我今天有点儿不舒服--不想上班去了. * That drink has made me feel quite funny. 我喝了那种饮料很不好受. (b) slightly insane; eccentric 轻度疯癫的; 古怪的: a funny old lady 古怪的女人 * She went a bit funny after her husband died. 她自丈夫死後就变得疯疯癫癫的. 4 (idm 习语) `funny business (infml 口) sth that is illegal, suspicious or not approved of 非法的、 可疑的或不认可的事物: I want none of your funny business. 我可不干那种非法的事. funny ha-`ha (infml 口) = funny 1. funny pe`culiar (infml 口) = funny 2: `He's a funny chap.' `Do you mean funny ha-ha or funny peculiar?' `他这家伙很有意思.'`你指的是有趣还是古怪?'

  funnily

  / -IlI; -IlI/ adv in a strange or odd way 奇怪地; 古怪的 (expressing surprise at a coincidence, etc 表示对巧合等的惊奇): Funnily enough (ie It so happened that) I met her just yesterday. 再没那麽巧的了, 我昨天正碰见她.

  funniness

  n [U].

  funny-bone

  n part of the elbow which has a very sensitive nerve, and which tingles unpleasantly when it is knocked 麻筋儿(肘端神经极敏感处, 碰撞时产生酥麻感).

  fur

  / f\:(r); f[/ n [U] 1 soft thick hair covering the bodies of certain animals (某些动物的)浓密的软毛: The puppies haven't got much fur yet. 小狗还没长出多少毛. 2 [U, C] animal skin(s) with fur on, esp as used for making clothes, etc 动物的毛皮(尤指做服装等用的): a coat made of fur 毛皮大衣 * fine fox furs 上等狐皮 * [attrib 作定语] a fur coat 毛皮大衣. 3 [C] garment made of fur 毛皮制成的衣服: He gave her an expensive fur for her birthday. 他送给她一件昂贵的毛皮衣服作生 日礼物. 4 [U] fabric made to look and feel like fur 外观和手感都像毛皮的织物. 5 [U] coating on a person's tongue during illness 舌苔. 6 [U] (Brit) (US scale) grey crusty coating that forms on the inside of a kettle, pipes, etc from water that contains lime 水锈; 水垢. 7 (idm 习语) make the fur/sparks fly => fly2.

  fur

  v (-rr-) [usu passive 通常用於被动语态: I, Ip, Tn, Tn.p] ~ (sth) (up) (cause sth to) become covered with fur(5,6) 使(某物)生苔、 生水锈: a furred tongue/kettle 长了苔的舌[生了水锈的壶].

  furry

  / 5f\:rI; `f[I/ adj (-ier, -iest) 1 of or like fur (似)毛皮的. 2 covered with fur 毛皮覆盖的; 生苔的; 生水锈的: a furry toy 毛茸茸的玩具.

  fur

  abbr 缩写 = furlong(s).

  furbelow

  / 5f\:bIlEU; `f[bl9o/ n (usu pl 通常作复数) showy or unnecessary ornament (on a dress, etc) (连衣裙等的)花哨的或多余的装饰: frills and furbelows 褶边和花哨的装饰.

  furbish

  / 5f\:bIF; `f[bIF/ v [Tn, Tn.p] ~ sth (up) polish, clean or renovate (esp sth that has not been used for a long time) 擦亮, 打扫, 整修(尤指很久没用的物品): furbish up an antique sword 擦亮一把古剑.

  furious

  / 5fjUErIEs; `fjJrIEs/ adj 1 ~ (with sb)/(at sth) full of violent anger 满腔愤怒的; 大发雷霆的: She was absolutely furious (at his behaviour). 她(对他的行为)大发雷霆. 2 violent; intense; unrestrained 猛烈的; 强烈的; 激烈的; 极度的: a furious struggle, storm, debate 激烈的斗争、 猛烈的暴风雨、 激烈的辩论 * She drove off at a furious speed. 她以飞快的速度开车走了. 3 (idm 习语) fast and furious => fast1.

  furiously

  adv.

  furl

  / f\:l; f[l/ v 1 [Tn] roll up and fasten (a sail, a flag, an umbrella, etc) 卷紧, 收拢(帆、 旗子、 伞等). 2 [I] become furled 变成卷紧的或收拢的: This fan doesn't furl neatly. 这把扇子摺不上了.

  furlong

  / 5f\:lCN; ?@ -lR:N; `f[lRN/ n distance of 220 yards or 201 metres; one eighth of a mile 弗隆, 浪(长度单位, 相当於220码、 201米或1/8英里). =>App 5 见附录5.

  furlough

  / 5f\:lEU; `f[lo/ n [C, U] (permission for) absence from duty, esp that granted to civil servants, soldiers, etc working abroad 休假(许可)(尤指给予在国外工作的官员、 士兵等的): six months' furlough 6个月的假期 * going home on furlough 休假回国.

  furnace

  / 5f\:nIs; `f[nIs/ n 1 enclosed fireplace for heating the water used to warm a building by means of pipes 暖气锅炉. 2 enclosed space or chamber for heating metal, glass, etc to a very high temperature 熔炉: It's like a furnace in here can we open a window? 这里热得像个火炉--咱们打开窗户好吗?

  furnish

  / 5f\:nIF; `f[nIF/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (with sth) provide sth with furniture; put furniture in (a place) 为某物提供家具; 用家具布置(某地方): furnish a house, a room, an office, etc 用家具布置房子、 房间、 办公室等 * a furnished flat, ie one rented complete with its furniture 连同家具一起出租的公寓 * The room was furnished with antiques. 房间里摆著古董. 2 [Tn, Tn.pr, Dn.pr] ~ sb/sth with sth; ~ sth (to sb/sth) supply or provide sb/sth with sth 为某人[某物]提供某事物: furnish a village with supplies/furnish supplies to a village 供应某村庄生活用品 * furnish all the equipment for a major expedition 为一大探险队提供全部装备 * This scandal will furnish the town with plenty of gossip. 这件丑事要在镇上惹出很多闲话.

  furnishings

  n [pl] furniture, equipment, fittings, etc in a room or house (房屋里的)家具与陈设等.

  furniture

  / 5f\:nItFE(r); `f[nItFL/ n [U] movable articles, eg tables, chairs, beds, etc put into a house or an office to make it suitable for living or working in 家具. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page xvi.

  furore

  / fjU5rR:rI; `fjJrRr/ (US furor / 5fju:rR:r; `fjJrRr/) n [sing] general uproar of admiration or anger 轰动; 骚动: His last novel created a furore among the critics. 他的最近一部小说在评论家中引起了轰动.

  furrier

  / 5fQrIE(r); `fQrIL/ n person who prepares or sells fur or fur clothing 毛皮加工者; 皮货商.

  furrow

  / 5fQrEU; `fQro/ n 1 long narrow trench cut in the earth, esp by a plough  沟; 垄沟: furrows ready for planting 为播种而 好的沟. Cf 参看 ridge 1, =>illus at plough 见plough插图. 2 groove resembling this, eg a deep wrinkle in the skin 类似的沟(如皮肤上的皱纹): Deep furrows lined his brow. 深深的皱纹布上他的额头. 3 (idm 习语) plough a lonely furrow => plough v.

  furrow

  v [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] make furrows in (sth) 犁; 使(某物)起皱纹: newly furrowed fields 刚犁过的田地 * a forehead furrowed by old age and anxiety 因年老和忧虑而起了皱纹的前额.

  furry

  => fur.

  further

  / 5f\:TE(r); `f[TL/ adj 1 more distant in space, direction or time; farther (空间、 距离或时间上)更远的, 较远的: The hospital is further down the road. 医院在这条路上, 再往前走就到了. 2 additional; more 附加的; 更多的: further volumes 後续各卷 * Have you any further questions? 你还有问题吗? * There is nothing further to be said. 没有再多说的了. * The museum isclosed until further notice, ie until another announcement about it is made. 博物馆现正闭馆, 开馆时间另行通知.

  further

  adv 1 at or to a greater distance in space or time; more remote; farther (在时间或空间上)距离更大地, 更远地: It's not safe to go any further. 再往远走就不安全了. * Africa is further from England than France. 非洲距离英国比距离法国远. * Think further back into your childhood. 想想你更小的时候, 回忆一下你的童年. 2 in addition; also 此外; 而且: Further, it has come to my attention... 此外, 我已注意到... 3 to a greater degree or extent 进一步地: I must enquire further into this matter. 我要进一步调查此事. * I can offer you 50, but I can't go any further than that. 我可以付给你50英镑, 不能再多了. 4 (idm 习语) far/farther/further afield => afield. =>Usage at farther 用法见farther.

  further

  v [Tn] help the progress or development of (sth); promote 促进或推动(某事); 增进: further sb's interests 提高某人的兴趣 * further the cause of peace 推动和平事业.

  furtherance

  / 5f\:TErEns; `f[TLEns/ n [U] advancement of sb's interests, a cause, etc 某人兴趣的提高、 某事业的促进等.

  furthermore

  / 9f\:TE5mR:(r); `f[TL9mRr/ adv in addition; moreover 此外; 再者; 而且.

  furthermost

  / -mEUst; -9most/ adj most distant in space or time; furthest (further 1) (在空间或时间上)相隔最远的.

  further education

  formal (but not university) education provided for people older than school age 继续教育(为超过中学学龄的人所设的正规教育, 但并非大学).

  furthest

  / 5f\:TIst; `f[TIst/ adj, adv = farthest.

  furtive

  / 5f\:tIv; `f[tIv/ adj (a) done secretly and quietly so as not to be noticed 偷偷摸摸的; 鬼鬼祟祟的: a furtive glance 偷偷的一瞥 * furtive movements 诡秘的活动. (b) (of a person or his behaviour) sly or secretive, suggesting that one is guilty of sth or does not want to be noticed (指人或行为)躲躲闪闪的; 遮遮掩掩的.

  furtively

  adv.

  furtiveness

  n [U].

  fury

  / 5fjUErI; `fjJrI/ n 1 [U] wild and violent anger 狂怒; 暴怒: speechless with fury 气得说不出话来. 2 [C] state or condition of extreme emotion, esp anger or excitement 愤怒; 激动: He was in one of his uncontrollable furies. 他怒不可遏. * She flew into a fury when I wouldn't lend her any money. 我不借给她钱, 她顿时勃然大怒. 3 [U] strength or violence of activity, weather, etc (活动、 天气等的)激烈, 猛烈: The fury of the storm abated. 暴风雨的威力已经减弱. 4 [C] fiercely angry person, esp a woman or girl 狂怒的人(尤指女子); 泼妇. 5 the Furies [pl] (in Greek mythology) goddesses with snakes instead of hair, sent from the underworld to punish crime (希腊神话中)复仇女神. 6 (idm 习语) like fury (infml 口) with great effort, speed, concentration, etc 努力; 飞快; 全神贯注: He ran like fury to catch the bus. 他拚命奔跑去追赶公共汽车.

  furze

  / f\:z; f[z/ n [U] = gorse.

  fuse

  / fju:z; fjuz/ n 1 piece of easily burnt material (eg rope, paper) along which a spark moves to ignite a firework, bomb, etc so that it explodes 导火线; 导火索. 2 (US also fuze/ fju:z; fjuz/) device that makes a bomb, shell, etc explode either on impact or at a particular time 引信; 信管; 雷管: The bomb had been set with a four-hour fuse. 炸弹上装了一个四小时起爆的引信. 3 (idm 习语) on a short fuse => short1.

  fuse

  / fju:z; fjuz/ v [I, Ipr, Ip, Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] 1 (cause sth to) become liquid by means of heat (加热使某物)变成液体; 熔化; 熔融: fuse metals (into a solid mass) 使金属熔化(成为硬块). 2 join (sth) or become joined by means of heat (加热)连接某物; 熔合: fuse two pieces of wire together 熔合两根金属丝 * (fig 比喻) The two companies are fused by their common interests. 两公司因有共同利益而结合在一起.

  fusible

  / 5fju:zEbl; `fjuzEbl/ adj that can be melted or joined together 可熔化的; 可熔合的.

  fuse

  / fju:z; fjuz/ n (in an electric circuit) short piece of wire that melts and breaks the circuit if the current exceeds a safe level 保险丝: It looks as though you've blown a fuse, ie caused it to melt. 看样子你把保险丝烧断了.

  fuse

  v 1 [I, Tn] (of an electric circuit) stop or cause to stop working because a fuse melts (指电路)因保险丝烧断而断电: The lights have all fused. 保险丝断了, 灯都灭了. * I've fused all the lights. 我把保险丝烧断了, 电灯全都灭了. 2 [Tn] put a fuse in (a circuit or an appliance) (在电路或电器上)安装保险丝.

  fuse-box

  n small cupboard or box containing the fuses of an electrical system 保险丝盒.

  fuse wire

  wire used in electrical fuses 作保险丝用的金属丝.

  fuselage

  / 5fju:zElB:V; ?@ 5fju:sElB:V; `fjuzl9BV/ n body of an aeroplane, ie the part to which the engine(s), wings and tail are fitted (飞机的)机身. =>illus at aircraft 见 aircraft 插图.

  fusilier

  / 9fju:zE5lIE(r); 9fjuzl`Ir/ n 1 [C] (formerly) soldier armed with a light gun called a musket (旧时)配备轻滑膛枪的士兵. 2 (a) (also esp US fusileer) [C] soldier in certain infantry regiments 某些步兵团的士兵. (b) Fusiliers [pl] any of several infantry regiments formerly armed with light muskets 旧时以轻滑膛枪装备的步兵团: the Royal Welsh Fusiliers 皇家威尔士步兵团.

  fusillade

  / 9fju:zE5leId; ?@ -sE-; 9fjusl`ed/ n 1 continuous or simultaneous shooting of guns (枪炮的)连发, 齐射. 2 (fig 比喻) great outburst of questions, criticism, etc 连珠炮似的质问、 批评等.

  fusion

  / 5fju:Vn; `fjuVEn/ n [C, U] 1 the blending or uniting of different things into one, by melting, etc 熔合; 融合: the fusion of copper and zinc to produce brass 将铜和锌熔合以制造黄铜 * (fig 比喻) a fusion of ideas 不同思想的混合体. 2 union of atomic nuclei to form a heavier nucleus, usu with energy being released 聚变: nuclear fusion 核聚变.

  fuss

  / fQs; fQs/ n 1 (a) [U] (esp unnecessary) nervous excitement or activity (尤指不必要的)神经质的激动或活动: Stop all this fuss and get on with your work. 别大惊小怪的闹了, 继续干你的活儿去吧. (b) [sing] display of excitement, worry, etc, esp over sth unimportant 无谓的激动、 烦恼等: Don't get into a fuss about nothing. 别没事找事, 自寻烦恼. 2 [sing] angry scene 发怒的场面: There will be a real fuss if you're caught stealing. 你要是偷东西让人逮著, 那可真够你受的. 3 (idm 习语) make, kick up, etc a fuss (about/over sth) complain strongly 强烈地不满: She's kicking up an awful fuss about the high rent. 她大喊大叫地抱怨房租太高. make a fuss of/over sb/sth pay particular and often excessive attention to sb/sth 对某人[某事物]过於注意: Don't make so much fuss over the children. 不要对孩子照顾得太过分. * A lot of fuss was made of the play, but it wasn't a success. 对那出戏不厌其烦地精心计画, 到头来却并不成功.

  fuss

  v 1 [I, Ip] ~ (about) be worried or excited, esp over small things 烦恼, 激动(尤指对小事): Stop fussing and eat your food! 别大惊小怪的, 吃你的东西吧! * If you keep fussing about, we're sure to be late. 你要是总瞎忙个没完, 我们非迟到不可. 2 [Tn] annoy or disturb (sb) 扰乱, 打搅(某人): Don't fuss me while I'm driving. 我开车时别打搅我. 3 [Ipr] ~ over sb pay excessive attention to sb ...过於注意某人: He's always fussing over his grandchildren. 他对孙儿们过於操心. 4 (idm 习语) not be fussed (about sb/sth) (infml 口) not care very much 不太关心; 不太注意; 不太在意: `Where do you want to go for lunch?' `I'm not fussed.' `你想到哪儿去吃午饭?'`无所谓.'

  fusspot

  n (infml 口) very fussy(1,2) person 非常挑剔的人.

  fussy

  / 5fQsI; `fQsI/ adj (-ier, -iest) (usu derog 通常作贬义) 1 nervously active or excited about small things (对小事)神经过敏的, 紧张不安的: fussy parents 过分操心的父母 * a fussy manner 紧张不安的举止. 2 ~ (about sth) giving too much close attention to detail, etc and therefore difficult to please 挑剔的: Our teacher is very fussy about punctuation. 我们的老师对标点符号非常重视. * Don't be so fussy (about your food). 你别那麽挑食. 3 (of clothes, design, etc) too full of detail or decoration (指服装、 设计图样等)零碎儿太多的, 装饰太多的: a fussy pattern 过分装饰的式样.

  fussily

  adv.

  fussiness

  n [U].

  fustian

  / 5fQstIEn; ?@ -tFEn; `fQstFEn/ n [U] 1 thick strong coarse cotton cloth 厚而结实的粗棉布; 粗斜纹布: a jacket (made) of fustian 粗斜纹布(制成)的甲克 * [attrib 作定语] a fustian jacket 粗斜纹布甲克. 2 (dated derog 旧, 贬) talk that sounds impressive but is in fact empty and worthless; bombast 空洞无物的吹嘘; 夸夸其谈.

  fusty

  / 5fQstI; `fQstI/ adj (-ier, -iest) (derog 贬) 1 smelling old, stale or damp 腐臭的; 有霉湿味的: a fusty room 有潮湿味儿的房间 * This blanket smells a bit fusty. 这毯子有点儿发霉的味儿. 2 old-fashioned; not up-to-date 老式的; 不合潮流的: a fusty old professor, ie one who has learned much from books, etc but does not know about modern ideas 思想陈腐的老教授.

  fustiness

  n [U].

  futile

  / 5fju:taIl; ?@ -tl; `fjutl/ adj producing no result; useless; pointless 无效的; 无用的; 无意义的: a futile attempt/exercise 无效的尝试[练习] * Their efforts to revive him were futile. 他们对他抢救无效. * What a futile (ie unnecessarily silly) remark! 纯属废话!

  futility

  / fju:5tIlEtI; fju`tIlEtI/ n [U] uselessness; pointlessness 无效; 无用; 无益: the futility of war 战争的无谓.

  futurism

  / 5fjU:tFErIzEm; `fjutFL9IzEm/ n [U] movement in art and literature that abandoned tradition and sought to express the energy and growth of a modern mechanized life-style 未来主义, 未来派(主张打破传统的文艺运动, 追求表现现代机械化生活方式的力量与发展).

  futurist

  n, adj (supporter) of futurism 未来主义的; 未来主义者; 未来派的(文艺家).

  futuristic

  / 9fju:tFE5rIstIk; 9fjutFE`rIstIk/ adj 1 looking suitable for the future or extremely modern; not traditional 合於未来的; 极新潮的; 非传统的: futuristic design, furniture, housing 新潮的设计、 家具、 房屋等. 2 of or relating to futurism 未来主义的; 与未来主义有关的.

  futurity

  / fju:5tjUErEtI; ?@ -5tUEr-; fju`tJrEtI/ n (a) [U] future time; the future 将来; 未来: gazing into futurity 展望未来. (b) [C often pl 常作复数] future events 将来的事.

  fuzz

  / fQz; fQz/ n [U] 1 mass of soft light particles; fluff 轻柔的物质; 绒毛: A peach skin is covered with fuzz. 桃上有一层细毛. 2 short fine hair that sticks up 竖起来的短细的毛发.

  fuzz

  / fQz; fQz/ n [Gp] the fuzz (sl 俚) the police 警察.

  fuzzy

  / 5fQzI; `fQzI/ adj (-ier, -iest) 1 like fuzz; having a soft and fluffy texture 绒毛般的; 有柔软绒毛的织物; 毛茸茸的: a fuzzy teddy bear, blanket, sweater 毛茸茸的玩具熊、 毯子、 毛衣 * fuzzy (ie tightly curled) hair 有小卷的毛发. 2 blurred or indistinct, esp in shape or outline模糊的, 不清楚的(尤指形状或轮廓): These photographs have come out all fuzzy. 这些照片照得都不清楚.

  fuzzily

  adv.

  fuzziness

  n [U].

  fwd

  abbr 缩写 = forward.

  -fy

  => -ify.